[PS-1] Traditional Wisdom

    [ Tuesday 06 August 11:45-13:15 RoomD ]    Chair(s): Yoshitaka Ishikawa (Kyoto Univ.)

1) Why There Were not Originally in the Japanese Language Equivalents to the Words ‘Environment’ and ‘Nature’

    Minoru Senda (Nara Prefectural Library and Information Center)

    Until the 19th century the Japanese had no words equivalent to what in European languages would correspond to "environment" and "nature". Japanese felt bodily united with "nature", i.e. did not perceive the latter as a separate existence. Therefore, "environment” in the sense of “something which surrounds the human body” was for the Japanese something inconceivable. When a Japanese uses the word “environment” in an European language, he or she is conscious of a "nature" which surrounds the humans, which is subordinate to humans, and in regard of which humans are placed in an haughty position. And only when humans cease being haughty in respect of any single aspect of nature, only then "the environmental problem" in the European sense will advance in the direction of resolving.
    Keywords: animism, kami, Kiso River, tobusa, the idea of ‘jô


2) The traditional wisdom in calendar and urban development in ancient China

    Jianxiong Ge (Fudan University)

    For the past 2000 years or more, the Chinese people have survived and developed through hard work and traditional wisdom. One example of such wisdom is the creation of the Chinese calendar and the system of 24 Jie Qi, which provided guidance and management for agricultural production. Another example is a method of urban development that guaranteed stability and prosperity for the empire.
    Keywords: traditional wisdom, Chinese calendar, Jie Qi, urban development, canal, water transportation


3) A Better Future for Humanity: A Viewpoint From Geography

    Jean-Robert Pitte (Président de la Société de Géographie)

    Many people are convinced there are too many humans on Earth, that food and energy resources are now extremely limited, and that global climatic change—often called global warming—will necessarily have catastrophic consequences. There is also general consensus that productive dialog between civilizations is impossible, that good relationships among people will never happen and that the world's poor will always be crushed by the wealthy.
    Prophets of doom are numerous in all fields, such as geology, biology, history, demography, economy, and political science. Samuel Huntington is among the most famous of these. Moreover, scientifically uneducated journalists and politicians (Al Gore, for example) spread questionable information through various media. This paper aims to demonstrate that Thomas Malthus was wrong two centuries ago, and is still wrong. Cleverness, imagination and geographic knowledge can create a better environment for more people. Education, social order, and an honest and competent elite can bring about peace. This is the purpose and plan of all traditional world wisdoms and philosophies, secular or religious, at least since those of Confucius and Socrates. The great contrasts in development and optimism observed across the globe may be explained by cultural analysis of societies within their own territories, with respect to their relationships with their environment, social organization, and relations with other societies.
    Keywords: education, civilizations dialog, food, future of humanity, geographical knowledge



[PS-2] The Environment

    [ Wednesday 07 August 11:45-13:15 RoomD ]    Chair(s): Shigeko Haruyama (Mie Univ.)

1) Biodiversity, native domestic animals, and livelihood in the Monsoon Asia: Pig pastoralism in the Bengal Delta of Bangladesh

    Kazunobu Ikeya (National Museum of Ethnology)

    Geographers study our interactions with other living creatures. Here, life can be classed into three categories by the degree of human-creature interaction: wild animals and plants; domestic animals and cultivated plants bred for food; and pets and houseplants, kept for cultural reasons. We have to find ways to live with creatures and maintain earth’s biodiversity. Modern society often promotes the protection of wild animals and plants and wilderness biodiversity, but neglects the diversity of indigenous domestic animals. Some localized domestic animals are faced with extinction. Should we maintain the genetic and cultural diversity of domestic animals? The cultural and biological diversity of farm animals from dry lands is well documented, but little attention has been paid to domestic animals from wet environments; for example, Monsoon Asia. For this reason, I chose to study pig farming in the Bengal delta of Bangladesh. Pig farming in this area uses the natural resources of the delta and local breeds of pigs in a nomadic pastoral farming system. The results of my study illustrate the use and management of farm animals in a complex environment, and increase our understanding of human-farm-animal interaction and the ‘geography of creature cultures’. The study provides lessons for the future of our culture and civilization.
    Keywords: creature cultures, native domestic animal, pastoralism, pig, feed resources, herd management, Bengal delta


2) Plural Knowledges and Modernity: Social Difference and Geographical Explanations

    Sarah A Radcliffe (University of Cambridge)

    My paper critically examines the ways in which different forms of geographical knowledge production are positioned in relation to place, environment and Indigenous peoples. Drawing on research in the postcolonial context of Latin America, I explore how the social differentiated power relations and the politics of knowledge production play out in how geographers describe and analyse places, landscapes and livelihoods.
    Keywords: socionatures, decolonisation, environments, geographical discipline, Indigenous knowledge, ethical professionalism, gender


3) No Going Back: The Political Ethics of Ecological Novelty

    Paul Robbins (University of Wisconsin-Madison)

    This chapter argues that Ecological novelty, a condition where new species and mixes of species come to form persistent communities with no precedent, holds unavoidable implications for science. It argues that the “Edenic” sciences focusing on these ecologies - conservation biology, invasion biology/ecology, and restoration ecology – though extremely valuable, are inherently political. Though this has always been the case, the rapid changes in environments around us have made the political implications of these sciences harder to ignore or disguise. As such, these fields will necessarily need to evolve an ethical procedure to adjudicate between ecological interventions, rather than depending on restorative or originary criteria. Further, the evolution of these criteria and standards will necessarily be rooted in principles that come to terms with the political implications and character of scientists and scientific practice within broader diverse publics. Finally, scientific education will necessarily need to create a new set of standards for the instruction of ecological science, ones that better accept the role of anthropogenesis in ecological futures, and foster politically reflexive future scientists and citizens.
    Keywords: Invasive species; environmental ethics; political ecology; India; lantana camara



[PS-3] The Great East Japan Earthquake

    [ Thursday 08 August 11:45-13:15 RoomD ]    Chair(s): Yukio Himiyama (Hokkaido Univ. of Education)

1) The 2011 Great East Japan Earthquake Disaster

    Kenji Satake (the University of Tokyo)

    The 2011 Tohoku earthquake (magnitude 9.0), the largest earthquake in Japanese history, resulted in devastating tsunami damage and the partial destruction of the Fukushima Dai-ichi nuclear power station. Extensive seafloor displacement and slip on the shallow plate interface of the Pacific Plate near the Japan Trench axis have been revealed from the land-based GPS network and marine geodetic observation systems. The generation and propagation of the tsunami were also recorded on offshore bottom pressure and GPS wave gauges, prior to its arrival at the coast. Long-term earthquake forecasts, based on the recurrence of past large earthquakes, failed to foresee this giant earthquake. However, in retrospect, the historical record and recent paleoseismological studies indicate that tsunamis with similar characteristics occurred on the Sanriku coast in 1896 and on the Sendai plain in 869. Analysis of the 2011 tsunami waveforms clarifies that the tsunami source was a combination of the 1896-type “tsunami earthquake” and the 869-type earthquake on the deeper plate interface.
    Keywords: 2011 Tohoku earthquake, Great East Japan Earthquake disaster, tsunami, Sanriku, Jogan


2) East Japan Mega Earthquake and Dual Reconstruction Scheme - Regional and National Planning of Post-Disaster and Pre-Disaster Recovery -

    Itsuki Nakabayashi (Meiji University)

    Reconstruction from the Eastern Japan mega earthquake must be done as a post-disaster recovery from the affected region of eastern Japan as rapidly as possible. However, these reconstructions are not done quickly. On the other hand, the damage prevention and preparedness as a pre-disaster recoveries and reconstructions from the next Nankai trough earthquake has to be progressed steadily, because the probability of the earthquake is not low in the next three decades. The Japan has to implement the dual reconstruction scheme of post-disaster recovery in East Japan and pre-disaster recovery in West Japan, The post-disaster recovery must be done in the next five years, as quickly as possible. The pre-disaster recovery must be prepared simultaneously, and begin to reconstruct the Tokyo Metropolitan region and also the Pacific Ocean Cost region included with Nagoya Metropolis and Osaka Metropolis on and on. This Dual Recovery Strategy can reduce the damage of next mega-disaster and can make the resilience of both the Nation and Metropolises stronger. The Eastern Japan, the Tokyo Capital region and the Western Japan can be supported each other against the next mega-disasters.
    Keywords:East Japan mega earthquake, tsunami, recovery, reconstruction, pre-disaster recovery,


3) Developing Resilient Infrastructure as a Basis for Restoration from the Great East Japan Earthquake

    Mikiko Ishikawa (Chuo University)

    The Great East Japan Earthquake occurred on 11 March 2011. In the following two years, municipal reconstruction plans were established for most of the affected regions. However, the actual process of the reconstruction is very slow. To ensure sustainability in the region, it is essential to identify problems in the existing restoration plans and establish a set of principles that could be shared as common goals within the community. Based on this perspective, this chapter focuses on three points: (1) The characterization of the damaged areas from natural, historical, and social points of views; (2) The assessment of the municipal reconstruction plans to identify safety and sustainability problems; (3) The introduction of resilient infrastructure as a basis of the reconstruction.
    In this chapter, a hypothesis of resilience is established, based on the concept of environmental, social, and cultural sustainability. Using a case study of the small city of Iwanuma in Miyagi Prefecture, specific examples of the struggles involved in the planning process are shown, and the future of resilient infrastructure planning to achieve sustainability in the region is discussed.
    Keywords: Great East Japan Earthquake, Tsunami, Restoration, Resilient infrastructure



[CS01-1] Modelling small area data for epidemiological studies (Joint session with the Commission on Health and Environment)

    [ Tuesday 06 August 08:00-09:30 Room663 ]    Chair(s): Graham Clarke (Univ. of Leeds)

1) Modelling Geographic Disparities in Cancer Survival in Osaka Prefecture, Japan

    Tomoki Nakaya (Ritsumeikan University), Yuri Ito, Akiko Ioka, Tomio Nakayama, Hideaki Tsukuma

    As cancer has been the most common cause of death in Japan since early 1980s, cancer ‘postcode lottery’-the geographic disparity of cancer treatment and survival risks across regions- has become an important aspect of social inequalities in health. The issue has recently attracted both academic and public interest and concern in Japan. We aim to explore the geographic disparity in cancer survival rates by geovisualising and associating them with areal deprivation at a small areal level in Osaka prefecture, the core region of the second largest metropolitan area in the country. Osaka Cancer Registry provided the survival datasets of registered cancer patients as well as their residential information at diagnosis, which were geocoded at a fine level of geographic resolution of about three thousand small areal units called 'Cho-Aza'. We then employed spatial survival models to estimate geographical distributions of cancer survival risks according to specific sites of cancer, and associated them with areal deprivation indices and other geographic factors, such as accessibility to cancer treatment hospitals. With the aid of a geographic information system (GIS), we demonstrated that the geographic disparities in cancer survival reflect socioeconomic inequalities in the region. This implies the importance of addressing socio-geographical inequalities in health to reduce cancer disparities.


2) Investigating spatial clusters of cancer incidence in Osaka Prefecture, Japan: An application of GIS for Cancer Control

    Yuri Ito (Osaka Medical Center for Cancer and Cardiovascular Diseases), Tomoki Nakaya, Akiko Ioka, Tomio Nakayama, Hideaki Tsukuma

    Population-based cancer registry monitored cancer incidence, mortality and survival to use cancer control planning and evaluation. Although all of prefectures in Japan have now their own systems of regional cancer registry, the quality of the registration varies among prefectures. The Osaka Cancer Registry (OCR) which started in 1962 has covered one of the largest population in the world with high-quality cancer registration.

    Recently OCR has electrically recorded the residential neighbourhood address information of cancer cases routinely. It enable us examine spatial clustering tendencies of cancer incidence using GIS at a high geographical resolution. Some cancer registries in the US routinely have already reported the clustering cancer incidence or smoothed map of incidence, mortality and late stage at diagnosis to make their health policy. It is thus expected that such GIS-based methods are applied to the cancer control planning and activities using cancer registry data in Japan.

    In Osaka, there have been several social concerns about cancer caused by occupational and environmental exposure (e.g. mesothelioma caused by asbestos; bile duct cancer incidence of young worker in printing factory). Applying spatial scan statistics to the geocoded cancer incidence data from OCR, we examine the spatial clusters of high morbidity risk for some specific sites of cancer. Using a GIS, we map the spatial clusters to argue possible environmental exposures or residential concentration of high risk workers. We discuss the benefits and difficulties of routine spatial cluster detection using population-based cancer registry in the cancer control activities.


3) Balancing the privacy concern and tolerance of precision in epidemiologic study by geographical masking methods

    Ta-Chien Chan (Academia Sinica), Hao-Syong Liu

    The related laws of personal information protection were implemented throughout the world after United States enacted Health Insurance Portability and Accountability Act (HIPAA). The act strictly limited the scope of utilizing personal information including the spatial information in public health research. Without the precise spatial information, the aggregated statistical data was applied for the ecologic study. However, the confounders were difficult to control in the group level and the ecologic fallacy might be occurred due to the precision of data. In this study, we applied different geographical masking methods including aggregation, affine transformation, random spatial perturbation, and donut method to shift or mask the cases’ real spatial coordinates. The Kernel method, nearest neighbor analysis, and K function were used for measuring the intensity of the clustering. The K-anonymity was applied for measuring the efficacy of the privacy protection. We expected to find the suitable geographical masks for the different clustering patterns of diseases. The compromise between the privacy and cluster detecting power will be the main concern in this study. The result might be beneficial for the researches in spatial epidemiology, public health and other disciplines such as sociology and public security.


4) Small area estimation of health behavioural indices in Osaka city, Japan

    Kazumasa Hanaoka (Tohoku University), Tomoki Nakaya, Takahiro Tabuchi

    This study aims to produce small-area estimates of health behavioural indices such as smoking rates in Osaka city, Japan, using a spatial microsimulation method. Using the micro data derived from the ‘Comprehensive Survey of Living Conditions’ with ’Population Census of Japan’ which provides various marginal totals of population counts at a small areal level, we produce household-level synthetic microdata at the fine spatial resolution. The accuracy of these synthetic microdata is validated by (1) degree-of-fitness of estimated marginal totals to constraining census tables, (2) small variances in such fitting measures on the basis of 100 simulations, and (3) the degree-of-fitness of estimates at a coarser aggregated level. The results show that, except for several areas having highly skewed population distributions, almost all of the small areas in the city achieve high accuracy compared with constraining census tables. We argue how the spatial distributions of health behavioural indices estimated by tabulating synthetic microdata is beneficial for understanding spatial inequalities in health conditions associated with areal and individual deprivations at the small areal unit.



[CS01-2] Spatial analysis on Walkability and Obesity (Joint session with the Commission on Health and Environment)

    [ Tuesday 06 August 10:00-11:30 Room663 ]    Chair(s): Tomoki Nakaya (Ritsumeikan Univ.)

1) Development of Built-up areas and Walking Habits of elderly people in Kameoka City, Japan

    Satoshi Nagao (Japan Planning Systems co., ltd.), Tomoki Nakaya, Yosuke Yamada, Minoru Yamada, Tsukasa Yoshida, Misaka Kimura

    Many studies have reported a significant relationship between neighborhood built environment and walking, particularly in the US and Australia, on the basis of the implicit assumption of newly developed, unwalkable suburbs in comparison to older, walkable communities. Since the geographical background of walkability emerged primarily in the context of Western societies, it may not be applicable to neighborhoods in different settings, including those in Japanese society. The aim of this study is to examine the possible association between neighborhood built environment and the walking habits of elderly people in Japan, with a focus on the development of built-up areas in Kameoka city, Japan. Our sample comprises 13,294 respondents of the 2011 baseline survey of Kameoka’s Study project, a population-based, cross-sectional survey on the health and living conditions of the elderly residing in the city. Using a geographic information system, we created neighborhood indicators of built environment and development age of built-up areas for each respondent’s neighborhood, which is operationalized by buffer regions within 500m and 1,000m radii street-based network distance from the respondent’s residence. Logistic regression is used to analyze the association of the respondents’ daily walking habits with the neighborhood indicators. Our finding generally supports the assumption that the neighborhood built environment influences the walking habits of elderly residents. However, we also found that some historical built-up areas are less walkable compared to recently developed urbanized areas. We discuss the possible explanations and implications of these findings.


2) Spatial variations in Childhood Obesity: the school and neighbourhood geographies

    Michelle Almond (University of Leeds), Graham Clarke, Janet Cade, Kimberley Edwards

    Childhood obesity has increased dramatically over the past few decades, even more so in the last few years. This increase has finally reached pandemic levels in the developed world and is ever increasing in the developing world with no sign of it decreasing in the foreseeable future. Current records show that overweight and obesity and its related co morbidities are the fifth leading risk for mortality, globally. Obesity substantially increases the risk of Type II diabetes, heart disease and certain cancers. As a result obesity has become a main concern for public health officials at a global scale. Whilst it is known that obesity in its simplest form is due to increased consumption of food and decreased amounts of physical activity, it has been proposed that it is further increased by environmental factors.
    The overall aim of this paper is to analyse cross sectional data obtained from the National Child Measurement Programme. The case study area is Wigan, Lancashire in the UK. This will allow for small scale analysis of environmental factors in relation to other indicators that determine obesity levels. Firstly it will enable us to map changing obesity levels at the small area level and then identify any areas that seem to be conforming to or resisting the obesogenic environment they are in. Further analysis will include the UK PE and Sport Survey, a dataset taking all 21,000 schools in the UK and identifying trends in sport participation and uptake for varying age groups and demographic characteristics.


3) Associations between objectively-measured environmental attributes and physical activity among Japanese adults

    Shigeru Inoue (Tokyo Medical University), Kenichi Suijo, Tomoki Nakaya, Yumiko Ohya, Yuko Odagiri, Tomoko Takamiya, Teruichi Shimomitsu

    Background: Many studies have reported the association between physical activity and neighborhood environment. However, few studies were conducted using objective assessments of environment and physical activity in Japan. Purpose: To examine the associations between objectively measured environments and physical activity among Japanese. Methods: A cross-sectional mail survey was conducted in four Japanese cities (Tsukuba, Koganei, Shizuoka and Kagoshima). A sample of 4,000 adults (male: 50%), aged from 20 to 69 yrs, was randomly selected from registries of residential addresses. The survey consisted of self-administered questionnaire and additional 7-day accelerometry. Among the 1280 respondents of the questionnaire, 715 (male: 47.1%, 47.5±13.6 yr) participated in the additional accelerometry. Environmental attributes (residential density, intersection density, existence of train stations, convenience stores, parks and exercise facilities) within the half-mile network buffer from each participant residence were assessed by the Geographic Information System. The odds ratios for exercise habits, walking for daily errands, recreational walking and walking >=10,000 steps/day by environmental attributes were calculated using logistic regression models adjusted for gender, age, educational attainment, employment status and residential city. Results: Residential density (OR, 95% CI: 1.86, 1.37-2.50), intersection density (2.05, 1.59-2.64), train stations (1.97, 1.45-2.64), convenience stores (1.54, 1.19-1.99) and exercise facilities (1.53, 1.21-1.94) were significantly related to walking for daily errands. Exercise habits, recreational walking and walking >=10,000 steps/day were not significantly associated with the environments. Conclusion: Associations between objectively measured environmental attributes and walking for daily errands were observed. These results supported the findings in former studies using self report assessment.


4) Spatial analysis of overweight and obese in the UK Women’s Cohort Study (UKWCS)

    Michelle A Morris (University of Leeds), Graham P Clarke, Janet E Cade, Claire T Hulme, Kimberley L Edwards

    Purpose: Strong evidence exists to suggest that there are layers of both personal and environmental factors influencing behaviour patterns, summarised by the ecological model. Incidence of overweight/obesity is no exception. Using a geodemographic classification could go some way to controlling for these factors in analysis. Such classifications combine demographic characteristics of individuals with small area geography to profile a type of area.
    Methods: Using the UK Women’s Cohort Study (n~35000) logistic regression can be used to investigate whether the type of area in which the women live - determined by the geodemographic Output Area Classification - affects likelihood of being overweight or obese.
    Results: An increased likelihood of being overweight/obese is observed for those living in Blue Collar Communities, or an area Constrained by Circumstance (for example public or residential housing) compared with women living in an area of Typical traits, so named as it exhibits no distinguishing demographic characteristics (relative risk ratios 1.44 (confidence interval 1.30 to 1.59) and 1.56 (1.39 to 1.76) respectively (p<0.05)).
    City Living or Countryside living are associated with significantly (p<0.05) reduced risk of overweight/ obese (relative risk ratios 0.77 (confidence interval 0.69 to 0.85) and 0.89 (0.83 to 0.96) respectively).
    When adjusting for energy intake, energy expenditure and cost of the diet these associations remain true.
    Conclusion: Results suggest that living in a certain type of area affects likelihood of being overweight or obese. They also show that geodemographic classifications may be a useful tool to inform public health nutrition policy.



[CS01-3] Analysing contextual factors on health (Joint session with the Commission on Health and Environment)

    [ Tuesday 06 August 14:00-15:30 Room663 ]    Chair(s): Graham Clarke (Univ. of Leeds), Tomoki Nakaya (Ritsumeikan Univ.)

1) A space-time analysis of the risk of low birthweight and neighborhood contextual factors

    Ikuho Yamada (Chuo University)

    Low birthweight (LBW), defined as a birthweight of less than 2,500g, is a long-standing public health problem in the United States. LBW is one of the leading causes of infant mortality and morbidity. In the U.S., the LBW rate is rather high in comparison with ones in other developed countries; furthermore, the risk represents notable disparity between white and African-American mothers. Previous studies indicate that, while maternal individual-level characteristics such as mother’s age, parity, education, and smoking and drinking behaviors are closely related to the LBW risk, they have limited ability to explain its observed variability. Such findings have led to increasing attention to neighborhood contextual factors that contribute to the LBW risk. This study thus examines the potential impact of neighborhood environments on the risk of LBW focusing on temporal changes in spatial distributions of the risk and the neighborhood contextual factors.

    California Birth Statistical Master Files for 1985-2004 obtained from the Center for Health Statistics, California Department of Health Services are used to capture space-time distributions of the LBW risk; U.S. Censuses 1990 and 2000 are used to derive socioeconomic and demographic characteristics of neighborhoods. The study region is set to the Greater Los Angeles Area, California, due to its high racial/ethnical variability. The study first explores spatial distributions of increase and decrease in the LBW risk over the 20 years and then assesses their potential relationships with neighborhood factors.


2) Longitudinal trends in equity of park accessibility in Japan: An investigation of the role of causal mechanisms

    Shinya Yasumoto (University of Tokyo), Andrew P Jones, Chihiro Shimizu

    Abstract 
    
    Despite an increasing interest in issues surrounding environmental equity, much research evidence to date is based on studies adopting cross-sectional approaches which do not adequately capture the processes and mechanisms generating inequities. Longitudinal studies may better inform policy measures to remedy inequity between populations, but the few that have been undertaken mostly focus solely on environmental risks, ignoring access to amenities. As a case study, we adopt a longitudinal approach in this work to investigate the association between socio-demographic indicators and public park provision over an 18 year period in the city of Yokohama, Japan. We show that inequities in park provision are present over the whole time period. Hedonic modelling shows that park accessibility is positively associated with house and land prices in the city. Our results suggested some, relatively weak, evidence of two causal processes; new parks are located in more affluent communities, yet also appear to subsequently encourage further move-in of affluent populations. We suggest park provision by administrative authorities in less affluent neighbourhoods may be required to maintain equity in access to these valuable community resources. Economic incentives, such as subsidy provision, may have role to play to encourage park provision by developers.


3) Industrial Development, Human Health and Urban Environment in Delhi Mega City

    Monika Vij (Delhi University), R B Singh

    The concentration of the world’s population in urban areas is growing at an enormously rapid rate, with more rapid growth of mega cities, Mega cities are primarily a phenomenon of the developing world, where burgeoning urban populations’ impact upon the environment on the one hand and the cities are bound up with the composite process of globalization on the other. Rapid, unplanned and unsustainable patterns of urban development compounded by the peri urban poverty are making them focal points for many emerging environment and health hazards. These cities typically experience the double environmental health jeopardy of the traditional risks from infectious diseases and the physical and chemical hazards that accompany poorly regulated industrialization, substandard housing, traffic hazards, and social violence.
    
    Delhi is the fourth most polluted city in the world. The deteriorating environment is the result of population pressure and haphazard growth. Sickness from water and vector- borne diseases re -occur regularly. There is evidence of increased exposure to toxic pollutants (particulates, pesticides, lead and other toxic metals) in the environment and a rising incidence of respiratory infections, cancers, heart problems, lead poisoning and other conditions.
    This paper is an attempt towards providing information on the levels, intensity and spatial distribution of urban health “hotspots” and vulnerable populations (children, old people and low income groups) in Delhi mega city. It is an attempt towards applied GIS including health planning and epidemiological analysis in GIS environments which can be of great significance for future public policy formulation and implementation.


4) Understanding the geography of Traditional Chinese Medicine (TCM) body constitution in population health

    Chien Tat Low (The University of Hong Kong), Poh Chin Lai

    Traditional Chinese Medicine (TCM) has long emphasized the role of natural and social environments in the physical and emotional balance of human health. Contemporary health geography also recognises that environment is indispensable in studying population health. Both TCM and health geography share some similarities in their views on the environmental effects on human health and wellbeing. This study postulates the plausible association between body constitution and disease occurrences in relation to environmental factors. Attempts to bring together health geography and body constitution theory will illuminate the way we perceive the interconnectedness between health, disease, tradition, and the living environment. This study employs spatial epidemiological approaches to quantify/qualify disease prevalence and their association with the living environment and/or body constitution. It starts by classifying individuals into groups stratified according to body constitution, demographic construct, socio-economic standing, where they live, and disease types. The neighbourhood environmental conditions are then assessed by the following attributes: percent greenery, population density, built density, air quality level, etc.). Finally, the study makes use of geostatistical techniques to put together a list of potential environmental determinants and types of body constitution with a higher statistical risk of contracting a particular disease type. The findings will offer different perspectives on human and environmental health that pertain to the Asian population. They have practical utilities in terms of guiding health professionals about possible health risks in certain neighbourhoods that enables preventive strategies to uplift the wellbeing of residents by where they live.



[CS02-1] Arid lands, humankind, and environment (1)

    [ Tuesday 06 August 14:00-15:30 Room670 ]    Chair(s): Mahmoud M. Ashour (Ain Shams Univ.), Noboru Ogata (Kyoto Univ.)

1) Responding to socio-ecological risk in remote indigenous communities: climate change adaptation as a driver of development in arid Australia

    Douglas K Bardsley (University of Adelaide), Nathanael D Wiseman

    There is a strong contemporary research and policy focus on climate change risk to communities, places and systems. While the need to understand how climate change will impact on society is valid, the challenge for many vulnerable communities, especially some of the most marginalised, such as remote indigenous communities of north-west South Australia, need to be couched in the context of both immediate risks to livelihoods and long-term challenges of sustainable development. An integrated review of climate change vulnerability for the Alinytjara Wilurara Natural Resources Management region, with a focus on the Anangu Pitjantjatjara Yankunytjatjara lands, suggests that targeted analysis of climate change impacts and adaptation options can overlook broader needs both for people and the environment. Climate change will add to a range of complex challenges for remote indigenous communities in arid Central Australia. To respond to future socio-ecological risk, some targeted responses will need to focus on climate change impacts, but there also needs to be a better understanding of what risk is already apparent within socio-ecosystems and how climate interacts with such systems. As the capacity to learn how to adapt to risk is developed, the value attributed to traditional ecological knowledge and local indigenous natural resource management must increase, both to provide opportunities for strong local engagement with the adaptation response and to provide broader development opportunities.


2) Demography, Land Use and Agricultural Development in the Rural Areas of Duhok Governorate, Iraq

    Lina Eklund (Lund University)

    The Kurdish autonomous region in Northern Iraq is not only undergoing notable changes in economy and politics, but also changes in environment and demography. Climate change and large scale damming projects are affecting the water availability in the Tigris River and its tributaries running through the Kurdish governorates. A study of the internal migration patterns in Duhok Governorate shows that there is both a migration trend from rural to urban areas, and an important trend from urban to rural areas, suggesting an increasing population in the rural areas. There are also political incentives by the Kurdish Regional Government (KRG) to expand agricultural production to ensure food security in the area.
    In this study we investigate how the current demographic changes affect the physical environment, focusing on land use change and water availability. We use satellite data to identify the agricultural changes during the past ten years and combine it with interviews in rural communities about water use, agriculture and environmental issues threatening rural livelihoods.
    The results provide a foundation for a holistic discussion of demographic changes, sustainable rural and agricultural development, and water balance in Iraqi Kurdistan, in the context of global environmental change and the government’s plans for acquiring food security in the Kurdish Region.



[CS02-2] Arid lands, humankind, and environment (2) Alexandria project

    [ Tuesday 06 August 16:00-17:30 Room670 ]    Chair(s): So Hasegawa (Comprehensive Reserach Institute, Waseda Univ.), Mahmoud M. Ashour (Ain Shams Univ.), Noboru Ogata (Kyoto Univ.)

1) On the Hellenistic Site Territory at West Delta in Egypt

    So Hasegawa (Comprehensive Reserach Institute, Waseda University)

    The hinterland of Alexandria was a strategic point at the early stage of Hellenistic power over local areas, where a series of lagoons resulting from the sea advance during the 7-6th millennium BC is distributed. These areas have also been known as most delayed ones in introducing an irrigation system in modern agricultural history (see the works by Omar Tousson). Actually, however, there are many Hellenistic archaeological sites in such barren areas. What does this fact indicate? Here, a keyword ‘lowland’ is coming up, which has been overlooked so far, though the understanding on production and consumption through the green land, desert and limestone bedrock have been attracted by classical writers and archaeologists. The Japanese-Egyptian jointed research group (archaeology + remote sensing + geology/geography) has a keen interest in the lowland of Idku lake region as a research target, for recovering the site formation. Some sites seem to have been located at the waterfront with 1m contour and as the brackish condition is widespread here, its life style might have been supported by “composite livelihood” based on part-time agriculture, fishing and hunting etc. In sections belonging to the site territory, environmental variation is small in the EW direction (across Nile Tributaries), which has a deep connection with the infiltration of cultural <assimilation>, while, in the NS direction (across Sea - Lake - Inlet - Green land), environmental <diversity> becomes larger, which may show the rich economic activities.


2) Satellite Remote Sensing Application in Hellenistic Archaeology at West Delta

    Masahiro Etaya (Tokai University)

    A study of satellite remote sensing data application in Hellenistic archaeology at West Delta of Egypt has been carried out since 2008 in collaboration with Tokai University, Waseda University and National Authority of Remote Sensing & Space Sciences Egypt (NARSS). A wide variety of earth observation satellite data more than 40 scenes including WorldView-2, QuickBird, Landsat ETM+, CORONA, ASTER, and ALOS AVNIR2, ALOS PALSAR, ALOS PRISM DSM (Digital Surface Model) and SRTM (Shuttle Radar Topography Mission) DEM was used to understand the distribution and the topography of the group of hilly archaeological sites distributed to the west of the Rashid tributary of the Nile as well as the relationship between the ancient water network and those sites from a broad view point of satellite data. The sites surrounding Lake Idku such as Kom al-Gharaf, Kom al-Ust, Kom al-Ahmar, and Kom al-Diba'a were the main observation targets of this study. As a result of this study, it is concluded that almost all hilly archaeological sites distributed at West Delta are located in the lowland swamps utilizing their waterfront environment, and a combination of the latest and past satellite remote sensing data can be a powerful toll to detect those sites including hopeful territories of unknown sites.


3) Landform series of the lowest part of Nile delta and interpretation of all core boring

    Shigeko Haruyama (Mie University), Mayumi Matsumoto, Kay Thwe Hliang

    Landform series of the lowest part of Nile delta and interpretation of all core boring
    
    Shigeko Haruyama, Mayumi Matsumoto and Kay Thwe Hlaing(Mie university)
    haruyama@bio.mie-u.ac.jp
    
    We prepared geomorphologic land classification map of the lower part of the Nile river basin using remote sensing data and the geomorphologic map is showing the distribution of lower delta and upper delta with natural levee, sand dune, sand ridge and lagoon with lacustrine lowland facing Mediterranean sea. There are four different landform series in the lowest part of Nile delta as followings; 1) eastern delta = Sand dune complex +Lagoon with lacustrine delta, 2) eastern most delta = Sand bars + lagoon with lacustrine terrace, 3) central part of delta = Pro-delta plain with branching channels + lower natural levees with back swamps, 4) western delta = marine terraces + sand ridges. The sand dunes and sand ridges have been developed responded to several sea level changes under Holocene in the study area. We tried to drill and all core boring for Holocene sedimentation along Lake Idku in September 2012. We got the continuous sedimentation of former Idku lake and the Holocene sediment is showing the repeated stripes with sand and clay responded to Holocene sea level change in this study area.


4) The quantitative evaluation of the habitation ecology in the modern Nile delta

    Hiroomi Tsumura (Doshisha University), Kotaro Mogi

    About the habitation ecology in the modern Nile delta, it has so far argued in changes of an irrigation system. However, there is almost no example quantitatively evaluated about the dynamic state of each colony. The most important point is applying the technique of quantitive new condition evaluation from explanation of a qualitative situation so far. As the method of the quantitative evaluation, the time series dynamic state of the environment variable which used GIS was analyzed in this research. Correlation with change of the irrigation system in the end piece of the Nile delta and human beings' habitation scene is evaluated. As a result of analysis, in the colony range expansion of the 1900s, enforcing the application strategy to various environment variously, the difference between that or before, this or later, and a big tendency was found. It came to reside in the area where water supply conditions are worse, and the colony scale was specifically reduced by installation of artificial irrigation system as a result. I think that it is not small that the state of application by people's environment is closely concerned with a socioeconomic background as for the meaning which has been grasped as change of quantity.



[CS02-3] Arid lands, humankind, and environment (3)

    [ Tuesday 06 August 17:30-19:00 Room670 ]    Chair(s): Mahmoud M. Ashour (Ain Shams Univ.), Noboru Ogata (Kyoto Univ.)

1) Paleo-climate in and around the Nasca Basin,Peru

    Isao Akojima (Fukushima University)

    The water which wetted the river oases during Nasca Period (about 200 B.C.--700 A.D.) in the dry basin bottom of Nasca (lower than 500 m.a.s.l.), known by lines and geoglyphs, came far from the Andes Mountains. There are hypothesis that aridness made Nasca society collapse and the relative humidness during Late Intermediate Period (LIP, A.D.1100--1400.) allowed temporary cultivation supported by rain-water. About 10ka BP snail shell and overlying aeolian sand layer at less than 700m a.s.l. on the dry mountain slope have been an evidence of existence of humid grassland that trapped wind-brown sand (Eitel and Machtle 2008; Machtle et al 2008, etc.).
     The author got more than ten samples of old and new snail shell in different height around Nasca Basin and investigated the habitable condition of current snail. And the author concluded that the habitable condition of snail is not grassland but rugged debris slope in which a few cactus grow and that the snail cannot live in the sand-covered ground. So, the deposition of aeolian sand layer in surrounding mountain slope of Nasca Basin after about 10 ka BP may suggest rather drying than continuation of humid grassland condition.
     The snail shell during the Nasca Period is not found yet, but the lowest height of snail shell during LIP, Inca and Spain Period is around 1,100m and Modern shell at 1,300m.
    Cultivation by temporary rain-water like a cultivation imagined by the remnant of field during LIP is still being tried on the Nasca upland surface now.


2) A Study of Settlement Remains near the Qiemo Oasis in Northwestern China using Satellite Imagery and DEM

    Noboru Ogata (Kyoto University)

    In this presentation, I offer my study results about the location and structure of remains of ancient settlements in an arid region using satellite imagery and DEM. After my overview of the study area, namely the Qiemo (Cherchen) in the Tarim Basin, northwestern China, the settlement remains over a desert area extending southwestward from the present town of Qiemo are examined. A network of remains of irrigation canals, which take the shape of ridges, was observed both on the ground and on the satellite imagery. A reconstruction of the ancient irrigation network is presented, and its geomorphological context is examined. I also discovered an interesting coincidence of the canal remains and the subtle elevations observable in the SRTM DEM. In conclusion, I offer a hypothesis that a powerful flood eroded the settlement surface making the irrigation impossible, and caused the abandonment of the settlements.


3) Present landscape dynamics and ecological problems of the mountain watershed of the South Siberia and the Inner Asia

    Kirill Chistyakov (Saint Petersburg State University), Dmitrii Ganiushkin

    The Great Asian watershed divides the basin of the Arctic ocean from the areas of inland drainage. It is a system of Caledonian &Baikalian sublatitudinal mountain ridges, rejuvenated in the Alpine time with wide spread planation surfaces &large intermountain depressions.
    Sharply continental climate defines the pattern of altitudinal belts (mountain steppes, taiga and tundra). Modern glaciers exist only in conditions of 5-6-fold concentration of snow. Valley glaciers have buried glacial ice under their tongues &in neoglacial moraines, where it makes 30-60% of the volume.
    Present regional climate changes show through winter warming. Total area of glaciers decrease, snouts of valley glaciers rapidly retreat, ice thickness decrease, complex valley glaciers split, rocks become uncovered in the ice-divide areas, small glaciers disappear. The moraine armoring of the glacial snouts increase. Thermokarst processes and surges of debris covers of rock glaciers also intensify.
    Since the mid 70-s we observe improvement of forest growth conditions and expansion of forest belt. In the depressions landscapes of semideserts &dry steeps with drift sands are wide spread. Drift sands move mostly due to local modern tectonics or excess anthropogenic load. In the protected areas the fixedness of the sands by grassland vegetation increase.
    Altitudinal zones in the last 50 years have lifted several dozen meters with the highest rates in the alpine zone. It leads to the growth of the share of non-glacial surfaces.
    It is important to preserve traditional regimes of environmental management because they are an obvious factor of landscape stability in the region.


4) The long-term history of human adaptation to the arid environment in the lower Indus Valley and the Thar Desert, Pakistan

    Atsushi Noguchi (Meiji University), Yorinao Shitaoka, Qasid Hussain Mallah, Ghulam Mohiu'Deen Veesar, Nilofer Shaikh, Hideo Kondo

    The Indus River runs through arid desert environment in its lower valley. Huge crescent dunes come up to the eastern rim of a riverine lowland. The oldest human occupation in the region is dated back to Lower Palaeolithic (ca.>0.5Ma). Middle/ Upper Palaeolithic sites remain among dunes. According to the recent archaeological research on Veesar Valley, Middle/ Upper Palaeolithic people are considered to have been adapted to the desert environment. Mesolithic occupations of Dhubi sites follow in the Early Holocene. While agricultural settlements did develop in oases of the Balochistan Hills in 5th millennium BCE, there were still only small camp sites of hunter-gatherers or pastoralists in the desert. No particular change is observed on the distributional pattern of archaeological sites in the desert during the earlier half of 3rd millennium BCE (Early Harappan Phase), while larger settlements were established in the Indus Plain. The major change occurred in the latter half of 3rd millennium BCE with the emergence of Indus Civilization (Mature Harappan Phase). Larger settlements advanced into the desert with attribution of civilization, such as of baked brick buildings, the manufacture of ornaments, etc. The change is likely to have been led by cultural measures for developing arid environment rather than environmental factors, because there is no clear evidence of abrupt climatic mending (e.g. increases in precipitation) during this period. Trends and dynamics of settlement pattern in the western fringe of the Thar Desert provide significant clues to understand the long-term history of cultural adaptation to the arid environment.



[CS03-1] Scientific mapping of climate change, water, forests and biodiversity

    [ Thursday 08 August 08:00-09:30 Room670 ]    Chair(s): Udo Schickhoff (Univ. of Hamburg ), Kazuharu Mizuno (Kyoto Univ.)

1) Vegetation succession on Mt. Kenya in relation to glacial fluctuation and global warming

    Kazuharu Mizuno (Kyoto University), Tomohiro Fujita

    This study primarily examines the real-time response of plant communities to glacial retreat and global warming during the last half-century. The Tyndall Glacier, the second largest glacier on Mt. Kenya, retreated at a rate of approximately 3 m year-1 from 1958 to 1997, but the rate increased to 7-15 m year-1 between 1997 and 2011. The leading edge (upper limit of distribution) of Senecio keniophytum, the first pioneer species to establish after glacial recession, has advanced in close spatial correlation with glacial retreat. Other pioneer species are also advancing. Plants of Senecio keniophytum were only sparsely scattered in a permanent plot (80 m x 20 m) established adjacent to the foot of the glacier in 1996; by 2011, the number of clumps and ratio of vegetation coverage had expanded. Other species were also present at the later date. The number of plant clumps and the rate of vegetation coverage were affected by the distance from glacier’s edge in area of recent deglaciation, but not where deglaciation exceeded 15 years. Many seedling of Senecio keniophytum were produced in 5-6 years after the glacier’s disappearance. Although Helichrysum citrispinum had not grown at altitudes higher than the Tyndall Tarn (4470 m) before 2006, 32 clumps of this species were identified on lateral moraines above 4470 m in 2009. The recent temperature increases are thought to be accelerating the expansion of some species into higher altitudes.


2) Impact of Climate Change on Livelihood in the Western Himalayas

    Virender Singh Negi (Shaheed Bhagat Singh (E) College, University of Delhi)

    The Himalayas feature a fragile ecosystem and are vulnerable to both natural processes and man-made ones. The population, settlement and economic patterns within Himalayas have been greatly influenced by the variations in topography and climate. As scientific consensus grows that significant climate change, in particular increased temperature and precipitation, some more changes in the patterns of distributions are inevitable. Change in environmental conditions induced by climate change is transforming distribution of terrestrial vegetation. As the fragile ecosystems of the Himalayas warm up, vegetation and wildlife will move to higher altitudes. Rapid climate change is not giving plants and animals enough time to adapt. Biodiversity loss also affects the health, wellbeing and livelihoods of people. This will further have an impact on the vegetation cover, agricultural patterns, livelihood and lifestyles of the several hundred million people living in the Himalayas and the adjacent vast lowlands.
    Human versus naturally induced trends in climate change phenomena are debatable, but the micro level factors needs to be given attention to reveals variety of facts determining the process of change. By aiming how vulnerability to climate change depends not only on natural factors, but also on economic, social, and cultural factors which impact on people’s status, behavior, relationships, and power, present paper investigates factors that have brought about physical and socio-economic changes in various parts of Uttarakhand, Himachal Pradesh and Jammu & Kashmir states of western Himalayas interlinked with the fragile Himalayan environment by mapping, and monitoring with the help of remote sensing and GIS.


3) Distributional Patterns of Biographical Regions in Indian Subcontinent: A Spatial Analysis

    Pawan Kumar Singh (National PG College, Lucknow University, Lucknow)

    Biogeography is spatial analysis of distributional patterns of organisms on earth. An organism is any form of life. A wide range and variety of organisms are present in different bio-geographic regions of India. There is only one thing that we all have in; we all share the same mother planet. The mother planet earth is permanent home of all living organisms. There are six biographic regions in the world as Nearetic, Palearetic, Neo-tropical, Ethiopian or African, Oriental and Australian. Therefore, in this paper an attempt has been made to explore the trend of changing pattern of organisms on the basis of spatial factors in different bio-geographical regional settings in Indian subcontinent. India is one of the 12 mega bio-diversity country of the world. India represents 62 percent of endemic species. It is also said that India represents 8 percent of the recorded species with 47000 plant species and 81000 animal species. India is divided into 10 bio-geographical regions by Wildlife Institute of India as Trans Himalayan, Himalayan, Deserts, Semiarid, Western Ghats, Deccan Peninsula, Gangetic Plain, North East, Coastal and Island As a result of the influence abiotic factors exert on organisms, different bio-geographic regions develop differently. The factors that determine the growth and type of bio-geographic regions of India include temperature, rainfall and humidity, landforms, soil type and locational factors with relief. Thus, an analysis has been made in this paper to address the issues of Indian bio-geographic regions.


4) Biodiversity of the Ganga River Flood Plains(India); An Ecological Perspectives

    Mohan Pathak (S.M.R.D.P.G. COLLEGE, BHURKURA, GHAZIPUR, U.P.)

    Flood plains remain one of the least investigated landscape in terms of their contribution to regional biodiversity. Thus, The Ganga river flood plains have been selected. Preliminary data indicate that degraded river systems like Ganga still retain abundant biodiversity that can be the focus of rehablitation efforts. The Gangetic flood plains covering an area of some 20,000 km2, form a distinctive physiographic feature. This elongated fluvial belt of riparian is dynamic in nature and average 10 kms wide in both flanks of the river is mainly an agricultural tract, but the biodiversity is unique as it is a synthesis of many eco-regions. It is home to over 143 fish species, 12 turtle, 2 crocodile, 100 species of birds, 51 species of insect and diatoms, which sustain the biodiversity and food-web, so that the aquatic and associated flood plain ecosystem remain intact. Unfortunately, the flood plain based biodiversities have been declining over the last two decades largly due to man made developments. Hastinapur wildlife Sanctuary abuts the Ganga close to Bijnor barrage, provided protection to swamp deer, sambhar, cheetal, bluebull, wolf, leopord, hyna and wild cat. In 2005 between Narora and Brijghat was declared a Ramsar site. This 85 Kms stretch is habitat of several species of turtles, Tortar, as well as Ganga dolphin. Biodiversity in different plants, crops and animal groups in flood plain eco-system varies strongly because of differences in their genetic variability resulting in different levels and ranges of adaptation to the flood events.



[CS03-2] Biodiversity and forest conservation: policy implications and local knowledge system

    [ Thursday 08 August 10:00-11:30 Room670 ]    Chair(s): Koichi Kimoto (Hiroshima Jogakuin Univ.), R. B. Singh (Delhi Univ.)

1) Exclusion or Empowerment: Participatory Deliberations on Forest Commons in Dehradun Valley, India

    Poonam Kumria (University of Delhi), R.B. Singh, Koichi Kimoto

    The Indian Forest Policy of 1988 and the subsequent government resolution on participatory forest management emphasise the need for people's participation in natural forest management. The policy document asserts that local communities should be motivated to identify themselves with the development and protection of the forests from which they derive benefits. the policy envisages a process of joint management of forests by the state governments (which have nominal responsibility) and the local people, which would share both the responsibility for managing the resource and the benefits that accrue from this management. Under Joint Forest Management (JFM), village communities are entrusted with the protection and management of nearby forests. The areas concerned are usually degraded or even deforested areas. It is still not clear that whether these policies are empowering local communities taking into consideration their local knowledge or excluding them from the management process.There has been constant shift in the policy regarding the nature and modus operandi of involving local community in the forest management. Therefore, the forest use and management policy in Dehradun Valley continues to remain constant subject of debate and discussion. At the same time village communities have not been involved in forest management because in this part of the region, forests are in Reserved Forest category and the institution of forest panchayat does not exist. The study assesses the performance of Joint Forest Management Policy through SWOT analysis. Further, factors’ affecting effective participation has also been measured through regression analysis.


2) Forest Cover, Policies and Governance in Assam India

    Mahfuza Rahman (Cotton College), Jayasree Borah, Pradip Sharma

3) Assessing Invasive Terrestrial Plant Species in the Romanian protected areas.

    Ines Grigorescu (Institute of Geography, Romanian Academy), Monica Dumitrascu, Gheorghe Kucsicsa, Mihaela Nastase

    Assessing Invasive Terrestrial Plant Species (ITPS) in protected areas is of increasing importance since they represent one of the leading pressures to natural habitats and biodiversity. In Romania, among the ITPS with negative impact on indigenous ecosystems the following ranks first: Amorpha fruticosa, Fallopia japonica and Ailanthus altissima. The current research was undertaken in the framework of enviroGRIDS FP7 project, Task 5.6 - Disaster Early Warning.
    The authors intend to make a complex assessment of the ITPS which is affecting the ecological balance of these protected areas. Firstly, a GIS-based inventory and the distribution maps of the ITPS for the selected case study are to be created. Additionally, relying on species ecological requirements and preferences, one could draw up a conceptual model based on the complex assessment of the key natural (geology, relief, soil, climate, vegetation etc.) and human-induced (mining activities, transport network etc.) driving forces responsible for the ITPS spread in order to identify their introduction pathways and their expansion potential.
    The paper is aiming to analyze the potential spread of these ITPS in three relevant case-studies: Fallopia japonica in Maramures Mountains Natural Park - V IUCN category, Amorpha fruticosa in Comana Natural Park V IUCN category and Ailanthus altissima in Macin Mountains National Park - II IUCN category. This assessment will rely on integrating comprehensive statistical data and accurate mapping and field investigation with modern computing methods (GIS-based), thus developing a prediction model (ITPS-podismod - Invasive Terrestrial Plant Species potential distribution model) able to forecast species’ spreading potential.


4) Livelihood Challenges of Fringe Communities of Dabaka and Jamuna-Maudanga Reserved Forests, Assam, India

    Pradip Sharma (Cotton College), Mahfuza Rahman, Dhanjit Deka, Rubul Hazarika

    Though the state of Assam falls within the Indo-Burma and Eastern Himalayan Biodiversity Hotspot, it has been observed that the forests are depleting and fringe villages are facing multifaceted problems.
    An intensive case study of fringe community of the fringe villages of Dabaka and Jamuna-Maudanga reserved forests areas of south central part of Assam, India reveals that the forest communities are deprived of getting even primary education, minimum health care, market accessibility, agriculture input, employment, and basic infrastructures like all weather road, electricity, water supply etc. The people of some areas are suffering from high amount of fluoride in water. Man-elephant conflict is a new addition to the area in recent years caused mainly due to forest depletion. Intervention of government through existing forest policy, works of Forest Development Agencies (FDAs), Joint Forest Management Committees (JFMCs) are found to be ineffective in the area.
    This study is a part of a larger project on Forest Management as Regional Governance (FM a RG) undertaken through a project under Hiroshima Jogakuin University, Hiroshima, Japan. An attempt has been made to address the livelihood issues and to evolve an effective strategy for wellbeing of the people of the forest fringe villages of Assam in general and study area in particular, keeping the varied composition of the communities. The database for the study is based both on primary, secondary and focus discussions and computed using geoinformatics.



[CS03-3] Biodiversity conservation and livelihood security

    [ Thursday 08 August 14:00-15:30 Room670 ]    Chair(s): Koichi Kimoto (Hiroshima Jogakuin Univ.), R. B. Singh (Delhi Univ.)

1) Automatically interpretation of satellite Images which were made in different times (by example of transboundary territories).

    Kirill Ju. Bazarov (Pacific Institute of Geography FEB RAS)

    This paper is about results of automatically interpretation of Landsat images of transboundary territories of southern part of Primorskii krai (National Park “Zemlya Leoparda” (“Leopard’s Land”), Russia)&adjoining territories of Jilin province (northern part of the Hunchun nature reserve, PRC). The main objective of this work is to compare conditions of these territories at the different times.
    Three images (Landsat-5 - 27.09.1987, 16.09.1989 & Landsat-7 - 12.09.2002) were free downloaded from Glovis web-service (www.glovis.usgs.gov). Images were preprocessed - the digital numbers (DNs) from the image data were converted to spectral radiance (these conversions provided a better basis for the comparison of data between images taken from different acquisition dates and/or by different sensors). Also topographic normalization (correction) procedure was done for all images. Digital elevation model was created for this procedure.
    Processed images were separated on different classes by using of ISODATA method. Then these classes were aggregated into types on basis of similarity of spectral characteristics & spatial correlation. Thereby 27 types were obtained for images 1987 & 1989 & 24 types for 2002.
    Also NDVI values for all images & differences between them were calculated. This computations shows growth of phytomass in considering time period.
    Next stage is identification of obtained classes by field research.


2) Land Use, Forests and Environmental Pollution in Agra Metropolitan City

    Vishwa Raj Sharma (University of Delhi)

    The twenty first century has been a century of unprecedented population growth, economic development and environmental change. There has been extensive debate worldwide on the relationship between land use pattern, forests and environmental pollution in the past few years. Land use pattern of a city or town is a reflection of its anthropogenic transformation of land.
    The exponential population growth together with rapid industrialization and urbanization over the years has substantial impact on the environment of the city. The city is known for Taj Mahal, one of the Seven Wonders of the World which draws tourist from all over the world. Thus, there is a great pressure on the environment of the city. Rapid urbanization and unprecedented industrial and economic development during the last four decades have increased the pollution levels of Agra by many folds. Their combined effects have been the virtual transformation of the city of Taj into an island of smoke and dust.
    Central Pollution Control Board in collaboration with IIT Delhi and 15 other institute had formulated criteria for Comprehensive Environmental Pollution Index (CEPI) and identified prominent industrial clusters, based on their CEPI score. As per the report Agra is one of the Critically Polluted Industrial Clusters identified in the State of Uttar Pradesh. The CEPI score of Agra city for Water, Air and Land are 63.75, 59 and 59.5 respectively. This paper attempts to assess the existing status of the urban environment of the Agra city.


3) Local Knowledge and Forest Management in Changing Environment of Rajasthan Drylands in India: A Case of Sariska National Park

    Ajay Kumar (University of Delhi), R.B. Singh, Koichi Kimoto

    The umbilical relationship between man and forest has existed since old times. Due to rapid growth of development and changing environment the nature and character of this relationship has changed. The forest was considered the property of state until recently but due to the conflicts related to forest rights between state and local community and also the inability of the state to control the further degradation of forest, the importance of community participation in forest management was recognised. The local knowledge system existing with forest dwelling community has great importance in conservation of forests. The Sariska National Park was recently in news due to missing tigers and its fast degradation due to illegal poaching and mining. There are 10 villages located within the core zone I, total of 31 villages are located in the entire Tiger Reserve in addition to more than 200 villages present in the contiguous area. The Village Forest Protection Committees (VFC’s) works in collaboration of forest department to protect forest. The members of VFC’s firmly used their local knowledge in protecting the forest. The illegal miners from outside the park in name of local dwellers have led to degradation of forest which made government to evacuate the park. In absence of local knowledge the park may come under threat. The villages located outside the park are highly populated and pose bigger threat compared to villages located inside the park. Thus, forest support lands require geographic and socio-economic enquiry in long time to come.


4) Process of Desertification a Challenging Resilience: Forest Management as Regional Governance in Southern India

    Koichi Kimoto (Hiroshima Jogakuin University), Das S Arun

    The peninsular setup of southern India experiences seasonal rainfall for six months. Summer rainfall begins from June and recedes in august. The north east monsoon rainfall begins in continuation from Aug until November as winter rainfall. This entire phenomenon is a unique mechanism triggered due to the change in pressure cells in the central India and again at equatorial low pressure formation. Eventually, as a result of all these factors, Indian subcontinent experiences summer and winter rainfall. The relevant point to be understood from this mechanism is, these winds are only a moist laden wind causing shower as per the relative humidity and the saturation level. The gradual decrease in vegetative cover (deforestation) over the period of time pushed this region into a loss of control over the rain bearing clouds. The resultant impact is a viscous circle developed into Less Rainfall, Less rainfall into higher exploitation of Ground water. Over exploitation and tapping of ground water has lead to drying lakes, Secondly arable land is transforming into non arable land, If the same trend continues in future majority of the peninsular India will transform into desert. The project based research analysis in this study focus on the process of desertification taking into account the deforestation and the depleting underground water situation with an emphasis on Forest management as Regional Governance a resilience strategy to unfold.



[CS04-1] Climatic change and variability in different spatial and temporal scales (1)

    [ Monday 05 August 14:00-15:30 Room662 ]    Chair(s): Nigel Tapper (Monash Univ.), Jun Matsumoto (Tokyo Metropolitan Univ.), Masumi Zaiki (Seikei Univ.)

1) North Atlantic Oscillation (NAO) and drought in northwestern China over the last 1,000 years

    Harry F. Lee (The University of Hong Kong)

    North Atlantic Oscillation (NAO) plays an important role in the Northern Hemisphere climate system. Although there is growing interest in the connection between NAO and precipitation change in China, there are few studies concerning that connection in northwestern China. Based on fine-grained historical drought disaster records and NAO proxies, we explored quantitatively their possible connection in northwestern China over the past millennium at the multi-decadal to centennial timescales. Statistical results show that NAO and drought disaster were negatively correlated, as positive modes of NAO caused northward-displaced, stronger-than average mid-latitude Westerlies with an enhanced latitudinal water vapor gradient into the central Asian drylands, resulting in reduced drought frequency and intensity in northwestern China. But, their correlation was out-of-phase during the Little Ice Age because of the southward shifting of monsoon, Westerlies, and the East Asian Jet Stream brought by long-term land surface cooling. As it has been indicated that the precipitation in northwestern China is also determined by El Nino-Southern Oscillation and North Atlantic sea surface and air temperature aside from NAO, further studies are needed to evaluate their individual roles and combined impacts upon the drought disaster there.


2) History of Incidence of Droughts over India during Monsoon Season from Halocene to Anthropocene

    Kalyan Chakravarthy Yesoda (India Meteorological Department), Sikka D.R, Ajit Tyagi Dr

    Indian society, economy and culture are influenced by the incidence of drought during rainy summer monsoon season. Large parts of halosene were in the warming global environment due to the changes in the sun earth geometry. There are historical records that in certain millennia of haloscene the rainfall over India was much higher than the present and vegetation was extensive. Even then there was incidence of major droughts during 500 BC to 700 BC. The incidence of drought has decreased during medieval period between 800 AD to 1300 AD. This is considered to be optimum for the monsoon behavior. Very few historical records of droughts exist for this period. Incident of droughts shows increase again from 1500 AD to 1800 AD with some devastating droughts recorded in historical literature. During Moghal dynasty which ruled India, these droughts lead to societal unrest. In the scientific records droughts again increased in 19 & 20th century with decadal increase or decrease in frequency. The Anthroposcene period began in India in the second half of 20th century with predominance of drought episodes between 1970 to 2010. Climate change modelling due to anthropogenic activity shows that in future the incidence of the droughts may remain high in spite of the warming over India sub-continent. The models also suggest this would happen in the scenario of weakening monsoon as well as north wards shift of monsoon. This paper discusses the impact of droughts in the past history and this impact on societal and its future scenario.


3) Hot summer episode in Japan during 1850s-1860s

    Takehiko Mikami (Teikyo University), Junpei Hirano, Masumi Zaiki

    The 1850s-1860s were corresponding to the end of the Little Ice Age, and mountain glaciers shrank rapidly around this period. However, global mean temperature variations do not show prominent increasing trend during 1850s and 1860s (IPCC 4th report). The reason for this might be caused by the insufficient global coverage of meteorological observations in this period.
    The purpose of this study is to clarify the existence of hot summer episode in Japan reconstructed from temperature observations and historical weather records in early 19th century. Both summer temperature reconstructions in Tokyo (1721-2010) and temperature readins using thermometers indicated hot summer episodes in 1850s and 1860s. Changes in atmospheric circulation patterns over the Northern Hemisphere would be highly related to the hemispheric temperature patterns in this period.



[CS04-2] Climatic change and variability in different spatial and temporal scales (2)

    [ Monday 05 August 16:00-17:30 Room662 ]    Chair(s): Kimura Keiji (Hokkaido Univ.), Nigel Tapper (Monash Univ.), Masumi Zaiki (Seikei Univ.)

1) Data Rescue and Long-term Climatic Changes in Asia

    Jun Matsumoto (Tokyo Metropolitan University), Hayato Suzuki, Michiko Otsuka, Fumiaki Fujibe, Hirotsugu Yamamoto, Haruhiko Yamamoto, Ikumi Akasaka, Hisayuki Kubota, Nobuhiko Endo, Hiroshi G. Takahashi, Junpei Hirano, Masumi Zaiki

    Climatic change is one of the most crucial issues for the present international society. Although many aspects of the former climatic changes have been analyzed by the existing digitized datasets, the digitized data prior to 1950 were very limited in comparison with ample paper formatted data during that period. In many Asian countries, climatic data before independence were archived in data books edited during their colonial period, and they have been rarely utilized for the climatic change studies. Therefore, there remain more rooms for analyzing the past climatic changes by using such document data in many parts of Asia. We have been trying to find out such document data sets in Asia and try to conduct data rescue activities. In particular, meteorological observations started by the Jesuits provide ample sources, such as for Philippines and China (Zi-Ka-Wei). In Japan, daily rainfall data at more than 1,000 stations all over Japan have been digitized. These data are of particular important for analyzing the changes of extreme rainfall events in a daily basis. Also they are useful for detecting changes of the monsoon or rainy season onset and retreat dates. In this presentation, some examples on the former climatic changes during the Pre-World War II period will be presented. This research is supported by Green Network of Excellence (GRENE), Grant-in-Aid for Scientific Research No.18340145, 2024007 and 23240122, and the Global Environmental Research Fund (B-061 and A-0902), Japan.


2) Long-term changes of extreme precipitation in Japan and their relation to multidecadal temperature variations

    Fumiaki Fujibe (Meteorological Research Institute, JMA)

    This study describes long-term changes in extreme precipitation in Japan using raingauge data that were recently digitized and quality checked by JMA. For daily precipitation, data at 51 stations from 1901 to 2010 were used, and for short-term precipitation, ten-minute and hourly precipitation data at 92 stations from 1951 to 2010 were used. Daily extreme precipitation, such as the number of >100mm days and annual maximum precipitation, shows increase over the 110 years at a rate of 2% per decade and 0.8% per decade, respectively. For short-term precipitation, variations of extreme ten-minute and hourly precipitation were found to have a pattern similar to that of temperature, characterized by a significant increase since the 1980s in correspondence with the rapid warming trend. The rate of change in annual 95th percentile precipitation with temperature was found to be 9.7±4.1% per degree for ten-minute precipitation, and 8.8±8.3% per degree for hourly precipitation. These values are close to the Clausius-Clapeyron rate of change in saturation vapor pressure (about 6% per degree), indicating that the Clausius-Clapeyron relation roughly holds for multidecadal changes in extreme short-time precipitation in Japan. This research is supported by Grant-in-Aid for Scientific Research No.23240122.


3) Instrumental meteorological records in Japan since the 19th century and their climatological significance

    Masumi Zaiki (seikei University), Togo Tsukahara, Takehiko Mikami

    Imaging and digitization of old paper-based instrumental meteorological records must be carried out before these records are lost to decay. This kind of activity called “data rescue” is now taking places all over the world.
     We recovered instrumental temperature and pressure data for locations in Japan from the 19th century, a period for which no instrumental records were believed to exist. The recovered data were collected by Dutch, German, French, British, American and Russian visiting Japan and also by Japanese astronomers trained by the Dutch at the time. The data allow extending the beginning of the instrumental record back from 1872 to 1819.
     The recovered temperature and pressure data were converted to modern units and digitized into computer readable form. The pressure data were corrected for temperature, height, and gravity where needed. The temperature data were homogenized to compensate for changes in recording location. Then, both data sets were homogenized to account for varying observation schedules.
     The corrected and homogenized data were shown to be reasonable after further testing for homogeneity and comparison with modern data. The recovered temperature data also showed good agreement with reconstructed temperatures from old diaries. The recovered data were used for a preliminary calculation of a Japan Temperature series, a representative temperature series for the area. The results support evidence for the existence of a remarkable warm epoch in the 1850s in Japan after a cold spell for the 1820s to 1840s which is assumed as the end of the Little Ice Age.



[CS04-3] Climatic change and variability in different spatial and temporal scales (3)

    [ Tuesday 06 August 16:00-17:30 Room559 ]    Chair(s): Haruhisa Asada (Nara Women's Univ.), Nigel Tapper (Monash Univ.), Masumi Zaiki (Seikei Univ.)

1) Rainfall at Cherrapunji, India and its relation to floods in Bangladesh

    Fumie Murata (Kochi University), Taiich Hayashi, Toru Terao, Masashi Kiguchi, Yusuke Yamane, Haruhisa Asada, Jun Matsumoto, Arjumand Habib, Hiambok Johnes Syiemlieh

    Cherrapunji, known as the rainest places on earth, is located on the
    southern slope of the Meghalaya Plateau, India, and the rain water
    immediately flow into the Bengal plain. The northward shift of the
    monsoon trough that bring severe rainfall over the Himalayas, also make
    high correlation between the rainfall amount at Cherrapunji and the occurrence of floods in Bangladesh. The rainfall variability at Cherrapunji and the northward shift of
    monsoon trough are discussed by using over 100-year rainfall record and
    recent meteorological data, This study was conducted under the support
    of Grant-in-Aid for Scientific Research (A-23240122) from JSPS.


2) The Relationship between Extreme Precipitation and Surface Air Temperature in Bangladesh

    Masashi Kiguchi (the University of Tokyo), Ram Chandra Sarker, Nobuyuki Utsumi, Kazuo Oki, Taikan Oki

    This study aims exploring the characteristics of extreme precipitation corresponding to surface air temperature in Bangladesh. Analysis for each seven division of Bangladesh has been accomplished separately using observation dataset. In the next step, calibration of historical extreme precipitation from GCM model MIROC simulation has been performed comparing with observation. Model simulated dataset is obtained from the scenario of RCP8.5 of MIROC version-5. Bias correction has been taken into consideration while using model output. Finally, model simulation is applied to analyze projection of future changes of extreme precipitation in the targeted region. Results show that there are fair agreement among observation, MIROC present and MIROC projection simulations. An increase in extreme precipitation intensity is found in six divisions among seven divisions in Bangladesh for MIROC future projection simulation.


3) Climate Change around southern Africa during recent 50 years

    Keiji Kimura (Hokkaido University)

    Southern Africa faces oceans toward west, south and east. When the climate change in this area is analyzed, the effects from the surrounded oceans have not been considered, especially the teleconnection between the land area and each ocean area. In this study, the effects are analyzed and it was clarified that the southern effect is not so weak.
    Also, southern Africa is affected by both northern Inter Tropical Convergence Zone and the southern extratropical cyclones. The border is around Namibia, Botswana, Zimbabwe and Mozambique. This area came influence of both ITCZ and extratropical cyclones by season. As well as this, the eastern part of this area is sometimes influenced by the typhoon from the Indian Ocean once in several years.
    The shape of ITCZ around the low latitude above African continent is along the parallel in July. ITCZ is curved in Z shape as it goes south, and precipitation decreases in January. The seasonal change and year-by-year change are analyzed and described. In the almost area of southern Africa, westerly is prevailed all over the year. Even the Namib Desert along the Atlantic Ocean, westerly from the Indian Ocean can be observed. The pressure patterns around this area are analyzed.


4) Long-term changes in seasonal progression patterns of rainfall in the Philippines

    Ikumi Akasaka (Senshu University), Hisayuki Kubota, Marcelino Ⅱ Villafuerte, Esperanza O Cayanan, Jun Matsumoto

    This study investigated the characteristics on the long-term changes in the seasonal march of rainfall for the period 1952-2008. We used daily rainfall data at 35 stations, provided by PAGASA. First, to detect spatial and temporal patterns of rainfall, we applied empirical orthogonal function (EOF) analysis to the pentad rainfall anomalies at 35 stations. Then, to classify seasonal march of rainfall for 1952-2008, we applied Cluster analysis (Euclidean distance and Ward’s method) to the time coefficients of the first EOF mode which shows temporal and spatial patterns of rainfall in the summer rainy season. As the results, we classified seasonal progression patterns in the summer rainy season into six groups. The results show the seasonal progression patterns with early onset or with early withdrawal of the summer rainy season appeared before the late 1970s. On the other hand, a pattern with the delayed onset and the delayed withdrawal of the summer rainy season was frequently shown since the 1990s. Additionally, it is noteworthy that a pattern which does not have distinct dry season when normally occurs from December to April, frequently appeared in several La Nina years, especially since the late 1990s. It suggests that recent La Nina events were related to rainfall events during the dry season since the late 1990s.



[CS04-4] Climatic change and variability in different spatial and temporal scales (4)

    [ Tuesday 06 August 17:30-19:00 Room559 ]    Chair(s): Ikumi Akasaka (Senshu Univ.), Nigel Tapper (Monash Univ.), Masumi Zaiki (Seikei Univ.)

1) Gender Perception and Climate Change in Nigeria

    Comfort Iyabo Ogunleye-Adetona (University of Cape Coast), Lanre Lati Ajibade

    Climate change is one of biggest threats to natural resources and human existence all over the world. The perception /knowledge of climate change and its consequences on human survival are prerequisite to successful adaptation and mitigation strategies for a sustainable development. Men and women although have different vulnerability to climate change especially in the rural setting, the disparity in their level of awareness is often overlooked by most researchers. Nigeria is one of the countries under pressure from climate change. Hence a study was undertaken to examine the differential gender related perception on climate change among randomly selected inhabitants of Ilorin east Local Government Area, Kwara State, Nigeria. The level of knowledge of respondent’s on the impact of climate change among the different genders were examined to account for the variation in perception . The use of 400 questionnaires formats, confirmed a significant variation in the level of awareness of climate change between the male and female respondents . For the women having serious challenges in doing their daily chores like trek over long distance to get water for use, their children getting more and more sickly due to increased heat were attributed to climate change,their livelihood is threatened because the reduction in vegetable production, a major source of income. The male respondents see reduction in crop yield due to erratic and unreliable rainfall and increased crop pest and diseases are signs of climate change. Water harvesting will ensure less stress and continues vegetable production in the study area.


2) Hydroclimatic assessment of water resources of low Pacific islands: evaluating sensitivity to climatic change and variability

    Chris R De Freitas (University of Auckland), M Helbig, A Matzarakis

    For many low islands of the tropical Pacific, freshwater is a scarce resource. Realisation of the possible impact of climate change has highlighted the sensitivity of island communities to water availability. However, impact evaluation requires specialised data as well as appropriate sensitivity assessment methodology. The work reported here is the second of a two part study. The first addressed the data problem by assembling and validating a suitable database. The second part develops an island water balance model and applies a sensitivity assessment. Data are at a 2.5 x 2.5 degree latitude-longitude grid resolution for the the tropical Pacific. Output is in the form Climate Change Sensitivity Index maps that provide a summary of the impact on the spatial redistribution of climate-determined freshwater resources under various climate scenarios. Areas of high sensitivity to climatic variability and change are those that sit between margins of very wet and very dry zones. Their areal extent is determined by the gradients at the margins. Adjustments to the model for differing local surface conditions on different islands can be made, which allows a sensitivity assessment of specific island groups or individual islands, even for islands with no climate station data. The method is suitable for a variety of climate studies. In this case it is a powerful tool to gain useful information on the influence of climate change and variability on freshwater resources of low islands. Using this approach, planning decision-making is possible without knowing precisely the magnitude of climate change that might occur.


3) A GIS-based approach to adaptation to regional climate change

    Yingjiu Bai (Graduate School of Media and Governance, Keio University), Ikuyo Kaneko, Hikaru Kobayashi, Kazuo Kurihara, Izuru Takayabu, Hidetaka Sasaki, Akihiko Murata

    Recently local governments have an increasing need to take extensive and effective local measures to adapt to regional climate change. However, they have difficulty knowing how and when to adapt to such change. This study aims: 1) to characterize an efficient and cost-effective database management tool (DMT) for developing a Geographic Information System (GIS) based approach to using observed and projected data, for decision-making by non-expert government authorities, and 2) to document how to use the DMT to provide specialized climate change information in an understandable form to assist local decision-makers in clarifying regional priorities within a wide array of adaptation options. The DMT combines climate change mapping, statistical GIS, and vulnerability assessment. Tokyo and Kurihara in Miyagi Prefecture, Japan, were chosen for pilot studies. In this paper, the most recent projections of regional climate (5 km resolution) become in an understandable form for non-expert citizens by the GIS-based DMT. Results illustrate qualitative agreement in projection of summer daily mean temperatures. The uncertainty which exists within projections of regional climate can be managed. August monthly mean temperature in Tokyo and Kurihara will increase more than 0.7-0.9°C and monthly precipitation by 50% in the near-future period (2015-2039). For the future period (2075-2099), the August monthly mean temperature will increase more than 2.8-2.9°C in Tokyo, 2.6-3.0°C in Kurihara, and monthly precipitation by 25-41%. However, the root mean square (RMS) errors and bias of percentage change for monthly precipitation in summertime is 26.8% and 4.3% in Tokyo, 20.7% and -2.9% in Kurihara, respectively.


4) Russian View on the Kyoto Protocol and Climate Change

    Nina Alexandrovna Zaytseva (Russian Acacdemy of Sciences)

    In 2004, on the basis of detailed discussions Russian scientists made the conclusion that Kyoto Protocol (KP) does not have a scientific basis. KP is not effective enough to achieve the IPCC aims, for which KP was actually developed. Climate warming in Russia which is the coldest country in the world has a range of serious positive effects as well as negative ones. Complex calculations/estimations of possible consequences of climate change for Russian economy and social sphere were made. As known, Russia had finally ratified KP however this was not realized in some actions. In March of 2008, 13 leading academies of science recommended to draw attention to the fact that, in parallel with the Kyoto Protocol methods, the new geo-engineering methods could be also used for solution of the present-day climate problems. The report presents a strategy how it could be possible to realize such approach with use of stratospheric aerosols aimed at reducing the incident solar radiation and then the atmosphere heating. By now, in addition to the calculation performed, the modeling of the process in the imitation cameras as well as limited field experiments have been carried out. Results of the latest discussions of this issue among Russian climatologists will be presented in the report.



[CS04-5] Urban climate (1)

    [ Wednesday 07 August 08:00-09:30 Room663 ]    Chair(s): Hiroyuki Kusaka (Univ. of Tsukuba), Toshiaki Ichinose (National Institute for Environmental Studies (NIES) / Nagoya Univ.)

1) Development of Urban Climates in Japan from the Ancient Period to Present

    Masatoshi Yoshino (Professor Emeritus, University Tsukuba)

    In order to make clear development of urban climates in Japan during the historical periods, an attempt was made collecting historical events written in old documents. Emperor Nintoku (the 16th Tennou) during the Kofun Period, AD 270-592, was thought to be a first ruler, who recognized urban climates, based on his own observation from a tall building As an example of the urban climates during the medieval period, results of heat island in Heiankyo(Kyoto at present)was estimated. Some results of plant phonological events such as flowering date of cherry blossoms, red color dates of maple leaves etc. were analyzed for estimating the impact of urban heat island during the Edo Period. From the Heian Period, urban climates have been becoming clearly more and more.
    From the Edo Period, big fire, traffic dust, air pollution, unsuitable hygienic conditions etc. developed gradually in Edo (present Tokyo) and other big cities in Japan as results of expanding urban areas, and concentration of populations and industries. From the middle of Meiji Period, 19th Century, city temperature (heat island), city fog , snow accumulation, were analyzed at observatories located in and outside of cities. From the middle 20th Century, horizontal distribution of climatic elements, not only air temperature, but also drizzle days, insolation amount, air pollution, wind distribution, local circulation systems etc., were analyzed. From the end of 20th Century, cooperation studies on urban climates and numerical experiments using super computer have been confirming details of urban climates in Japan.


2) Recent Urban Subsurface Warming In Seven Asian Mega-Cities

    Toshiaki Ichinose (National Institute for Environmental Studies (NIES) / Nagoya University)

    The author applied a mesoscale climate model, CSU-MM (Pielke, 1974; Ichinose, 2003) to digital land use data (2 km square grid cells) of seven Asian mega-cities (Seoul, Tokyo, Osaka, Taipei, Bangkok, Manila, Jakarta) in two stages of the 20th Century, which were established by the following project, and performed numerical simulations of urban subsurface warming related to recent urbanization. This research was financially supported by the project "Human Impacts on Urban Subsurface Environment" (Project Leader: Prof. Dr. Makoto Taniguchi), Research Institute for Humanity and Nature (RIHN). Variability of subsurface temperature computed in inputting these data sets to the numerical climate model as the surface boundary conditions were compared to the measured vertical profile of subsurface temperature (Taniguchi et al., 2009) expected to record historical series of Tsfc. The surface warming in the study areas during the last century were 2.8 and 1.8 degree Celsius in Tokyo and Bangkok, respectively. In this numerical simulation, every one of seven mega-cities showed the warming (Tsfc) of around 1.1 K/Century in calm and clear days of the hottest season, in spite of diversity of the urbanizing stage and the observed subsurface temperature profile. Because city center of each mega-city was already urbanized at the beginning of the 20th Century. However, computing results in consideration of seasonal climate variability (emerging ratio of each weather type in each season) gave the reasonable differences between Bangkok (0.9 K/Century) and Tokyo (1.9 K/Century). The difference of annual climatic variability is an important factor for deciding urban subsurface warming.


3) Relationship between local wind systems and temperature distribution in summer over the Kanto Plain

    Yoshihito Seto (Tokyo Metropolitan University), Hideo Takahashi

    The purpose of this study is to clarify the recent variations in local wind systems and temperature distribution during daytime in summer over the Kanto Plain by focusing on differences in wind systems caused by synoptic scale pressure gradient. Typical sea-breeze days were selected, and the characteristics of wind systems and temperature distribution were examined by using observed surface wind and temperature data from 1979 to 2008.
    The number of days with large difference in maximum temperature between Tokyo and Kumagaya showed increasing trend on summertime clear and weak pressure gradient days when appearance of sea-breeze was expected. In such cases, high temperatures (35 degrees Celsius or higher) at Kumagaya were frequently observed. The patterns of the local wind systems including the development stage of sea-breeze differed according to the direction of the geostrophic wind. On westerly geostrophic wind days, the southerly wind was strong over most of the Kanto Plain, and the easterly wind in the coastal area of Kashima-nada did not appear. The maximum temperature difference between Tokyo and Kumagaya tended to be larger on westerly geostrophic wind days that showed increasing trend in recent years. It means that the changes in synoptic pressure pattern should contribute to the increasing trend in the number of high temperature sea-breeze days in the inland area of Kanto Plain.



[CS04-6] Urban climate (2)

    [ Wednesday 07 August 10:00-11:30 Room663 ]    Chair(s): Toshiaki Ichinose (National Institute for Environmental Studies (NIES) / Nagoya Univ.), Hiroyuki Kusaka (Univ. of Tsukuba)

1) Formation mechanism of Ozone-dip and Aerosol-jump as revealed by 3D-scanning Doppler lidar

    Yasushi Fujiyoshi (Hokkaido University), Yuki Ooka, Masayuki Kawashima, Ayako Yagi, Manabu Kanda, Chusei Fujiwara

    We deployed a 3D-scanning coherent Doppler lidar (3DCDL) at Ookayama campus of Tokyo Institute of Technology, Tokyo, on July 2011 as a part of Tokyo Metropolitan Area Convective Study for Extreme Weather Resilient Cities (TOMACS) project. Ozone concentration showed not only clear seasonal cycle (low in summer season and high in winter season) and diurnal cycle, but also showed 40-50 days and 7-days variations. The 7-days variation would be associated with high and low pressure systems. When high/low pressure system passed over the site of observation, the ozone concentration was very high/low.
    In addition to these a little bit longer-term variations, ozone concentration often showed very short-term variation: Ozone concentration showed a small dip (decrease and then increase) in a short period of time when a local front passed over the observation site (Ozone-dip). On the contrary, aerosol number density showed a small jump (increase and then decrease) during the passage of a local front (Aerosol-jump).Based on the careful analysis of horizontal and vertical structure of wind fields observed by the 3DCDL, we found that vertical structure of local fronts, especially the lower “nose” and the lobe of a density current head is mainly responsible for the ozone-dip and aerosol-jump.


2) Influence of urban climate and topography on extreme rainfall cells in east-central France

    Florent Renard (Universite Jean Moulin Lyon 3 - CNRS UMR 5600), Jacques Comby

    Greater Lyon (650 km2, 1.3 M inhabitants) is a highly waterproofed area, very likely to floods. Previous studies using a C-band radar, located 40 km of Lyon, have focused on assessing its hydrological quality and studying the cell characteristics of extreme rainfalls (intensity, size, speed and direction). Few analyzes combined the characteristics of these rainfall cells with land cover or topography, especially on this area. This study proposes to focus on the relationships between local effects and cell characteristics of extreme rainfalls, using a GIS. To characterize the cells, mean centers, maximum intensities and areas are calculated. The five most intense rainfalls of 2001-2005 over Lyon have been analyzed, giving 109,979 mean centers. 250m and 1000m resolution digital elevation models are used to model topography (altitude, slope and aspect), and land cover data is provided by the Corine Land Cover database. However, in an advective flow, the topoclimatic effects, if they exist, may not be directly observed vertically above the place. There is sometimes a spatial offset between the factor and its effect. Since the average speed and direction are known for every episode, the cells have been moved back, corresponding to their 5 and 10 minutes previous location. No relations of interest are observed between topography and extreme rain cells, but a strong relation is obtained focusing on land cover. Indeed, the density over urban areas is doubled, compared to natural or agricultural areas, and higher than above wetlands. The maximum intensity is stronger as well over urban areas.


3) Assessment of outdoor thermal conditions at the Russian Far East

    Elena A. Grigorieva (Institute for Complex Analysis of Regional Problems FEB RAS)

    Human climates for eleven cities in the Russian Far East region (RFE) are examined using methods that integrate the thermal effects outdoors of air temperature and humidity. The climate of the REF is one of the most extreme climatic zones in the world with a mean annual temperature range of up to 55 degrees Celsius. Three bioclimatic indices, namely, the Comfort Index (CI), Annual Cumulative Stress (ACS) and Proportional Cumulative Stress (PCS), are used to identify thermal conditions that would be experienced by urban dwellers over an average year (CI and ACS) and the warm season months (PCS). CI is gives results over a range from ultra-cold, extremely cold, very cold and cold, to keen, cool mild and warm. ACS attains high levels due to low and very low temperatures in winter and transition seasons, and cool nights in summer, mostly expressed at the northern part of RFE. Positive values of PCS occur in the warm season at the southern territories of the RFE. The results provide information on outdoor thermal conditions useful in urban planning in the region. The methodology is also useful for decision-making in tourism and recreation for selection of holiday time and destination choice.



[CS04-7] Urban climate (3)

    [ Wednesday 07 August 14:00-15:30 Room663 ]    Chair(s): Takehiko Mikami (Teikyo Univ.), Hiroyuki Kusaka (Univ. of Tsukuba)

1) Anthropogenic emissions in Northern Eurasia

    Nikolay Kasimov (Lomonosov Moscow State University), Viktoria Bituykova

    Environmental state in Russian cities and regions was not determined by environmental policy, and macroeconomic conditions and the factor of economic restructuring in the transition period. The research is spread over 1000 Russian cities, 70 in Kazakhstan, 3 in Моngolia. Cities and towns differ in the amount of their population, history, economic situation and ecological problems. Among them there are lots of small towns with no meteorological data. Comparison of impact sources with the emission density showed that in 60% of cities the industry remains a leading pollution source.
    Fuel balance is one more factor that creates the raised levels of pollution. Increased energy consumption of cities in Northern Eurasia determines the structure of the emission. The dominance of coal in industry and public utilities leads to the fact that among the cities in which the emission structure is dominated by particulate matter including suspended particles such as fine-dispersed particulate matter with a aerodynamics diameter less than 10 microns (PM10) and less than 2.5 microns in diameter (PM2.5) is dominated by thermal power centers and the steel industry, located in the eastern part of the country and in the European North
    Inertia type of pollution dynamics is typical for most part of small towns. It has created whole zones of the growing pollution of the periphery regions. On the contrary, in the old oil production centers of the Volga region, in small engineering, textile, food cities, pollution changed more quickly.


2) Microclimate variations of Urban Heat Island effects in Hong Kong

    Pui Yun Paulina Wong (The University of Hong Kong), Poh-Chin Lai, Melissa Hart

    Urbanization is known to cause significant changes in the properties of local climate. Studies have shown that urban areas, compared to rural areas with less artificial lands, registered higher local temperatures as a result of Urban Heat Island (UHI) effects. Hong Kong is one of the most densely populated cities in the world with high portion of population residing in urbanized areas, hot/humid weather and densely built high-rise buildings created severe local thermal discomforts.
    To fully characterize the spatial and temporal aspects of UHI effects in Hong Kong, my study deployed 25 small, durable and low-cost logging sensors at various sites to take temperature/humidity measurements for 17 consecutive days throughout within a typical urban area of Hong Kong. With the aid of GIS and GPS, the measurements were mapped against the urban structures and land use to enable ratings of environmental settings at various sites. The respective meteorological conditions in duration were correlated with the sensors measurements for further evaluations and validations.
    This empirical study not only established the feasibility of employing the small and inexpensive logging sensors for widespread deployment but also confirmed the existence and the extent of microclimate variations of UHI in Hong Kong. These empirical data formed the bases of spatio-temporal examination of UHI effects in urbanized areas of Hong Kong. The study and the methodology have also paved a sound foundation and provided essential frameworks for further studies of UHI effects on local human comfort and environmental health of Hong Kong.



[CS04-8] Urban climate (4)

    [ Wednesday 07 August 16:00-17:30 Room663 ]    Chair(s): Fumiaki Fujibe (Meteorological Research Institute, JMA), Hiroyuki Kusaka (Univ. of Tsukuba)

1) Uncertainties in Future Climate Projection in the Urban Areas

    Hiroyuki Kusaka (University of Tsukuba), Adachi A Sachiho, Asuka Suzuki-Parker, Keiko Fujita, Natsumi Iijima, Tomohiko Ihara, Toshichika Iizumi, Yoshiki Yamagata, Masayuki Hara

    Greater Tokyo is the world's largest metropolitan area, with a population of about 32.5 million. Tokyo is already notable for its exceedingly uncomfortable summers. As a result, heat stroke routinely hospitalizes people in Tokyo. Ambulances transported 4,245 people with heat stroke to the hospitals in Tokyo in 2010 summer. With such adverse effects from present summertime heat, how worse will the urban environment be in the future?
    
    Very recently, Kusaka et al. (2012) conducted downscaled urban climate projections in Tokyo metropolis in Japan using three GCMs (MIROC3.2-Medres, MRI-CGCM2.3.2, CSIRO-Mk3.0). The simulations used the WRF_UCM with 4-km horizontal resolution. As an ensemble average, August monthly average temperature is projected to increase by 2.3 K in 2070s compared to 2000s. This temperature anomaly is comparable to that of record-breaking hot summer of 2010. However, projected domain averaged August mean temperature ranges from 1.7-2.8 K by individual ensemble members.
    
    In the latest experiment, my research team have projected urban climate under the SRES A1B and RCP 4.5 Scenarios. Here, uncertainties in urban scenarios are evaluated by using three different urban planning scenarios; (i) status-quo city, (ii) compact city, and (iii) distributed city. The results indicate that the difference in scenario has an impact on the monthly mean temperature of 0.9 K. The above urban planning impact indicates that the magnitude of uncertainties in different urban scenario in the future is comparable to that of the uncertainties in different GCMs.


2) Modelling extremal wind speed events in big cities

    Pavel Konstantinov (Lomonosov Moscow State University, Faculty of Geography), Elisaveta Malinina, Timofey Samsonov, Vladimir Semin

    This paper is devoted to modelling extremal wind speed in the atmospheric boundary layer inside the urban canopy and parameterizations of key processes, determining meteorological conditions of this layer, including insolation of the different city surfaces and turbulent heat and moisture transfer within inhomogeneous urban landscape.
    It was organised detailed meteorological observation study inside a city canyon in different synoptical situations and LES modelling of urban canyonwind speed.
    Geoprocessing models of modelled city (Moscow-city) and custom tools were developed using Esri ArcGIS Desktop 10 for calculation of height statistic (average, standard deviation and geometric mean), sky view factor and H/W ratio, predominant street direction, percentage ratio between impervious, pervious surface and built-up area within each cell of regular grid covering the study site.


3) Urban Fluxes in a Mediterranean City and a Modeling Framework for Developing Low Carbon Planning Strategies

    Donatella Spano (University of Sassari; CMCC), Serena Marras, Costantino Sirca, Veronica Bellucco, Kyaw Tha Paw U, Richard Snyder, Matthias Falk, David Pyles, Arnaldo Cecchini, Ivan Blecic, Andrea Trunfio, Pierpaolo Duce

    Urban fluxes will be measured in a town located in the Sardinian region (Italy), an island in the Mediterranean basin. The project aims to develop a methodology framework, including inventory tools, direct measurements and models for identifying and planning future urban low carbon scenarios.
    The micrometeorological technique Eddy Covariance, as well as a meteorological station and radiometers, will be applied to monitor energy, water, and carbon fluxes the city center. A modeling framework will be used to study the impact of different urban planning strategies on carbon emission rates. The system is composed by (1) a land surface model (Advanced Canopy-Atmosphere-Soil Algorithm, ACASA) to simulate the urban metabolism components at local scale, (2) a Cellular Automata model to simulate the urban land-use dynamics in the near future, (3) a transportation model to estimate the variation of the transportation network load, and (4) the coupled model WRF-ACASA to simulate the urban metabolism components for the entire municipality.
    From the model outputs, we will evaluate the impact of changes in the land use demand and transportation network load in the town at different scales.
    A detailed description of project activities and methods will be reported here, as well as the temporal variation of urban fluxes measured by the Eddy Covariance tower, and the identification of the main carbon emission sources.


4) Mitigation effects of urban form change on summertime heat island phenomena in Tokyo metropolitan area

    Sachiho A Adachi (JAMSTEC), Fujio Kimura, Hiroyuki Kusaka, Yoshiki Yamagata, Hajime Seya, Kumiko Nakamichi, Toshinori Aoyagi

    This study investigates the impact of differences in urban form on thermal condition in Tokyo metropolitan area (TMA) in 2010 hot summer. The urban forms used for sensitivity analyses are estimated based on three urban scenarios with same population, namely current urban, distributed urban, and compact urban scenarios. Using these urban form scenarios, sensitivity experiments are conducted using the regional climate model coupled with urban canopy model. The nighttime surface air temperature averaged in TMA increases about 0.4℃ in distributed urban case and decreases about 0.1℃ in compact urban case. On the other hand, in central part of TMA, the population-weighted temperature change in nighttime is -0.01℃ in distributed urban case, while it is +0.06℃ in compact urban case. The number of people, who lives in the area with a nighttime surface air temperature higher than 27.8℃, increases about 40 thousand people in compact urban case from current urban, since population concentrates further in central part of TMA. This result shows the thermal condition experienced by people living in central area is uncomfortable in compact urban scenario. The heat island mitigation effect needs to be evaluated not only based on the area averaged temperature change, but also from the view point of substantial influence to citizens.



[CS04-9] Past, present and future changes of Asian and Australian monsoon and their impact on nature and society (1)

    [ Thursday 08 August 08:00-09:30 Room663 ]    Chair(s): Jun Matsumoto (Tokyo Metropolitan Univ.)

1) Economic fluctuation and its connection with temperature change during 220 B.C.-1910 A.D. in China

    Zhudeng Wei (Beijing Normal University)

    Abstract: Socio-economic impact of global warming is growing concern. But analysis on climatic long-term effects on social changes has been largely limited by the lack of long-term sequence of human activities. Here, the paper firstly extracts descriptions of past economic status and process from books on Chinese history and economic history written by contemporary historians or historical economists. Then the economic fluctuation is reconstructed with decadal resolution, covering from 220 B.C. to 1910 A.D., using a designed method of indexes layered and multi-scale data integration. It is found that fluctuated agrarian economy in Chinese history experienced several stages and shows a close coincidence with temperature change at the centennial scale. The relative higher economy level during 220s B.C.-140s A.D. and 570s A.D.-1310s A.D. accompanied a warm climate, while long-term economic downturn with extremely low average economic level during 150s A.D.-620s A.D. coincided with the persisted low temperature from 210s A.D.-570s A.D. This relationship was not as obvious during 1230s A.D.-1900s A.D. due to social and technological progress, indicating by a normal average economic level and less economic collapse under the cold climate of Little Ice Age. In the perspective of decades, rise and fall of economy responded to the change of relatively warm and cold phases evidently under certain time lagging. Overall, earlier agrarian economic fluctuation held a closer correlation with temperature change compared with that of after about 1200 A.D., which might be more easily moderated by other non-climatic factors.


2) Decadal- to centennial-scale fluctuations of the Asian winter monsoon recorded by Japan Sea coastal dunes

    Toru Tamura (AIST), Mark D Bateman, Yoshinori Kodama, Yu Saitoh, Kazuaki Watanabe, Naofumi Yamaguchi, Dan Matsumoto

    Geological record of Asian winter monsoon has not been explored much. We thus have little knowledge of long-term fluctuations in the Asian winter monsoon. The eastern coast of Japan Sea exhibits many well-developed dune fields, which have formed in relation to the NW winter monsoon that transports beach sand landwards. Reconstruction of past aeolian activity of these dune fields, based on their internal sedimentary structures and chronology, is thus expected to provide information on winter monsoon fluctuations. Ground-penetrating radar (GPR) and optically-stimulated luminescence (OSL) dating was applied to two transverse dune ridges on the Tottori coast, Japan Sea. The inner ridge is generally dominated by landward migration, while the outer ridge shows a clear seaward accretion during the 18th century AD. OSL dating showed no age reversal, concordant with radar stratigraphy. From this we were able to present the first detailed report of the decadal- to centennial-scale dune formation for the last 500 years in East Asia. The seaward migration during the 18th century reflects a decrease in wind capacity, which restricted sand transport nearshore, being related to decline in winter monsoon as revealed by Chinese historical documents. In contrast, two remarkable events of landward accretion occurred in AD 1580-1640 and around AD 1840, respectively, corresponding to periods of increased dust fall in China, which suggest enhanced winter monsoon. We thus propose that the Japan Sea dune fields are potentially effective sediment record of winter monsoon fluctuations in the region.


3) Interdecadal Variations of East Asian Monsoon and Climate Turning Signal over China

    Bing Zhou (Beijing Climate Centre)

    In 1901-2012, the annual mean surface air temperature in China showed a significant rising trend, which was accompanied with evident inter-decadal fluctuations. In the past 100 years, the precipitation in China showed no obvious increasing or decreasing trend, but there existed apparent inter-decadal variations. In last 50 years, the annual mean surface air temperature in China increased by 0.29°C per decade. In 1951-2012,the indices intensity of East Asian summer and winter monsoon showed significant inter-decadal variations. In 2012, EAWM and EASM indices were 2.66 and 1.20, respectively, the climate features with north wet and south dry trend in China, especially in summertime.


4) Decadal changes in the relationship between the Indian and Australian summer monsoons

    Nagaraju Chilukoti (CENTER FOR DEVELOPMENT OF ADVANCED COMPUTING), Ashok Karumuri, Alex Sen Gupta, Pai D. S.

    In this study, we investigate a long-term modulation in the relationship between Indian summer monsoon rainfall (ISMR) with the subsequent Australian summer monsoon rainfall (ASMR). The two monsoon rainfall time series are significantly correlated at 0.3 at the 99% confidence level. However, the relationship weakens during the 1932 to 1966 period, with the inter-monsoon correlation for the period falling below statistical significance. We find that this modulation is consistent with a breakdown of the typical ENSO influence on sea surface temperature in the northern region of Australia, during this period. In addition, a change in the relative influences of ENSO and Indian Ocean Basin-wide Warming (IOBW) sea surface temperature anomalies on the Australian summer monsoon rainfall is also apparent across different time periods.
    
    Key words: Tropospheric Biennial Oscillation, Indian summer monsoon, Australian summer monsoon, ENSO, ENSO Modoki, air - sea interaction, and IOBW.



[CS04-10] Past, present and future changes of Asian and Australian monsoon and their impact on nature and society (2)

    [ Thursday 08 August 10:00-11:30 Room663 ]    Chair(s): Chih-Wen Hung (National Taiwan Normal Univ.), Jun Matsumoto (Tokyo Metropolitan Univ.)

1) Asian summer monsoon variability based on the 116 years instrumental records

    Hisayuki Kubota (Japan Agency for Marine-Earth Science and Technology), Yu Kosaka, Shang-Ping Xie

    One of the dominant circulation patterns during Asian summer monsoon is the Pacific-Japan (PJ) pattern. The PJ pattern is characterized by anomalous circulation between tropical convections over the Philippine Sea and anticyclones over the midlatitude over the east of Japan. The long-term index for PJ pattern was defined by using station data and reproduced the PJ pattern from 1897 to 2012. PJ pattern influences rainfall and temperature over East Asia, tropical cyclone activity in Taiwan and Okinawa area, Yangtze River flow in China and rice yield in Japan. The 116-year time series of PJ pattern index demonstrates that we can divide into two periods when the variance of El Nino Southern Oscillation (ENSO) and PJ pattern index are high and the correlation between ENSO and PJ pattern index is dominant after 1970s and before 1910s, and low correlation between ENSO and PJ pattern index and small variances during 1920s to 1970s. The correlation of summer rainfall, temperature, and rice yield also follow the ENSO and PJ pattern relationship. The long-term index of PJ pattern demonstrates that climate variability associated with ENSO regime shift will be the dominant variability than the global warming. This research is supported by Green Network of Excellence (GRENE), Program for Risk Information on Climate Change (SOUSEI), and Grant-in-Aid for Scientific Research No.2024007, 21684028 and 23240122.


2) Trends and Variability of Rainfall with Particular Reference to Monsoon in Western Himalaya, India

    Suraj Mal (Shaheed Bhagat Singh College, University of Delhi), R.B. Singh

    Present paper analyses the spatial patterns of trends and variability of rainfall with particular reference to monsoon in Nanda Devi Biosphere Reserve (NDBR) of Western Himalaya, India. The rainfall statistics (1957 to 2005) for two meteorological stations i.e. Joshimath (western NDBR) and Munsyari (eastern NDBR) were examined. The trend and variability were calculated using simple linear regression and co-efficient of variation methods respectively. Study reveals that Joshimath and Munsyari receive average annual rainfall of 1105.4 and 2536.1 mm respectively. The annual rainfall has decreased (8.51 mm a-1) in Joshimath, whereas an increase of 4.88 mm a1 was noticed in Munsyari during 1957 to 2005. The monsoon rainfall was observed to decrease (1.52 mm a-1) in Joshimath and increase (0.78 mm a1) in Munsyari. Most of the rainfall occurs through summer monsoon during July to September. Substantial decline of monsoon rainfall in Joshimath and increase in Munsyari have contributed to similar trends of annual rainfall. The winter rainfall declined by 0.63 and 0.43 mm a-1 in Joshimath and Munsyari respectively. The post-monsoon rainfall shows decline in both the areas, while pre-monsoon rainfall shows increase. The variability of monsoon rainfall is about 23 and 10 percent in Joshimath and Munsyari respectively. The winter rainfall is more variable in Joshimath (58 percent) than Munsyari (43 percent). Similarly, the post-monsoon rainfall is more variable in Joshimath (100 percent) than Munsyari (89 percent). On the contrary, the pre-monsoon rainfall is more variable in Munsyari (53 percent) than Joshimath (41 percent).


3) Impact of Changing Monsoonal Pattern on Drylands of India: A Case of Nagaur District

    Ajay Kumar (University of Delhi), R.B. Singh

    The dry regions are completely dependent on rainfall as there is no other source of water. The changing climate has led to decrease in monsoonal precipitation over dry regions of India thereby threatening the source of livelihood in the region. Though the society is well adapted to scarcity of water but with high variation in monsoonal pattern, high rate of population growth and low literacy have made people more vulnerable. The study area is covered with sand dunes and inter-dunal sandy plains. Climatically, this zone is slightly wetter as compared to the western most arid zone. Monsoonal rainfall occurs in the region during the months of July-September. The analysis of last 60 year monsoonal precipitation shows that it decreased at rate of 5.47 mm per year with highest reduction in the month of July, whereas for month of September it has increased by 0.5 mm per year. The value of coefficient of variation of monsoonal rainfall over last 60 years is 57.7 per cent. The area under rabi crops has decreased from 0.30 million hectares to 0.28 million hectares in last one decade. Similarly the kharif area has decreased from 1.32 million hectare to 1.11 million hectare. Area under crops like pulses and cotton has reduced to zero. The decrease in production and land holding size has also forced people to migrate outside the villages to opt for non-agricultural occupations. Climate change and its impact are complex phenomena that require a multidisciplinary approach to address them.



[CS04-11] Past, present and future changes of Asian and Australian monsoon and their impact on nature and society (3)

    [ Thursday 08 August 14:00-15:30 Room663 ]    Chair(s): Hisayuki Kubota (Japan Agency for Marine-Earth Science and Technology), Jun Matsumoto (Tokyo Metropolitan Univ.)

1) Impact of the Madden Julian Oscillation on the East Asian Winter Monsoon Rainfalls Observed in Taiwan

    Chih-Wen Hung (National Taiwan Normal University), Ho-Jiunn Lin

    It is known that the Madden-Julian oscillation (MJO) has impact on the tropical to subtropical climate over the Asian-Australian monsoon region. This study reveals that the MJO can have impacts on the East Asian Winter Monsoon (EAWM) rainfalls. The most significant impact from the MJO on it is during the phases 3 or 7 which results in a relatively wet or dry EAWM over Taiwan and the southeastern China, respectively. When the major convection of the MJO moves to the western Indian Ocean region (phase 3), it induces a subsidence over the Maritime Continent. Due to the island bifurcation effect, the subsidence regions are separated into the northern and southern branches. The southern branch appears near the SPCZ region, while the northern branch is located over the South China Sea to the Philippine Sea area. The northern branch of the subsidence tends to induce a local Hadley circulation which transport the moisture northward to Taiwan and the southeastern China where the fronts frequently moving through. As a consequence, more winter monsoon rainfalls in this period are observed. In contrast, during the phase 7 of the MJO, the major subsidence of it moves to the western Indian Ocean region, an opposite situation occurs. Because a strong MJO signal, which tends to occur concurrently with the impact of the EAWM rainfalls, a close monitoring of the MJO can be informative for the weather forecasters in these regions to project the possible wet or dry condition during the EAWM season.


2) Strongly Negative Correlation between Monthly Mean Temperatures in April and August since 1998 in Northern Japan

    Hiromitsu Kanno (NARO Tohoku Agricultural Research Center)

    Monthly mean temperatures for April and August have been strongly and negatively correlated from 1998 to 2011 in northern Japan. When monthly mean temperatures in April were either significantly below or significantly above normal, then temperatures in the following August of the same year had the opposite anomalies. We attribute this seasonal behavior of temperatures to a displacement of the core of upper-level westerly winds. When monthly mean temperature was higher than normal in August, the subtropical jet stream had been strengthened in April and a continental polar (cP) air mass affected northern Japan in April. In August of that year, if a jet located north of Japan moved further north, Japan was covered by a maritime tropical (mT) air mass, and a maritime polar (mP) air mass rarely affected summer weather in northern Japan. In the opposite case, when temperatures were cool in August and warm in April, we inferred that the jet had been weak and the cP air mass did not move south and affect northern Japan in April. An empirical orthogonal function (EOF) analysis of the 200 hPa height field revealed that two principal component modes were associated with the anomalous temperatures in these two months. On the basis of these results, we identify these modes as the cause of upper level westerly wind variations on the northern hemispheric scale. Based on a singular value decomposition (SVD) analysis, the year 1998 marked one of the several pronounced climatic shifts of the last century.



[CS04-12] Past, present and future changes of Asian and Australian monsoon and their impact on nature and society (4)

    [ Thursday 08 August 16:00-17:30 Room663 ]    Chair(s): Hiromitsu Kanno (NARO Tohoku Agricultural Research Center), Jun Matsumoto (Tokyo Metropolitan Univ.)

1) Long-term Trends and Variability of Rainfall Extremes in the Philippines and their Relationship with ENSO and Monsoon

    Jun Matsumoto (Tokyo Metropolitan University), Marcelino Q. Villafuerte Ⅱ, Ikumi Akasaka, Hisayuki Kubota, Hiroshi Takahashi

    The Philippines has experienced recent extreme rainfall events that caused damage to properties and even resulted to disasters. These lead to a question whether those events are related to human induced climate change or part of natural climate variability. This study, in search for explaining such events, has investigated trends in the rainfall extremes in the Philippines during boreal summer (JAS) and fall (OND) from 1951 to 2010. Rainfall extremes are described using seven precipitation indices and utilizing observed daily rainfall data from 35 meteorological stations. Trend analyses show that the country's precipitation tends toward wetter (drier) condition as indicated by significant increasing (decreasing) trend in the maximum consecutive 5-day rainfall totals and significant decreasing (increasing) trend in the longest dry spell duration during JAS (OND). Interannual variability in the rainfall extremes during OND (JAS) is strongly (weakly) governed by the El Nino Southern Oscillation (ENSO) as suggested by high (low) correlations between the Nino 3.4 index and precipitation indices at most stations. It is important to note that spatial incoherency exists in the observed trends; thus, factors affecting precipitation extremes, such as the strong influence of ENSO during OND but a non-dominant effect during JAS, may differ from one station to another in the country. On the other hand, wet indices are positively correlated with the WNP summer monsoon index (WNPMI) during JAS. This research is supported by the Green Network of Excellence, Grant-in-Aid for Scientific Research No. 23240122, and “Asian Human Resources Fund” from the Tokyo Metropolitan Government.


2) MJO controls on heavy precipitation events in central Vietnam during boreal autumn

    Nobuhiko Endo (Japan Agency for Marine-Earth Science and Technology), Jun Matsumoto

    Rainy season in central Vietnam is from late September to early December. Heavy rainfall events were mostly occurred during the rainy season. VPREX2010 was conducted in central Vietnam during autumn of 2010, and five heavy rainfall events were observed. Wu et al. (2012) analyzed a heavy rainfall event, and pointed out that interaction between an westward moving tropical depression from the western North Pacific to the South China Sea and convective active region of MJO approaching the Maritime Continent (MC) have influence to produce the heavy rainfall event. In this study we investigated impact of MJO on heavy rainfall events in central Vietnam using 26-years long surface daily rainfall data.
    We defined “heavy rainfall over broad area (HRBA)” as the day when heavy rainfall was observed at more than 15 stations. RMM (Wheeler & Hendon, 2004) was utilized for creating statistics of rainfall for each MJO phase. We found that 69% of HRBA events are concentrated in Phase 4 to 6, those phase correspondents to convective center appearing in the MC. Composite map of rainfall anomaly in Vietnam based on APHROTIDE rainfall data showed that positive rainfall anomaly was appeared in central and southern part of Vietnam when MJO existed around the MC. These results suggest that convection center of MJO around the MC plays important role for preparing regional scale circulation during heavy rainfall events in central Vietnam, at least in a statistical sense.


3) Diurnal cycle of stable isotopes precipitation with land-sea breeze over Jakarta, Indoensia

    Masahiro Tanoue (Kumamoto University), Kimpei Ichiyanagi, Jun Shimada, Shuichi Mori, Jun-Ichi Hamada, Miki Hattori, Peiming Wu, Manabu D Yamanaka, Fadli Syamsudin, Urip Haryoko

    To reveal diurnal cycle of stable precipitation isotopes, six hourly precipitation samples were collected at three stations (Bogor, Pondok Betung and Pramuka) around Jakarta, Indonesia, from 16 January to 15 February 2010. In that period, the Madden Julian Oscillation was not affected for the diurnal cycle of stable precipitation isotopes. Latitude - height cross section of meridional wind showed sea breeze (northerly wind) below 3km in height, and there were precipitation zone over inland area (Bogor) at 13LT by radar observation. At 19LT, land breeze (southerly wind) was appeared over inland area, precipitation zone was moved to coastal area (Pondok Betung) with the frontal convergence. The frontal convergence zone was moved to offshore area (Pramuka) at 01LT. Land breeze and zone were back to inland area, sea breeze was gradually enhanced on offshore area at 07LT. Oxygen-18 in precipitation at inland area was high (-5.21 permil) at 13LT at the beginning of precipitation, then decreasing (-8.37 permil) until 01LT at the end of precipitation. Afterword, Oxygen-18 in precipitation was recovered (-5.36 permil) at 13 LT since high oxygen-18 in water vapor evaporating from sea surface was supplied by the see breeze. Similar diurnal cycle of stable precipitation isotopes was recognized costal and offshore area. However, offshore area was not recovered oxygen-18 in precipitation since low oxygen-18 in water vapor evapotranspirating from land surface was supplied by the land breeze. Therefore, it is considered that diurnal cycle of oxygen-18 in precipitation was corresponding to land-sea breeze and evapotranspiration.



[CS05-1] Coasts (1) learning from the past, planning for the future

    [ Thursday 08 August 08:00-09:30 Room672 ]    Chair(s): Masatomo Umitsu (Nara Univ.), Yongqiang Zong (Univ. of Hong Kong)

1) Sedimentary characteristics of Late Pleistocene to Holocene fan-delta deposits of the Tenryu River, central Japan

    Kazuaki Hori (Nagoya University)

    The Japanese Islands located in humid and tectonically active zone have large amount of sediment production and steep terrain because of intense uplift and frequent heavy rains. Additionally, riverbed gradient of the lower reaches in Japanese rivers is larger than that of continental rivers. As a result, fan delta and/or coarse-grained deltas occur at several rivers (e.g, Kurobe, Fuji, Abe, Ooi, and Tenryu rivers), which originate from the Japan Alps and flow into the narrow continental shelf. Sediment cores were obtained from the fan delta at the lower reaches of the Tenryu River. Sedimentary facies, radiocarbon dates, and sediment properties of the cores were analyzed for clarifying stratigraphy and sedimentary environments of the delta. Core sediments are divided into three depositional units, Units 1 to 3, in ascending order. Unit 1 consists of alternation of pebble to pebbly sand, which is interpreted as fluvial sediments. Unit 2 is characterized by organic-rich, sand-mud alternation. Electric conductivity suggests that the unit was formed under marine influence. Unit 3 is composed of clast-supported gravels underlain by mud. Radiocarbon dates show that Units 1 and 2 were formed before 9600 cal yr BP, 9600 to 7100 cal yr BP, respectively. Unit 3 was accumulated after about 7100 cal yr BP. Large accumulation rates, approximately 12 m/kyr, occurred between about 11000 and 8000 cal BP. After about 8000 cal BP, it decreases considerably.


2) Carbon storage and its change in the Kiso River delta during the Holocene

    Kodai Hasada (Nagoya University), Kazuaki Hori

    Deltas are important sinks of sediments and carbon in coastal and fluvial systems. We calculated sediment and carbon storage of the Kiso River delta (Nobi Plain) for successive 1000-year time slices by analyzing existing borehole columns and radiocarbon ages, reconstructing the three-dimensional stratigraphic architecture and measuring organic carbon content of borehole core sediments. The deltaic deposits were divided into three layers: middle mud (MM), upper sand (US), and top mud (TM) in ascending order. Organic carbon content of these layers was approximately 0.7 to 0.9%. Total sediment and carbon storage in the delta area of only 822.8 km2 was estimated at 22892 Tg and 190 Tg, respectively. The stored carbon ratio of each layer to the total stored carbon was calculated to be 40.5% for MM, 42.9% for US and 16.7% for TM. The rate of carbon storage during the last 6000 years has increased especially after 1000 cal BP. Additionally, the increase was found notably at TM. This is probably due to increase in sediment supply to the delta caused by human impact on the catchment area and expansion of delta plain accompanied with delta progradation. The averaged carbon storage rate, 28.8 g m-2 yr-1, is comparable to the rates obtained from the other Holocene depositional systems, such as the floodplain of the Rhine catchment, the Yahagi River delta and the semi-closed coastal lagoon Lake Nakaumi.


3) Effects of sea-level rise to mangrove habitat are already emerging: From the long-term monitoring in Pohnpei Island, Micronesia

    Kiyoshi Fujimoto (Nanzan University), Shingo Taniguchi, Kenji Ono, Yasumasa Hirata, Ryuichi Tabuchi, Saimon Lihpai

    We have monitored the dynamics of mangrove habitats and their vegetation in Pohnpei Island, Micronesia, since 1994 using the permanent plots set up in the main mangrove communities. This presentation will report the dynamics of mangrove habitat obtained from the two permanent plots of them, 50 m wide and 200 m long plot referred to as PE1 set up in a typical community of estuary type habitat and 30 m wide and 60 m long plot referred to as PE2 set up in a relatively higher elevation area next to PE1 facing the shoreline. Our precise leveling detected the remarkable surface erosion of 30 to 50 cm in the seaward part between 1994 and 2012 and apparent aggradation of about 30 cm in the creek between 1994 and 2011 for PE1 and the pronounced coastal erosion for PE2, where a lot of mangrove trees already fell down and disappeared. The long-term sea-level trend in Pohnpei was estimated to be +1.8 mm yr-1 between 1974 and 2004, while short-term one was observed to be +16.9 mm yr-1 between 2002 and 2010 (Bureau of Meteorology, Australian Government, 2010). The observed dynamics of the mangrove habitat in Pohnpei is possibly caused by the rapid sea-level rise. The estuary type habitat is likely to be first affected by the sea-level rise because of relatively lower tree density of Rhizophora spp., which is the only genus with the ability to create mangrove peat, and facing the steep shoreline, which is vulnerable environment to wave action.


4) Coastal responses to sea-level and monsoon climate change in the past 10,000 years

    Yongqiang Zong (University of Hong Kong), Kaman Mok, Mongsin Wu, Wyss Yim

    Sea-level change and monsoon climate variability have been the two major driving mechanisms for coastal change in stable middle and low latitudes. Coastal morphological development has been a result of the interactions between these two forces and the palaeo-landscape. This study analyses sedimentary records from the Pearl River estuary. Results indicate four stages of coastal change. Stage I (prior to c. 10,000 years ago), the mouth region of the Pearl River estuary appeared as a broad floor at c. -25 m surrounded by uplands. The estuarine floor was filled with older marine sediments of c. 20 m thick incised by small/narrow river channels down to c. -40 m. Stage II (from 10,000 to 9000 years ago), sea level rose from c. -40 m to -25 m, and the sea inundated the incised valleys. This process coincided with strong monsoon-driven freshwater/sediment discharge, and resulted in rapid sedimentation within those incised valleys. Sedimentation rate in this period is as high as c. 10 mm/a. Stage III (from 9000 to 7000 years ago), sea level continued to rise and reached the present height by the end of this stage. The sea flooded the broad estuarine floor, which forced river mouths retreated landwards. The mouth region became a shallow marine environment. Stage IV (the last 7000 years), sea level stabilised, and monsoon-driven discharge was weakened gradually. As rivers advanced, the mouth region saw continuous sedimentary accretion. Within this sediment section, several short-term changes in monsoonal strength were recorded.



[CS05-2] Coasts (2) learning from the past, planning for the future

    [ Thursday 08 August 10:00-11:30 Room672 ]    Chair(s): Masatomo Umitsu (Nara Univ.), Yongqiang Zong (Univ. of Hong Kong)

1) Development of spits and dune ridges in the Anmyeon Island, Korea, during the Holocene

    Young Ho Shin (Seoul National University), Keun Bae Yu, Hoshang Rhew

    We reconstructed developments of spits and coastal dune ridges around Byungsuran dune field, Anmyeon Island, in the west coast of Korea, according to Holocene sea level changes. In back area of coastal dune, we set a NNW-SSE transect from hinterland to tidal inlet. We obtained three sediment cores and 13 OSL age data. Although all sediment cores consisted of tidal flat, beach, and dune sedimentary units in turn, each unit showed different depths and sedimentary times. These sedimentary evidences indicated that coastal geomorphic changes around Byungsuran dune field have affected by Holocene sea level change. From the Last Glacial Maximum to 7 Ka, a lot of sediment had input and deposited as tidal flat sediment to the former drowned valley around Byungsuran caused by rapid sea level rise. When sea level arose to present level or high stand during mid Holocene (6.5 Ka ~ 4.8 Ka), the paleo-spit had developed around BB2 and beach environments were prevailed. After the spit development, beach environment had converted to dune environment around BB3 and BB2 from 3 Ka to 2 Ka. After 2 Ka, several dune ridges had episodically developed in 1.5 Ka, 1.1 Ka, and 0.8 Ka (Yu et al., 2009), affected by fluctuated phases of sea level during the late Holocene.


2) Episodic coastal dune development in the Taean Peninsula and Anmyeon Island, Korea, during the mid to late Holocene

    Keun Bae Yu (Seoul National University), George A. Brook, Young Ho Shin, Hosang Rhew, Fong Brook, Sung Hwan Kim

    The episodic nature of coastal dune development has been widely identified in many dune areas over the world. What causes such episodicity is still hotly debated. Sea-level change, climatic change and human impact have widely been reported as the main forcings, though there is no agreement yet upon which factors are critical. This research provides some evidence that sea-level fluctuation and climatic factors controlled the episodic dune building together, based upon optically stimulated luminescence (OSL) dune ages on the west coast of Korea. The newly obtained and published OSL dune ages on the west coast of the Taean Peninsula and Anmyeon Island, Korea, indicate the six main periods of dune building: 5.5, 4.3, 1.5, 1.3, 1.1 and 0.7 ka. They correlate with evidence of colder climate in East Asia that imply stronger dune-forming winds during the winter under the influence of a more intense Siberian High. They also correlate with periods of higher sea level over the present one with fluctuations. Thus, episodic dune activity along the west coast of the Korean Peninsula during the mid to late Holocene appears to be linked to stronger winter winds capable of moving sand from the beach to the foredune ridges with short-term fluctuations during the high stands.


3) High-resolution chronology of a prograded deltaic coast for characterizing and predicting decadal to centennial changes

    Toru Tamura (AIST), Yoshiki Saito, Mark D Bateman, V. Lap Nguyen, T. K. Oanh Ta, Dan Matsumoto

    Deltaic coasts have prograded over the last several millennia after the culmination of the postglacial sea-level rise to form coastal lowlands, where nowadays c. 25% of the world’s population lives. Knowing past deltaic shoreline changes, especially on decadal- to centennial-scale, is essential for understanding the fate of delta in the coming decades and centuries. We tested the effectiveness of quartz optically-stimulated luminescence (OSL) dating of beach ridges to constrain shoreline changes of the Mekong River delta, southern Vietnam. Forty-seven OSL ages were analysed from the Tra Vinh delta plain, and the beach ridge sediments were found to have excellent luminescence properties resulting in low age uncertainties of c. 5 %. The OSL chronology agrees well with shoreline changes over recent decades and with radiocarbon ages of tidal flat sediment, clearly illustrating the coastal progradation over the last 3500 years. The OSL ages show no reversal and document decadal- to centennial-scale shoreline migration especially in the last 1500 years. The chronology also suggests major changes in shoreline orientation at the beginning of the Little Ice Age, related to the strengthening of the winter monsoon, and a constant progradation rate over the last 1500 years. A decrease in sand supply to the coast in the last few decades due to river dam construction and fluvial sand dredging is inferred, possibly affecting the behaviour of the modern and future shorelines, which can be compared with the less human-influenced past changes reconstructed in this study.



[CS05-3] Coasts (3) learning from the past, planning for the future

    [ Thursday 08 August 14:00-15:30 Room672 ]    Chair(s): Masatomo Umitsu (Nara Univ.), Yongqiang Zong (Univ. of Hong Kong)

1) Geological study on tsunami deposits in the Pacific coast of Aomori, northern Japan

    Koichiro Tanigawa (Geological Survey of Japan, AIST), Yuki Sawai, Masanobu Shishikura, Osamu Fujiwara, Yuichi Namegaya

    To assess the long-term earthquake history, we studied paleotsunami deposits in the Pacific coast of Aomori Prefecture. The study area is facing to northern edge of the Japan Trench, where the 2011 Tohoku earthquake raised concerns about future large earthquake (Simons et al., 2011). Tsunami deposit of the 2011 Tohoku earthquake was distributed on a few hundred meters inland in the south of Aomori and not reached study sites. We found unusual sand sheets interbedded with fluvial mud and peat, beneath coastal lowlands in Higashidori, Rokkasho and Misawa. Based on the sedimentary structure and the diatom assemblages of sand sheets, some of them are probably tsunami deposits.
     In Higashidori site, three of the sand sheets are 3-10 cm thick, quartz-rich and wide-spread. They show normal grading and sharp contacts with underling peat. These features are common in paleotsunami deposits (e.g. Dawson and Stewart, 2007; Sawai et al., 2009). The sand sheets contain brackish-marine as well as freshwater diatoms, such as Fragilariaceae spp. (e.g. Staurosira spp. and Staurosirella spp.). The diatom assemblages indicate that they were transported from seashore. Plant macrofossils just below the uppermost sand sheet were dated to 1460-1650 AD and 1480-1650 AD. The other two deeper sand sheets deposited around 5,000 and 5,300 cal BP.


2) Shore-parallel distribution of the tsunami deposits by 2011 Tohoku-oki tsunami in Ishinomaki Coastal Plain

    Tomoya Abe (Nagoya University), Daisuke Sugawara

    Studies of tsunami deposits can provide useful information on past tsunamis to aid in the assessment of tsunami risk. A lot of the researches have been conducted immediately after recent tsunamis in few decades, and most of them have been focused on shore-perpendicular distribution of tsunami deposits. However, it is known that the variations of deposit-thickness can be associated with amount of the source, micro landform, and flow characteristics. Shore-parallel distribution of the deposits based on horizontal variations in thickness is to provide new insights into tsunami sedimentation.
    We observed thickness, grain size and sedimentary structures of the tsunami deposits at 31 pits along 4 transects (1.3 and 1.8 km from the coastline) in Ishinomaki Coastal Plain, where the 2011 Tohoku-oki tsunami attacked with the flow heights of around 10 m. The tsunami caused erosion of coastal area and supplied sufficient sediments to deposit inland a few kilometers-wide blanket of the sand with a maximum thickness of 28 cm. The volume of the tsunami sand deposited on two transects in the east was estimated to be approximately 2.5 times greater than that in the west. It is possible that the erosion near the Jou River, which is located in the easternmost of the survey area, supplied a large amount of sediments toward the west. The result suggests that onshore local source of sediments may have the potential to alter the distribution pattern of tsunami deposits from their typical form.


3) Tsunami Flow and Its Characteristics on the Coastal Plains of Tohoku Region, Japan

    Masatomo Umitsu (Nara University)

    Tsunami flows on the plains caused by the 2011 Giant Earthquake off the east coast of Tohoku region were reconstructed using the aerial photos taken just after the disaster, and relationship between the flow and the geo-environment of the plains was studied. There are two types of coastal plains on the Tohoku Pacific coast; large and broad coastal plains and small and narrow alluvial lowland with a pocket beach. Almost the whole area of the small lowlands was inundated over 5-10 m deep and tsunami flows destroyed most buildings on the lowlands. The Sendai and the Ishinomaki plains in Miyagi Prefecture are large and broad coastal plains characterized as the strand plain with several rows of beach ridges. Based on the mapping on aerial photos, the run-up tsunami flows invaded into the plains about 4-5 km from the coast and their direction was almost orthogonal to the coastline. Concentration, diversion and confluence of the flows can be seen according to the characteristics of topography, distribution of buildings and vegetation on the plains. The back wash flows in the southern part of the Sendai plain mainly flew in orthogonal direction to the coast. However their directions in the central and northern parts of the plain were various. The characteristics of the back wash flow were controlled by the ground elevation, topography, building on the plains. Strong backwash flow eroded the mouth of small rivers and formed wedge-shaped channel mouths In the southern part of the Sendai Plain.


4) Effects of tsunami wave erosion on natural landscapes: Examples from the 2011 Tohoku-oki Tsunami

    Goro Komatsu (Universita' d'Annunzio), Kazuhisa Goto, Victor R. Baker, Takashi Oguchi, Yuichi S. Hayakawa, Hitoshi Saito, Jon D. Pelletier, Luke Mcguire, Yasutaka Iijima

    The 2011 Tohoku-oki Tsunami affected approximately 600 km of the northeastern coast of the Japanese Honshu Island, leaving traces of destruction on man-made buildings and depositing mud- to boulder-sized sediment. Our field observations at Aneyoshi along the Sanriku “ria” coast, where a maximum run-up height of 39.2 meters was recorded, add to the limited number of studies of tsunami wave effects on natural landscapes. We found evidence for (1) tsunami wave erosion that exposed bare rock by stripping basal hillslopes of regolith and vegetation, including trees, (2) transport and deposition of coarse gravel, and (3) scour-hole generation around a large boulder and a large sea wall fragment. Computer simulations indicate that the highest first wave reaching the Aneyoshi coast may have been about 20 m high, that the combined duration of the first three waves was tens of minutes to one hour, and that the maximum wave velocity on land reached over 10 m/s and probably exceeded 20 m/s in the lower, wide reach of the Aneyoshi valley. We hypothesize that hillsides along the Sanriku Coast have been stripped by erosion of numerous ancient tsunami events recurring at century or even decadal scales, since at least the mid-Holocene. The cumulative effects of tsunami erosion on the hillslopes and their long-term evolution are a potential topic of future studies.



[CS05-4] Coasts (4) learning from the past, planning for the future

    [ Thursday 08 August 16:00-17:30 Room672 ]    Chair(s): Masatomo Umitsu (Nara Univ.), Yongqiang Zong (Univ. of Hong Kong)

1) Damages, source model and fragility function of the 1771 Meiwa Tsunami, southern Ryukyu Islands, Japan

    Kazuhisa Goto (Tohoku University), Keitaro Miyazawa, Fumihiko Imamura, Nagao Shimabukuro, Ayano Shimabukuro, Kunimasa Miyagi, Yuzuru Masaki, Anawat Suppasri

    The 1771 Meiwa Tsunami devastated southern Ryukyu Islands, Japan and caused approx. 12,000 death tolls. This event is one of the oldest events in the world that provide us rare opportunity to develop a tsunami fragility function for human damages, because there are detail documentations of the death tolls and damaged/undamaged structures in each village that allow us to estimate the inundation area and run-up heights. This study conducted field survey and numerical modeling to estimate the damages, source model, and fragility function of the 1771 Meiwa Tsunami. Our study revealed that the tsunami damages are concentrated at the southeast coast of Ishigaki Island where the maximum run-up is estimated to be ~30 m, whereas the run-up heights at the northwestern part are less than ~3 m. There is a good correlation between the run-up heights and death tolls except for one village in Tarama Island. The fault plus submarine landslide model explains well the overall trend of the run-up heights. The fragility function developed in this study showed that the death tolls by this event were higher than those developed for the recent events after 1896 Meiji-Sanriku tsunami, probably because the tsunami was unpredictably large for the local peoples and/or modern tsunami protections or warning system were not implemented at that time.


2) Submerged karst discovered in the southern Ryukyu Islands: coastal sea-floor geomorphology by multibeam bathymetric survey

    Hironobu Kan (Okayama University), Kensaku Urata, Masayuki Nagao, Nobuyuki Hori, Tomoya Ohashi, Yosuke Nakashima, Kazuhisa Goto, Yusuke Yokoyama, Atsushi Suzuki

    The coastal sea-floor shallower than -130 m undergoes subaerial erosion and sedimentation repeated alternately during glacial and interglacial periods. The studies interpreted coastal sea-floor geomorphology are limited in number due to the lack of topographic information. We conducted a broadband multibeam survey at the central 1.85 x 2.7 km area of Nagura Bay, Ishigaki Island in the southern Ryukyu Islands, Japan. The minimum/maximum depth was 1.6/58.5m.
     The observed submarine topography which is visualized at a lateral grid resolution of 1m showed the numerous closed contours which is recognized as karst, the topography formed by groundwater flow. The following five karst types were recognized in the surveyed area: 1) doline karst, 2) compound doline (uvala) or mega-doline, 3) cockpit karst, 4) polygonal karst, 5) fluviokarst. These types may reflect the difference of karstification process and stage.
     SCUBA diving observations suggested the Holocene reef and reef sediments are accumulated on the submerged karst to form “cover karst” in Nagura Bay. The small-scale karst landform such as karren may buried during the reef sedimentation. By comparing with the sounding results observed from other reef areas around Ishigaki Island, the shape and size of topographic relief was different between submerged karst and coral reef.


3) Coastal Conservation Policies and Integrated Coastal Zone Management (ICZM) in Indonesia

    Nandi Nandi (UPI/University Leipzig), Jurgen Heinrich

    Coastal area is a very potential for a variety of development options. The increase of development activities in coastal areas and pressures will be able to threaten the existence and sustainability of ecosystems and coastal resources, marine and small islands. Therefore, the policy on coastal conservation is required. The issue on coastal conservation is a basic to realize the management of coastal area in an integrated way, known as the integrated coastal zone management concept (ICZM).
    This research analyses of coastal conservation policy and ICZM in Indonesia focusing on implementation of policy and regulations. The objectives are to get an insight on the coastal conservation policies implemented in Indonesia. This research uses analytical descriptions as methodology. The findings demonstrate that Indonesia has objectives for coastal management is to achieve sustainable development.
    However, after discussion major elements on coastal conservation policy and ICZM-like coastal zone condition and other elements of coastal conservation policy, it turns out that the condition of implementation for Indonesia is quite difficult. The elements in coastal conservation policy toward ICZM is explained by examining: (1) the political will of government on environment issues in Indonesia; (2) the policies and regulations to support ICZM implemented (3) the institutional capacity context in managing the coastal resources; and (4) the attitudes of the public participation to coastal management.
    
    Keywords: Coastal Conservation, Coastal Management, ICZM, Indonesia



[CS06-1] Resilience and sustainability assessment in Cold regions Environment (1)

    [ Thursday 08 August 08:00-09:30 Room673 ]    Chair(s): Nancy Doubleday (McMaster Univ.), Tatiana Kuzminichna Vlasova (Russian Academy of Science)

1) Lessons for Resilience: Beyond International Polar Year

    Nancy Doubleday (McMaster University)

    Post-International Polar Year, with many data sets posted and papers published, we are still analysing the broader implications of what we have learned from international collaboration and global change. In particular, we are learning what the deeper meanings contained in those lessons for our increasingly globalized world, may be in the longer term of Future Earth.
    
    In our session, we will explore the policy-relevance and greater importance of polar geographies, from the specifics of original and innovative research on change in social-cultural-environmental systems, from physical science to human interaction. The present paper offers a model for integration of our multivalent data sources drawn from resilience science and strategic options for social response to environmental change.
    
    It also revisits and repositions geography as the mother discipline for earth systems thinking in a global context of turbulence and pressing needs for justice, equity and sustainability, based on these findings. Sometimes considered the originator of Geography as an ancient and also contemporary discipline, Strabo pointed us to the significance of understanding physical, regional and dynamic geographies of change as synergistic and interactive. We continue this dynamic development under the umbrella of resilience models for social-cultural-ecological change and policy relevance.
    
    Key words: International Polar Year, IPY, resilience, systems change


2) Local and traditional knowledge for observations and assessment of Arctic socio-ecological systems resilience

    Tatiana Kuzminichna Vlasova (Russian Academy of Science), Sergey Gennadievich Volkov

    Resilience refers to the capacity of linked social-ecological system (SESs) to both cope with disturbance and respond or reorganize in such as way as to maintain its essential structure, function, and identity, whilst also maintaining the capacity for adaptation, learning and transformation. Therefore resilience is the ability to respond to shocks and at the same time preserve the system’s main functions, important for quality of life conditions and human capital improvement. SESs resilience assessment needs permanent socially-oriented observations (SOO). Methodology of SOO for the Cold region environments was developed during the IPY 2007/2008 in the Institute of Geography RAS. It is based on local and traditional knowledge involvement which is important for the interlinked social and ecological resilience assessment. SOO help to identify the main issues and targets for life quality conditions and human capital improvement and thus to distinguish the most important changes and trends for resilience assessment. According to the experience of SOO implementation, such key issues and thresholds of concern could be identified in the state of human capital and quality of life conditions: depopulation, increasing unemployment, aging, declining physical and mental health, quality of education, loss of traditional knowledge, marginalization, biodiversity loss and issues in traditional economics due to climate changes, etc. The SOO methodology may help to delineate main thresholds arising within SESs for their resilience assessment at local, regional and pan-Arctic scales and the need for transformation in response to climate change. Case studies based on SOO experience in the Russian North are presented.


3) Sustaining landscapes of Yenisei Taiga region under conditions of Сlimate Сhange

    Aleksey Anatolyevich Medvedkov (Lomonosov Moscow State University)

    In the Middle Yenisei region the modern climate warming has been recorded since the early 80's of the XX century. The average annual temperature has increased by 1-2 °C or more, compared with the previous cooling. The winter has became warmer, the spring and autumn appeared to be longer than in the 1950-1970's period. Were years with a shorter summer as well.
    Climate changes lead to some negative consequences for local tribes: the decrease in productivity of natural system, the decrease in berries, pine nut and mushrooms harvest (the outcome of short and strong spring frosts in the period of flowering and dry heat), the decrease in sable population and other fur-bearing animals’ populations as a result of nutritive base reduction, the increase in the number of forest fires and their area as a result of watering lack in landscapes and the expansion of the swamped permafrost area (the level of frozen subsoil in some regions lowered at 1-2 meters deep).
    These changes were discovered relying on lore of indigenous people and following criterions: the growing-season disturbance, the weakening dependability of meteorological forecasts, changes of animals’ habitats and their populations’ dynamics, etc.
    Under conditions of global warming and its increasing unsteadiness is turning out, that growth of traditional economies of indigenous people first of all depends on ecological and geographic factors of environment.



[CS06-2] Resilience and sustainability assessment in Cold regions Environment (2)

    [ Thursday 08 August 10:00-11:30 Room673 ]    Chair(s): Nancy Doubleday (McMaster Univ.), Tatiana Kuzminichna Vlasova (Russian Academy of Science)

1) Russian Arctic spatial data integration for geographical researches

    Andrey A. Medvedev (Institute of geography, Russian academy of sciences), Vladimir M. Kotlyakov, Tatiana E. Khromova

    Data integration technologies are designed to form a single information space of the subject areas of spatial data. The object of integration is informational resources of Russian Arctic, stored in distributed data system on web servers and geoportals in form of geodatabases and metadata. For the formation of a large-scale distributed environment, integration of many information resources the best option is to provide a so-called interoperability of data. This refers to compliance with certain rules or usage of additional software tools that permits the interaction of various spatial data. The aim of spatial data integration is environmental geomodeling for sustainable land use. The main subject area of geomodeling is the changes of the environment and its components, the assessment of natural resources and the environment. All of the modern environmental changes are associated with anthropogenic influences, and, therefore, one of the main tasks of geomodeling is to modeling the changes of environment and environmental practices.
    Against intensive development in modern conditions of technologies of data processing, methods of the analysis, the organization of calculations and telecommunications, and also corresponding services the importance socially-environmental problems and problems solved in this direction there are even more necessary conditions of radical improvement of ecological conditions in Russian Arctic, including estimations of resources and condition forecasting lithosphere and biospheres, decrease in technogenic loading on environment.
    The sustainable development of Russian Arctic demands much of knowledge level of degree influences on resources, the nature and a society, especially in the light of climatic effect.


2) The state and recent changes of glaciers in cold regions of Northern Eurasia

    Tatiana Khromova (Institute of Geography RAS), Gennady Nosenko

    Glaciers are important part of Cryosphere and widely recognized as key indicators of climate change. They play important role in Cold regions environment. Glacier recession implies the landscape changes in the glacial zone, origin of new lakes and activation of natural disaster processes, catastrophic mudflows, ice avalanches, outburst floods, and etc. The presence of glaciers in itself threats to human life, economic activity and growing infrastructure. Economical and recreational human activity in mountain regions requires relevant information on snow and ice objects. Absence or inadequacy of such information results in financial and human losses. A more comprehensive evaluation of glacier changes is imperative to assess ice contributions to global sea level rise and the future of water resources from glacial basins. The first estimation of glaciers state and glaciers distribution in the big part of Northern Eurasia has been done in the USSR Glacier Inventory published in 1966 -1980 as a part of IHD activity. The Inventory is based on topographic maps and air photos and reflects the status of the glaciers in 1957-1970y. Reсent satellite data provide a unique opportunity to look again at these glaciers and to evaluate changes in glacier extent for the second part of XX century. In the paper we report about 15 000 glaciers outlines for Caucasus, Pamir, Tien-Shan, Altai, Kamchatka and Russian Arctic which have been derived from ASTER and Landsat imagery for 2000-2012 and could be used for glacier changes evaluation. The results show that glaciers are retreating in all these regions.


3) Natural processes of cold regions as a complicating factor of life

    Sergey Govorushko (Pacific Geographical Institute)

    There are a lot of natural processes that complicate human activity in cold regions. Among them are avalanches, rock streams, aufeises, blizzards, glaze ice, ice-covered ground, icebergs, sea, lake and river ice, ice jams, glaciers, surging glaciers and rock glaciers, etc. This report will focus on cryogenic processes that take place in freezing and thawing rocks, and in permafrost rocks under conditions of changing temperatures and the rocks’ transitions through the melting of ice.
    Permafrost zone of the Earth is 38.15 million square kilometres which corresponds to 25.6% of the land surface. Permafrost underlies 25% of Earth’s land area, including about 99% of Greenland, 80% of Alaska, 50% of Russia, 50% of Canada, and 20% of China. Seasonally frozen rocks are more widely distributed. They occupy vast territories with the exception of regions with tropical and subtropical climates.
    The number of cryogenic processes is quite high, but among the most significant from the viewpoint of influence on human activities are frost swelling, thermokarst processes, thermal abrasion, thermal erosion, cryogenic cracking, and solifluction.
    They affect buildings (thermokarst, frost cracking, solifluction), motor roads, railroads, airfields (frost heaving, thermokarst, thermoerosion, frost cracking, solifluction), communication and transmission lines (frost heaving, thermoerosion, frost cracking), pipelines (frost heaving, thermokarst, thermoabrasion, thermoerosion, frost cracking ), grassland farming and crop production (frost heaving), hydropower engineering (thermokarst, thermoabrasion), water transport (thermoabrasion, thermoerosion).



[CS07-1] Sacred mountains and cultural identities in East Asia (1)

    [ Thursday 08 August 08:00-09:30 Room665 ]    Chair(s): Je Hun Ryu (Korea National Univ. of Education), Shangyi Zhou (Beijing Normal Univ.)

1) The Sacred Mother Mountain Jiri, in Korea

    Wonsuk Choi (Gyeongnam Cultural Research Institute, Gyeongsang National University)

    Jirisan is one of the most sacred mountains in Korea which stands 1,915m high with a circumference of 320km. Since ancient times, Jirisan has been an important arena for history, religion, and life due to its location in the central part of the southern Korean peninsula and the vast mountainous districts. Jirisan is a spiritual mountain that presents both the originality of mountain faith and diversity of religious beliefs. The tradition of worshipping 'a Goddess Spirit' has been practiced in Jirisan for more than a thousand years. Also, different kinds of religions from Buddhism to Zen to Confucianism to Christianity and to folk beliefs influenced each other and were combined within the area. Jirisan is distinguishable from the other sacred mountains, as it is a spiritual mountain in which religious diversity is closely connected to the people's livelihood. This has made Jirisan an icon of 'a sacred mother mountain' in Korea. Since people have settled in the region for a long time, there are various historical remains and religious and livelihood landscapes left. Jirisan has long been considered to be 'a sacred mother mountain', so many people have resided there while hallowing it. Namakje which is a religious ritual for the mountain spirit has been conducted for decades. Numerous cultural heritages have been preserved in Buddhist temples. In addition, the continuously prevalent Buddhism in Korea has helped in maintaining the living cultural tradition of Jirisan. Jirisan can be referred to a mother mountain that embraces diverse religious and cultural landscapes.


2) The Contestation of Ideological Groups on the Kyeryong Mountain in Korea

    Je Hun Ryu (Korea National University of Education)

    On Kyeryong Mountain, different ideological (or religious) groups have endowed space and place with amalgams of different meanings, uses and values. In addition to Buddhism and Confucianism, Shamanism and other popular beliefs have practiced their own ideologies (or powers) to create and maintain their own territories and identities. The geographies of resistance, involving Shamanism, have been scattered all over the mountain, discontinuous in the territorialization. These geographies of resistance could be identified the best around the most sacred sites, such as Sambulbong, Amyongch’u and Sutyongch’u. The entanglement of Shamanism with Buddhism, in various patterns through space and time, has indeed contributed to the survival of Shamanism as a subordinate power.


3) A monk in the border area of China and Burma

    Huasheng Zhu (Beijing Normal University), Yapin Chen

    In order to spread Buddhism, many young monks have ambitions and aspirations. Xuanzang, a great pilgrim in the Tang Dynasty, is their model. Like other young people in other occupations, young monks will encounter difficulties when they grow up. The majority of monks are belonging to certain monastery in China. The monastery has its own regional monastic hierarchy. A young monk’s activities are limited within the hierarchical area. For a young monk, how to break this constraint and to achieve his own aspirations is a question. And it is also a topic of religious geography. The status of each Buddhist temples, as well as the size of the area of religion radiation is determined by history and religious system. It is so called structural force or power of social structure. But the hierarchical level of the temple is not static. The agency of the monks in a temple could change temple’s influential area. This paper takes villages near the border of China and Burma as the research area, and investigates a young monk’s activities in this area. The conclusion is that the young monk is a creative person and enlarging his influential area quickly. The identity force to a temple is depends on the wisdom and virtue of the monks in it.


4) Restructuring of Sacred Sites for Tourism : A Case Study of Mt. Hiei after World War II

    Takuya Uda (School of Life and Environmental Sciences, University of Tsukuba)

    The expansion of tourism has had a significant impact on sacred sites. In particular, suburban sacred mountains have become new tourist attractions. As a result, some religious communities arrange their facilities for " tourists " and plan religious events to appeal to them. In dealing with this development, it is necessary to discuss the correspondence of the intrinsic purpose of religious communities and those of developers of this activity. The purpose of the study is to clarify the relationship between a community and the sacred site on Mt. Hiei (Enryakuji Temple).
     An expressway was built on Mt. Hiei between 1958 and 1966. The Enryakuji Temple permitted its construction because of financial problems. However, it planned the renovation of the entire temple precincts in anticipation of the surge in visitors caused by the introduction of the expressway. In addition, the temple publicized the mountain as “a place of the Buddha’s preaching to the public” in 1964. Furthermore, it set up a worship department (sanpaibu) to direct tourists in 1972. This activity secured the temple’s finances through an increase in tourism.
     Mt. Hiei is a reconstructed " space " and " a doctrine, besides being " an organization " for tourism development. Thus, tourism is indispensable for the maintenance and the expansion of its religious community.



[CS07-2] Sacred mountains and cultural identities in East Asia (2)

    [ Thursday 08 August 10:00-11:30 Room665 ]    Chair(s): Je Hun Ryu (Korea National Univ. of Education), Shangyi Zhou (Beijing Normal Univ.)

1) Improved Contextualism:Assessment of a Community’s Regeneration in Beijing

    Shangyi Zhou (Beijing Normal University), Shaobo Zhang

    Contextualism is a significant concept in architecture. It conducts some architects and planners in their practices. It emphasizes continuity of history and tradition, the harmony of a place or environment. Contextualism was practiced in different ways at different places, even is shown in the regulations of urban planning in some countries. Being used to guide community’s regeneration, contextualism has been linked to two topics: cultural inheritance and cultural integration. However, it could not answer the followed question of how to integrate community regeneration into urban regeneration. The integration is not only in cultural context, but also in social justice. For answering this question, this paper takes Nanluoguxiang (NLGX) , a community in inner city of Beijing as its research area. Based on interview of redidents, observation of landscape in NLGX, this paper assesses the contextual practices in the three renovation stages of NLGX. The conclusions of this paper are as following. Firstly, the contextual renovation increased the cultural value of landscapes in NLGX while its social capital was lost some; Secondly, emphasizing the uniqueness of its cultural resources makes NLGX an integral part of inner city’s cultural space structure, further a shared cultural resources with people in other communities. Therefore it makes sense that the municipal financed NLGX’s renovation is based on the economic justice. Thirdly, this case study implies an improved contextualism should be used in urban regeneration. It also shows the way of scale jumping from a community to a city which has not been researched well.


2) Discussion on the Religious Tourism in Remote Islands, Japan

    Keisuke Matsui (University of Tsukuba)

    This paper discusses how the Catholic Church group and the religious culture of hidden Christians have been turned into tourism resources on the Goto Islands in Japan and the expectations of the tourists and pilgrims visiting the churches on the Goto islands with regard to the new trend of religious tourism.
    
     “An Island to encounter Future World Heritage sites” is the theme of the tourism promotion vision developed by the town of ShinKami-Goto in February 2007 . It proposes a tourism promotion project that includes a tour of the churches as the main pillar, leveraging the tentative registration of the “Nagasaki Church Group” on the World Cultural Heritage site list and the “Project for mysterious islands where future World Cultural Heritage sites can be encountered,” and also includes a plan to develop pilgrim tours and church experience programs, such as church cruising and the experience of singing carols. Kami-Goto has a relatively smaller population and weaker industrial foundation and social capital than Shimo-Goto, but with a high density of Christians, the expectations of Christianity as a tourism resource are rather high. The following chapter therefore examines the situation in which Christianity could be used as a tourism resource, with a focus on Kami-Goto, while also including all the Goto Islands in that view as well.
    
    I will discus some aspects of religious tourism in remote islands as follows; attractions of churches, tourism movement, guests' purpose, and expectations and concerns for religious tourism.


3) Conjugated Study of Agrarian Landscape and Traditional Cultural Landscape of Old Russian Villages

    Olga Trapeznikova (Institute of Environmental Geoscience of Russian Academy of Science)

    The principle difference between natural and agrarian landscapes results from the fact that agrarian landscapes should not be regarded as self-maintained system but it is an operated subsystem of more complicated social system, such as cultural landscape due to its following futures:
    - unity of nature and culture components,
    - active interrelation between man activity and nature environment,
    - essential anthropogenic transformation of nature landscape.
    These features of a cultural landscape allow us to study both agrarian and cultural landscape without losing their peculiarities of natural and man-caused origin. From the viewpoint of cultural landscape one can see essential organization peculiarity of agrarian landscape: its close link with settlement pattern and infrastructure. As a rule, a traditional cultural landscape is a rural landscape.
    Our research deals with cultural and agrarian landscapes in the Valday region of Russia. The villages of the region were mentioned in ancient Russian Novgorod cadastre books since the 15th century. The region is almost depopulated now. Nevertheless, remaining residents help us to restore the cultural landscapes of their villages, basing on numerous local toponyms. We recorded about 50 local place names for every village, which mark area of elementary rural cultural landscapes. The local place names represent us a structure of the cultural landscape: natural environment, rural settlements and buildings, as well as roads, grasslands, and sacred places dominate. It is important that many man-made places, such as fields, grasslands and roads have disappeared now but local people still remember their names and location.



[CS07-3] Cultural dimensions in sustainability research

    [ Thursday 08 August 14:00-15:30 Room665 ]    Chair(s): Benno Werlen (Univ. of Jena)

1) The Role of Culture in Determining Risk to Environmental Changes and Hazards: A Review of the Global Literature

    Rebecca Kate Dowling Smith (Macquarie University), Frank Thomalla

    Many scholars have recognised that the capacity of individuals and communities to adapt to environmental changes and hazards and the types of actions necessary to reduce vulnerability are highly context-specific. This is not only because the dynamics of change and risk are affected by local ecosystem dynamics and geomorphology, but also because local norms, customs and belief systems shape people’s worldviews and actions. What people living at risk know and do about environmental changes and risks is mediated by factors including social conditions (age, gender, wealth, ethnicity) and cultural settings (language, beliefs, traditions, customs). Culture refers to patterns of beliefs, knowledge and behaviour, which emerge from shared values and practices within institutions, organisations and social groups. In this paper we will investigate the role of culture in influencing risk through a review of the global literature. More specifically, we will explore how culture has been considered within disaster risk reduction and climate change adaptation, and how it influences the adaptive capacity of individuals and communities. Finding answers to these questions is expected to contribute to an improved understanding of how culture both contributes to the construction of risk and helps to reduce it. Ultimately, we aim to pinpoint gaps in research, to identify opportunities for working with communities with strong cultural identities in order to harness culturally-driven resilience and to overcome cultural barriers to responding effectively to environmental risks.


2) Managing cultural heritage: place-based approach

    Janez Nared (Scientific Research Centre of the Slovenian Academy of Sciences and Arts)

    According to UNESCO guidelines each cultural heritage site should shape a management plan defining goals and measures for protection, use and development of the site. While protecting integrity and authenticity of the property management plan should address spatial, social and economic aspects of the respective area and thus provide sustainable development of the area. To this end management plan for the cultural heritage site must be strongly interconnected with all planning documents of the area, and vice versa, all planning documents must go hand in hand with the respective cultural heritage management plan.
    To achieve harmonious and sustainable development of the area a place-based approach should be used reflecting educational, identification, touristic and development role of the cultural heritage. Thus cultural heritage could be recognized as one of decisive development factors enabling numerous positive effects for the economic performance of the area.
    The paper will present/argue some basic aspects of the protection and use of cultural heritage emphasizing the place-based approach where different evidences from different cultural heritage sites will be offered.


3) Interrelations of Natural Landscapes and Cultural Systems: Physicаl Geographical Approach

    Nina N. Alekseeva (Faculty of Geography, Lomonosov Moscow State University)

    Some unsolved issues dealing with interrelation of natural landscapes with social/cultural spatial systems are discussed. Lots of regional cases show us the examples of harmony, co-evolution and conflicts between nature and human society. Natural landscapes and cultural spatial systems are connected to each other, but they develop according to their own laws, have various hierarchical levels, different pace of evolution and individual boundaries. There are several approaches and methods used in Russian geography, geo-ecology and ethnic ecology to analyze spatial relationships of natural landscapes with local manifestations of culture (including life-supporting culture, social and humanitarian culture). Under the landscape-geographical approach the landscape region is used as the operating spatial unit for mapping and interpretation of natural and cultural interrelations. This approach is limited to the areas where traditional or agrarian societies highly dependant on natural resources and ecosystem services of the “carrying landscapes” are still dominating. In Russia they are confined to the areas populated by indigenous peoples in Arctic region, Eastern Siberia and Far East, nomadic people in Kalmykia. Numerous studies of these areas emphasize the role of traditional culture as the mechanism of sustainable development under the modern economic development. The other approach used both in local and regional studies is aimed at the delimitation of comprehensive units as cultural landscapes, ethno-geosystems, anthropo-geocoenosis or ethnic landscape units of various taxonomic ranks. The crucial issue is to choose appropriate data sources for data transformation and georeferencing for GIS analysis taking into account multiple unconformity of natural and cultural systems.


4) Making Peace With the Orange Roughy

    Matthew Coxhill (University of Newcastle)

    The Orange Roughy is a deep water, late maturing fish that commonly lives to round 130 years old. Found on continental slopes and sea mounts off the coasts of Australia and New Zealand it was, prior to 1980, unknown as a species to most humans. However, from the early 1980s, with the discovery of commercially accessible stocks and technological advances in deep water fishing gear, there was intensive targeting of the species for local and international markets. This resulted in stocks being depleted to as low as 3% of their original biomass in under 20 years, combined with little scientific understanding of potential stock recovery times, or of the wider environmental effects of its removal and the corresponding damage to benthic fauna in the fishing zones. Following on from the observation of Bear and Eden (2008, 2011) that fish have been identified as not well represented in work on animal geographies, this paper uses the Orange Roughy to examine Yusoff’s (2012) discussion of how concepts of banal violence can apply in terms of human relations with non-human actors. This leads to consideration of what a sense of ‘loss’ implies when used in political conjunction with biodiversity, and, importantly, how this may effect a ‘transformation of ontology’ (Yusoff 2012:590). As a non-human actor, with a sudden, valued, and yet very short relationship with humans, the Orange Roughy provides a discrete example of human/non-human violence and loss, and begs the question of how peace might follow.



[CS07-4] Representations of nature

    [ Thursday 08 August 16:00-17:30 Room665 ]    Chair(s): Karsten Gaebler (Univ. of Jena)

1) Natural nature and unnatural nature: a study on representations and practices of nature in China

    Lei-Lei Li (Shenzhen University)

    This paper mainly concerns how nature is represented and practiced in Chinese visual art and urban space and what kind of nature views are implied behind the scene. By reading and interpreting the meaning of Chinese classical paintings with nature representations and critical culture studies on Chinese urbanization and urban space, the author identifies three types of Chinese views on nature. The first type is called natural nature view implied in Chinese ancient arts which emphasize man is integral part of nature ecology. This makes Chinese art tradition of freehand brushwork quite different from western realistic and impressionism landscape paintings. The second type is named as unnatural nature view which regards nature’s utility value to human beings and symbolic value to collectivism ideology. This kind of anthropocentric and symbolic nature view without thinking much about nature itself can be found from some socialist art works in Mao time. The third type of nature view is mainly related to Chinese contemporary art which has paid much attention to Chinese rapid industrialization, urbanization and urban space transition from destroying nature to transporting nature to beautify urban space. This critical view on nature tends very much to social problems rather than nature itself. The changing history of nature representations and nature views means a further and future study on the complex interactions of nature, art and urbanization.


2) Forest Cultural Ecosystem Service inventory in a local area of Japan and its utilization of biodiversity conservation policy

    Takahiro Ota (Ritsumeikan University)

    In the field of biodiversity conservation, the concept of ecosystem services is more and more attracting people’s interest. In particular, cultural ecosystem services (CESs) including very broad scope of non-material benefits from natural environment is intensively studied in recent years.
    
    In this presentation, I would like to focus on making an inventory of CESs and its utilization for improvement of current biodiversity conservation policy. Actually, in the field of wetland conservation, the concept of ""Wise Use"" developed by the Ramsar Convention leads to make a CES inventory in Japan (Tsujii and Sasagawa 2012: 33 Examples of the Cultures and Technologies of Wetlands in Japan). Based on this situation, I am collecting broad examples of ""forest"" CESs maintained formerly or currently by local people of Kyushu.
    
    In the very basic process, I began interviewing to local people tightly connected with forest in every day life. I also ask them substitutability for those CESs to keep or ameliorate their current and future identity. Especially, through the viewpoint of this substitutability, I try to understand the extent to which people represent their identity in the relationship with nature. Moreover, those precious raw data is understood in the context of local fragile community facing population aging and forestry diminishing in Japan.
    
    Finally, I would like to discuss systematic classification of forest CES with participants in order to better describe and reflect our nature-society relationship for current conservation policy such as Environment Impact Assessment and Biodiversity Offset.


3) How important is the aesthetic value for the evaluation of nature values?

    Ales Smrekar (Scientific Research Centre of the Slovenian Academy of Sciences and Arts), Bojan Erhartic

    Everything is interconnected and equally important in nature; however, people tend to see material or immaterial values in it. This evaluation is personal and depends on the perception and knowledge of the individual and the entire society. Relief shapes are one of the most attractive natural landscape elements, invoking interest in people because of their attractive appearance. Numerous authors have attempted to define the value of nature, even relief shapes; consequently, an entire palette of classifications has been developed usually includes natural values according to: intrinsic (existential), cultural, aesthetic, socially-economic, functional, geosystemic, scientific research and educational values. In this way, it is impossible to avoid subjectivity when evaluating the relief and relief shapes, as it is especially expressed during any aesthetic evaluation. The aesthetic value was measured on a sample of 17 geomorphological units in mountainous Alpine glacier of the Triglav Lakes Valley that had been preliminarily evaluated from an (subjective) aesthetic aspect. The Triglav Lakes Valley is the heart of the only national park in Slovenia. The value was determined using photographs on two groups of people, among the visitors and non-visitors of the Triglav Lakes Valley. The point of interest lies in the differences between these groups and the preliminary results. The aim of the research is to determine those parts of (inanimate) nature that people classify as “beautiful” and should be considered as important and generally accepted parts in future evaluations of this kind.



[CS08-1] Management Geography - Localizing practices

    [ Tuesday 06 August 14:00-15:30 Room510 ]    Chair(s): Rolf Dieter Schlunze (Ritsumeikan Univ.), Andrew Jones (City Univ. London)

1) Challenges facing family-owned businesses in the twenty-first century

    Neil Reid (University of Toledo)

    The family is the original economic unit from which all other forms of economic organization sprang and today the family-controlled corporation is the world’s most common corporate form. The purpose of this presentation is to identify and discuss some of the major challenges that face family-owned businesses in the twenty-first century. These challenges include that of conflicting roles. For example, owners of family firms often have multiple responsibilities that include their duties as owners of the firm, their responsibilities as managers, and their obligations to each other as family members. Since 2004, the author has worked very closely with a number of family businesses within the greenhouse industry in northwest Ohio. This work has focused on identifying ways in which these family businesses can overcome significant competitive challenges (e.g. international competition, stagnant markets etc.) that threaten their economic survival. The author will draw upon the challenges facing the northwest Ohio greenhouse industry to illustrate some of the major challenges facing family businesses in the twenty-first century.


2) Varieties of legal education and professional reform in the United States, Canada and Japan: A management perspective on co-evolutionary institutional change

    Tim Reiffenstein (Mount Allison University)

    This paper offers a comparative analysis of recent upheavals in both legal education and professionalization in the United States, Canada and Japan. It adopts a varieties of capitalism perspective to shed light on the endogenous and exogenous drivers of institutional change in the three national case studies. Through a meta-review of the literature and drawing upon interviews with key informants, it reveals three distinct layers of institutional governance that are to varying degrees coevolving with national variants elsewhere. Legal systems are fundamentally regulated at the national scale through judicial policy. At the same time, the precise determination of how law is practiced and how lawyers receive professional training is shaped profoundly by national professional legal establishments (bar associations, law societies, academic societies, etc.). Meanwhile, at the scale of everyday practice, the law firms where most lawyers work are increasingly operating internationally. This paper examines some of the management challenges taking place within each jurisdiction as the various institutional layers grapple with change, particularly as it effects the crucial transition from law school to professional practice in an era of economic uncertainty.


3) Firm level Chinese FDI in Japan: spatial dynamics and regional economic development

    Patrik Strom (University of Gothenburg), Richard Nakamura

    The increasing integration of the Japanese and Chinese economy has become an important part of the regional economic development in East Asia. China is today the most important trading partner for Japan and the Japanese investments in China, by expanding regional production networks, have been vital for developing the industrial base in both countries. The Japanese FDIs in China are well documented in the literature. The increasing FDI from China to Japan, however, is little known and discussed in the literature. In this paper we engage with the origins of the firm level Chinese FDI into Japan.
    We study the development of mergers and acquisitions (MandA) of Chinese and Japanese firms. The aim of the paper is to give an account of the development and analyze the preliminary results of these investments. Grounded in this study we will also examine the spatial dynamics and regional economic impacts of these FDI in Japan. Empirical examination of the M&As shows a tremendous increase in the amount of cases during the last two years. Investments are made in firms where the financial base is fragile, succession or future ownership is unclear or in firms with earlier relationships with Chinese partners. Management of these companies are continued to be run by Japanese, but the Chinese investors seem to take an active role in the board. This could be interpreted as a form of hybrid-management.


4) Japanese Enterprises in Brazil

    Hachiro Hagiwara (Shikoku University)

    Japanese people started to immigrate into Brazil in 1908, and Japanese immigrants have been playing an important role in Brazilian society, especially in the agricultural field.
    
    Investment from Japan to Brazil had its first boom in the mid 1950’s, when important national projects emerged in the field of energy and steel, etc. The second boom occurred in the period called the “Brazilian miracle,” from 1968 to 73, when many Japanese enterprises rushed to Brazil.
    
    But, the 1980’s was a “lost decade” for Brazil, and the 1990’s was a “lost decade” for Japan, after the collapse of the Bubble Economy. Investment from Japan was minimal during these periods. Since 1994, when the Real Plan started to stabilize the Brazilian economy, investment by Japanese enterprises has been returning to Brazil, which has created a third boom.
    
    When compared with occidental enterprises, Japanese firms operating in Brazil are said to lack an obvious aim and investment strategy, to lack speed in making decisions, and to be too closely tied with their Japanese headquarters, not localizing sufficiently by hiring local staff as managers, etc. And today, Chinese and Korean enterprises are developing faster than Japanese ones in Brazil. However, Japanese enterprises have strong points and have been accumulating know-how for local management through their long experience in Brazil.


5) Place-Brewering: Micro-Breweries, Place-Making and Magic

    Richard Ek (Lund University)

    Food and drink are societally embedded and central elements in tourism, and as such increasingly important as the competition between cities and other tourist destination increases. Wine tourism has for some time now been a genre of its own. Although more seldom, beer brands and breweries are becoming increasingly relevant. For instance, micro-breweries are more and more regarded as valuable place bound assets in tourism development as craft beer culture is usually considered authentic and a community-building practice in opposition to mass-produced beer. Further, seemingly, the craft of micro-brewering is narrated and depicted as an engagement with place-bound natural objects, particularly hops, with almost mystical capacities: the magic of place-brewering.
    
    It thus becomes interesting to a bit more systematically unfold how micro-breweries present themselves as place-bound and place-making actors in a marketing and branding perspective. Place is an admittedly elusive and complex concept as it includes so much more than the habitual notion of place as a local area of physical extension. A content analysis of marketing material is an appropriate way to approach this topic. In more detail, this paper combines a narrative-discursive methodology, the theoretical vocabulary of social constructivist research on place and insights from object oriented ontology of sceptical realism in order to unravel the place-based magic of micro-breweries in a place-marketing context.



[CS08-2] Management Geography - Globlizing practices

    [ Tuesday 06 August 16:00-17:30 Room510 ]    Chair(s): Rolf Dieter Schlunze (Ritsumeikan Univ.), Patrik Strom (Univ. of Gothenburg)

1) Translation, Mediation or something more? The role of Chinese world cities in global managerial practices

    Andrew Jones (City University London)

    A developing body of work in economic geography, management studies and other social science disciplines has begun to focus on the intersection between sociological accounts of globalized managerial practices and the nature and significance of world cities in the global informational economy. Whilst the former literature has established that an analytical focus on the practices of managers and other key employees in transnational firms is a fruitful way of better understanding the development of transnational economic activity, this engagement has thus far has limited engagement with the wider world city network literature. This paper argues that not only do these approaches need to be much better integrated in economic geographical accounts of the global economy, but that existing theories of economic practice and urban system development can be significantly advanced by bringing insights to bear from the relatively discreet literatures. It contends in particular that world cities act as complex sites of innovative and dynamic practice production that exceeds current accounts of their role as sites of simpler concepts of translation or mediation. Whilst the latter concepts have great utility, the paper explores how global economic practices are produced through multiple and complex place-based interactions. It uses empirical research into investment practices by foreign managers in three key Chinese cities (Beijing, Hong Kong and Shanghai) to elaborate these arguments.


2) New spatial division of labor in Research and Development: Case study of a Japanese chemical company

    Natsuki Kamakura (University of Tokyo)

    Multinational companies (MNCs) have increasingly been trying to make use of knowledge dispersed all over the world. Several researchers, including geographers, have conducted studies on this globalization of research and development (R&D), but apparently, most of them have ignored the interaction between foreign and domestic R&D. It is reasonable to approach these two aspects independently provided there is no significant relation between them. However, Japanese MNCs typically accumulate most of their primary technological resources and R&D personnel in Japan. To understand the method by which these companies establish a link between their core competences and the knowledge acquired in a foreign environment, it is important to discern the processes of both evolution and globalization of their domestic R&D functions.
    To study this issue, I conducted research on several Japanese chemical companies that have global operations. Using data on locational hysteresis, organizational structure, and patent applications, I analyzed (1) the evolution of their main R&D functions in Japan, and (2) the changes in spatial divisions of labor between their domestic and overseas R&D. The results indicate that certain companies are not only trying to build a new global R&D system, but are also attempting to fuse their own accumulated technology with the new system. In this presentation, I will explain the case of Toray, which is one of the largest chemical and fiber companies in Japan, and explore how knowledge flows within the company, making it the leading R&D company in Japan.


3) Exploring Boundary Spanners’ Cross-cultural Competences: An Asian-perspective on the Global City

    Ji Weiwei (Ritsumeikan University)

    The aim of this research is to deal with the understanding of cross-cultural competence through international boundary activities in Asian global cities. The development of a theoretical framework for defining and measuring cross-cultural competence from four environment perspectives: firms, market, living and psychology. This research has taken a step forward into analysis of the relationship between cross-cultural competence creation and managers’ behaviors and action in Japan and China. Boundary spanners need to seek constantly to integrate with global business communities, while at the same time remaining committed to promoting their local businesses. The research results imply that foreign managers who are eager to succeed in the intercultural workplace by creating cultural synergy need to undertake the effort to achieve cross-cultural competence. Cross-cultural competence appears to be scarce but very much needed at the level of MNCs’ headquarters if they need a global HRM strategy enabling their management to learn about appropriate behavior and practices to advance their overseas assignments.


4) Restructuration and resilience of a multinational firm at local-scale: the case of IBM Montpellier, France.

    Alexandre Schon (University Montpellier III)

    IBM Corporation is one of the oldest and prestigious multinational company in the world. Result of a merger 102 years ago, IBM has developed an internationalization degree among the highest in the world and accounts for nearly 106 billion dollars in revenue (2011). The arrival of the computer factory in Montpellier (June 28, 1965) allowed the city to gradually emerge from its industrial crisis, and revitalize its productive system. Thus, the city integrated an more largest innovative operational management with others IBM sites at european-scale. For a long time centralized on the IBM site, the local productive system of Montpellier has become increasingly diversified in the ICT sector between the 1970s and the 1990s. In 1993, the increased competition in the computer industry force IBM to restructure its payroll and historical activities, nowadays the corporation develops new business services (data services as programs ""e-business on demand"", ""Smarter Planet""). At local-scale, the unfavorable macro-economic context had greatly affected the Montpellier IBM site: redundancies, sectorization of its activities, spatial recomposition of its own activity park, new strategic specializations. Today, IBM isn't a computer factory but a computer service center that offers outsourcing, benchmarking and research-innovation (Health, Water and Energy) on two different sites in Montpellier. Between spatial disengagement and new cloud computing activities established on the site, this communication will propose a reading of the phenomena of glocalization and resilience with an micro-local focus on the evolution of IBM Montpellier through the multiples recompositions of his plots, his management and his employees.



[CS08-3] Management Geography - Managerial challenges

    [ Tuesday 06 August 17:30-19:00 Room510 ]    Chair(s): Neil Reid (Univ. of Toledo), Andrew Jones (City Univ. London)

1) Sectoral resilience: Exploring sector specific, multi-scalar mechanisms of crisis adaptability in the automotive industry

    Martina Fromhold-Eisebith (RWTH Aachen University)

    The notion of ‘regional resilience’ has recently gained wide attention in conceptual debates of Economic Geography. This rests on the assumption that the ability of regions to flexibly react to sudden economic crises is rooted in region specific constellations of actors and arenas of activity. Yet, this presumption overlooks that factors of resilience may not predominantly lie within regional boundaries or be an attribute of regions as ‘acting’ entities, but that resilience is rather the outcome of the strategic behavior of companies in crisis-affected industries that locate in different places. Companies usually actively aim at achieving flexibility and adaptability in the face of highly dynamic economic environments by using assets in different places and options provided at various spatial scales. Hence, the actual source from which capabilities to adapt to changing conditions of competitiveness emerge may rather be the actors forming an industrial sector than the region itself. From this point of view, the region is conceived only as the arena where institutionally determined efforts of resilient behavior happen to take place and be put into effect. The actual focus of attention, however, should shift to mechanisms of ‘sectoral resilience’ constituted at the level of industries and their value chains, respectively. The proposed conference presentation tries to establish this different view on sources and forces of resilience by drafting the conceptual framework of ‘sectoral resilience’. Major multi-scalar mechanisms of adaptability will then be illustrated using the example of the automotive industry.


2) Changing Role of Industry in the Development of Cities in Emerging Economies - the Case of Krakow Metropolitan Region (Poland)

    Tomasz Rachwal (Pedagogical University of Cracow), Miroslaw Wojtowicz

    The subject of the paper is the issue of the changing role of industry as one of the key elements of development and metropolisation of cities in post-socialist, emerging economies. Particular attention is paid to the diminishing role of the industry in terms of activation of labor resources, which is connected to the automation of manufacturing processes and relocations of labor-intensive activities to regions with lower production costs. However, the industry, particularly high-tech manufacturing, plays a significant role in stimulating research and development sector and generate innovations, as a key component of the knowledge-based economy. From this perspective, the diagnosis of the transformation of industrial enterprises, especially those aspects of their functioning that are associated with the creation of innovations, appears to be an important research problem. Effects of innovation processes in industrial enterprises are visible both in the results of the whole urban economy, affecting such the size of the inflow of foreign direct investment, competitiveness of the city, the state of public finances and private companies, but also to functioning of municipal authorities, educational and research and development activities and higher quality of life. It can therefore be assumed that this innovative industrial companies are one of the most important elements of the structure of metropolitan cities. The analysis of this process is made on the example of Krakow Metropolitan Region industry, based on data on employment and the operation of selected industrial companies, with particular emphasis on their innovative activity.


3) Ecotourism and Conservation Strategies Around Protected Areas of Kwazulu-Natal: Tradition for the Future

    Linda M Magi (University of Zululand)

    The new democratic changes in South African have introduced enormous transformation to the tourism and conservation landscape. Recent policies have been formulated with the intention of empowering local communities by improving opportunities for job creation, employment and poverty alleviation (DEAT, 2006). Research findings (Binns & Nel, 2002; Rogerson & Visser, 2004; Magi, 2009) have however suggested that local communities perceive tourism management and delivery continues to be in disarray. The main challenge for tourism authorities is to establish policies that promote better service delivery systems. The notion that conservation and tourism are universal remedies for unemployment and poverty, need to be re-assessed (Wahab, 2000; Wahab & Pigram, 2000).
    
    A viewpoint exists that authorities need to engineer a new paradigm that supports tourism and conservation management in rural areas (Mkhize, 2012). This paradigm is anticipated to heighten resource service delivery, since these activities continue to represent an important economic sector for development (Sharpley, 2002). In this regard, authorities ought to work towards creating a sustainable environment in protected areas of KwaZulu-Natal (Spenceley & Goodwin, 2007). This paper, therefore, explores the standpoint of local authorities towards transforming conservation tourism and enhancing service delivery around protected areas, and how the evolving infrastructural could benefit communities in these areas. The over-publicised government strategy of ‘batho pele’ (people first), ubuntu philosophy and African conservation approach, could usher-in a ‘better delivery of services to all.’ These approaches represent a new trajectory towards achieving sustainable recreation and tourism development in areas next to protected areas.


4) Diversity advantage in Germany ? locational preferences of Japanese managers in Germany

    Rolf Dieter Schlunze (Ritsumeikan University)

    This research introduces the landscape and mindscape of Japanese managers in Germany. Japanese management is in a transformation: overseas assignments in one location become increasingly shorter making it difficult to reach the demands of the particular spot by adequate degree of intercultural competence. Not country experts but the so called global managers are the personnel that should be nurtured by the will of Japanese headquarters. As an effect there are increasingly less managers with country-specific knowledge and language competence. A census has been conducted with Japanese managing directors of all overseas subsidiaries listed by Toyo Keizai 2010. One third of them replied the questionnaire. Ten percent of those managers have been identified as intercultural competent boundary spanners. Referring to Thomas (1967, 1994) who introduced an open-system theory investigating the role of the expatriates with boundary spanning activities in multinational corporations, an contextual management appraisal has been designed that investigates the preferences and networking of intercultural competent boundary spanners in the corporate, market and living environment. The results showed clearly that embedding the business in local networks is an important boundary spanning activity. The implications for staffing with Japanese expatriates will be given in contrast to locational settings that vary from the enclave Düsseldorf to the intercultural city Berlin.



[CS09-1] Environment evolution and human activity in the late quaternary (1) geographical pattern

    [ Wednesday 07 August 10:00-11:30 Room674 ]    Chair(s): Tatjana Boettger (Helmholtz Centre for Environmental Research), Andrei A. Velichko (Russian Academy of Sciences Institute of Geography ), Fahu Chen (Lanzhou Univ. )

1) Characteristics and Evolutional Processes of Wetland Environment in the Landslides around Hachimanntai Volcanic Group, NE Japan

    Natsuki Sasaki (The University of Tokyo), Toshihiko Sugai

    Landslide disturbs mountain slopes to create landscape diversity. Wetland is common and one of the most important factors which make a mosaic structure across landscapes in humid areas. However, few researchers have discussed its properties and development processes associated with landslides. This study presents properties of wetlands in the landslides in Hachimantai volcanic group, which covers a northern part of backbone of Tohoku district, Japan, and discusses their evolutional processes. Hachimantai volcanic group is a collection of Quaternary complex stratovolcanoes, and its body is being collapsed in landslides characterized by variety of body sizes and structures. Wetlands occur in almost all large scale landslides. The wetlands on the original surface of the volcanoes mainly stand in the craters, on the saddles with much snow accumulation, and on the lava terraces, on the other hand those in the landslides tend to stand just below scarps. The beginning of peat deposition in nivation hollows in the snowy mountains of Japan Sea side is considered to be associated with increase in snowfall since late Last Glacial Age. The formation of peatlands in the landslides is also expected to be associated with landslide activities. By dating and analysis of the sediment of Oyachi-moor, a typical wetland in the landslide in the northwest of Hachimantai volcano, we show evolutional history of it. It was formed as a depression made by large disturbance primary, then multiple earth flows from its circumference flew in it, and finally it became the moor through the pond.


2) Effects of tectonic uplift on bedrock river channel evolution since the Middle Pleistocene at Northern Sanriku coast, NE Japan

    Takashi Ogami (Chuo University)

    Base-level changes associated with glacio-eustasy and tectonic movements control development of drainage network, but their impacts and rate of river bed responses at the 104 to 105-year timescale are not fully understood. Based on geomorphological analysis of bedrock rivers and marine terraces which dissected by the rivers, changes of bedrock river profiles and their geomorphological history are investigated.

    There are bedrock rivers with major river knickpoint at North Sanriku coast, NE Japan. The bedrock mainly consists of the Mesozoic granite. Marine terraces formed during the Middle to Late Pleistocene are developing and dissected by the rivers. Formation ages of the terraces are determined based on tephro-chronology and correlated to 8 interglacial high-stand periods (MIS 19, 17, 15, 13, 11, 9, 7 and 5e). Altitudes of the terrace surface vary 270 m to 30 m above sea-level, indicating averaged long-term tectonic uplift at 0.3 mm/yr. Former shorelines estimated by seacliffs are traced approximately parallel to present coastlines and the rivers crosses the former shorelines at roughly right angles. From spatial relationships between position of present river knickpoints and distributions of the marine terrace, the initial position of the river knickpoints can be estimated.

    At the Ugegawa river, the initial river knickpoint is estimated to be formed at the edge of MIS 13 marine terraces, which should be emerged as sea-cliff during MIS 11 high-stand. Based on such geomorphological facts and present river profile, averaged lateral migration rate of knickpoint is estimated as 7.5 m/ka for 400,000 years.


3) Vegetation, water, and soil erosion on the Chinese Loess Plateau

    Kohei Matsunaga (Keio University)

    The Chinese Loess Plateau is among the most spectacular in the world because of its unique lithology of thick calcareous loess layers, the absence of vegetation, and dense valleys. This study clarifies how environment evolution and human activities have caused soil erosion on the Chinese Loess Plateau, by literature review and morphometry of loess landforms. Results in this study suggest that collision of Indian plate with Eurasian plate is essential to form the plateau and the loess landforms. The results also imply that destruction and rehabilitation of vegetation are key factors to cause and prevent soil erosion. The plateau has experienced destruction of vegetation during the 4000 years history for feeding growing population. Climate changes such as cooling and aridification have hindered the recovery of vegetation. Since the beginning of China’s reform and opening-up in 1978, greening has advanced and decreased soil erosion on the Loess Plateau. Especially since 1999, China's grain-for-green policy of converting steep cultivated land to forest and grassland has dramatically weakened soil erosion because that policy prohibited farming and grazing on the steep lands. On the other hand, the policy reduced China’s grain production significantly. In addition, water resources might decrease as planted trees grow consuming water. Therefore, balancing green with grain and water is crucial for the sustainable soil conservation.


4) Comparison of landform evolution between two major fluvial lowlands in the greater Tokyo area since the latest Pleistocene, Japan

    Takeshi Ishihara (The University of Tokyo), Toshihiko Sugai

    The Arakawa-Menuma Lowland and the Nakagawa-Watarase Lowland are located in the hinterland of the Tokyo, central Japan. Around river-mouth of downstream lowland of them, vulnerability of disaster is increasing by land subsidence associated with modern flood control and groundwater pumping. Incised valleys formed during the last glacial sea-level lowstands have been filled with both fluvial sandy sediments and inner bay mud during post-deglacial sea-level rise and highstands. This study discussed how sea-level changes, crustal movements, or sediment supply, controlled the development of incised-valley fills and their basal landforms in each lowlands.
     Both lowlands have similar longitudinal profiles and gradients of buried fluvial terraces surfaces and incised valleys, indicating that sea-level fall controlled incision equally in each lowland. By contrast, it was suggested that local tectonic settings such as activity of the Fukaya fault system reflected development of buried terraces and deformation of the buried valley in the Arakawa-Menuma Lowland.
     Sedimentary successions of incised-valley fills in both lowlands resemble those in other coastal alluvial lowland in East and Southeast Asia, indicating that the last deglacial eustasy was a major factor controlling depositional patterns of incised-valley fills in these regions. By contrast, onset of progradation in the Arakawa-Menuma Lowland was 1,000-2,000 years earlier than those in the Nakagawa-Watarase Lowland. It is suggested that the Palaeo-Tonegawa River, running through the Arakawa-Menuma Lowland before 5 ka and the Nakagawa-Watarase Lowland after, and its tributaries from the Kanto Mountain to the Arakawa-Menuma Lowland were main factors of earlier onset of progradation in the former.



[CS09-2] Environment evolution and human activity in the late quaternary (2) geographical pattern

    [ Wednesday 07 August 14:00-15:30 Room674 ]    Chair(s): Tatjana Boettger (Helmholtz Centre for Environmental Research), Andrei A. Velichko (Russian Academy of Sciences Institute of Geography ), Fahu Chen (Lanzhou Univ. )

1) A long-term variability of actual and potential evaporation of forest-steppe landscapes in European part of Russia during the Holocene

    Alexander Olchev (A.N. Severtsov Institute of Ecology and Evolution of the Russian Academy of Science)

    To explain adequately the main factors affecting the vegetation changes in different geographical regions during the past epochs the aggregated theoretical and experimental studies are obviously required. They should be focused on analysis of both a long-term variability of regional climatic conditions and possible impacts of anthropogenic factors on land-use changes. As a key climatic parameters influencing the vegetation changes the air temperature and precipitation are usually considered. Precipitation is considered s a main parameters determining the plant water status. However for more accurate reconstruction of plant water availability it is very important to use data about actual evapotranspiration and surface runoff.
    For areas with sufficient moistening conditions (when potential evapotranspiration lower precipitation) the actual evaporation in past epochs can be good approximated by potential or reference evapotranspiration. For dry areas with insufficient moistening the actual evaporation can be derived as a function of potential evaporation and several parameters characterizing the influence of soil moisture deficiency on plant transpiration and individual ecophysiological properties of different tree/plants regulating the transpiration processes.
    Within the frameworks of our study the actual and potential evapotranspiration of forest-steppe landscapes of European Russia during the Holocene were estimated using a simple regression model. As input parameters for the regression model the mean annual air temperature, precipitation, and a fraction of the area covered by forests and grasslands determined from results of paleoenvironmental reconstructions are used. Parameters of the regression model were estimated from results of flux calculations with a Mixfor-SVAT model (Olchev, Novenko 2011).


2) Flood geomorphology and in-channel modern deposits in the lower Mekong basin, Cambodia

    Naoko Nagumo (University of Tokyo), Toshihiko Sugai, Sumiko Kubo

    Monsoon Asia, especially continental region in Southeast Asia is characterized by abundant precipitation and its definite seasonal distribution with narrow temperature range. Few rivers are artificially improved and the longitudinal profiles are generally low gradient in the downstream portion, then the most of fluvial plains are heavily inundated during the monsoon season. Therefore, agricultural productivity and human lifestyles in the region are basically controlled by the climate and seasonal floods. Confirming how the rivers as the regional center undergo the seasonal hydrologic fluctuations and transport deposits to construct a place for settlements, is crucial issue to examine the interactions between changing natural environment and human activities toward our future. This study focuses on the lower fluvial plain of the Stung Sen River, a major tributary of the Lake Tonle Sap. With decreasing flow regime toward dry season, sand bars composed by inversely graded sand layers and intervening silt-clay became to appear on the inside of each bend in the channel. Such sedimentary structures reflect flow regime change of the river. Inserted plastic pieces with date stamps indicate that the deposits have been partly replaced within several monsoon and dry cycles. These characteristic modern deposits suggest that in-channel floods controlled by water level and discharge directly conduct erosion, transportation and accumulation of the deposits, and forms micro-topography in meander belt rapidly, which is far different from the gradual accumulation of inundated suspension over the back marsh during the maximum flow regime.


3) Late Quaternary Avulsion history of the lower Ili River, Central Eurasia controlled by climate and Balkhash lake level changes

    Hitoshi Shimizu (The University of Tokyo), Toshihiko Sugai, Reisuke Kondo, Akio Sato, Hiroki Montani, Yasunori Nakayama, Kunihiko Endo

    Ili River rising in the TianShan Mountains has the 80 percent of total discharge of the rivers flowing into Balkhash Lake, the largest endorheic basin in central Asia. Ili river has developed deltaic lowland and several terrace levels in its lower reaches so-called “Ili delta” and changed its river mouth dramatically as the result of avulsion at around the “pivot” of the “Ili delta” and lake level change. Fluvial landforms along the Ili River can be classified into four geomorphic surfaces from T1 to T4 and abundant paleo-channels are recognizable on T2 and T3. Abundant channels are preserved unclear on T2 whereas clear on T3. The age of the paleo-channel deposits were given by both AMS-14C dating and OSL dating. T1 is the highest accumulation terrace formed at around 30 ka based on OSL dating, (Kondo et al, 2011) covered with vegetated rough dunes, when the Balkhash Lake level was over 10 m higher than present. The paleo-channel sediment on T2 shows 4.2 ka of OSL age and 2.1 ka of 14-C age, and gastropod and buried soil on T3 within the channel show 14-C ages of from 1500 to 700 years ago. Balkhash Lake was high-level at the same period. T3 paleo-channel probably had larger discharge than modern channel on meander wavelengths analysis (Shimizu and Sugai 2010). T4 is distributed along the main stream of modern Ili River. Along T3 channels, medieval archaeological sites have been recognized, suggesting that avulsion led to the abandonment of hamlets and agricultural lands.



[CS09-3] Environment evolution and human activity in the late quaternary (3) geographical pattern

    [ Wednesday 07 August 16:00-17:30 Room674 ]    Chair(s): Tatjana Boettger (Helmholtz Centre for Environmental Research), Andrei A. Velichko (Russian Academy of Sciences Institute of Geography ), Fahu Chen (Lanzhou Univ. )

1) Climate changes in the central part of the East European plain (Russia) in the Holocene

    Elena Yu. Novenko (Institute of Geography Russian Academy of Science)

    The Holocene climate and vegetation dynamics in the broad-leaved forest zone of the central part of the East European plain have been reconstructed on the base of pollen, plant macrofossil, testate amoebae and radiocarbon data from the mire Klukva (N 53.834812, E 36.252488), located in the kast depression in the Upper Oka River basin (Tula region, European Russia). The reconstruction of main parameters of past climate (the mean annual temperature precipitation) was carried out by the “Best Modern Analog” approach.
    According to obtained climatic reconstructions the period 10-8.5 cal kyr BP was relatively cold and wet, when the mean annual temperature was in 3grad.C lower and precipitation was in 50-100 mm higher then nowadays. The significant climate warming occurred in about 7.0-5.0 cal kyr BP (The Holocene thermal maximum): the mean annual temperature in 2 grad.C exceeded the modern value and precipitation was close to that. The environment conditions were drier due to decrease of effective moisture. In the second part of the Holocene the sequence of second-, and even third-order climatic oscillations expressed against the background of the overall slight trend towards cooling have been determined. The most pronounced cool and wet intervals were reconstructed in 2.5-2.0 cal kyr BP and 1.5-1.3 cal kyr BP. The mean annual temperature decreased in 1.5-2 grad.C and precipitation rose in 200 mm in compare to modern ones. During the last millennium the warming of the Medieval Climatic Anomaly and cooling of the Little Ice Age were clearly determined.


2) Holocene environment dynamics and human activity in the forest-steppe zone of European Russia (satellite and pollen-based reconstructions)

    Elena Yu. Novenko (Institute of Geography Russian Academy of Science)

    The Holocene vegetation dynamics in the forest steppe zone of European Russia were assessed using analogue-based methods of quantity reconstructions using modern and fossil pollen data and MODIS satellite images. The main steps of our study are (1) creation of the reference dataset consisting of 965 surface pollen spectra and associated satellite (MODIS)-based estimates of woody cover density, (2) checking the accuracy of regional woody cover reconstructions using the “Best Modern Analog” approach applied to the reference modern dataset, and (3) application the method for reconstruction of vegetation disturbance in the key-region, located in the Upper Don River basin in the central part of European Russia.
    The accuracy of reconstructions was tested by leave-one-out cross-validation. The results of tests was well but imperfect (R2=0.57 and SEE= 10.8%), however it is sufficient for reconstruction of major changes in forest vegetation.
    The obtained results show that signals of anthropogenic changes in the vegetation in the forest-steppe zone and human-induced fires are clearly pronounced in the Neolithic and Bronze Ages, however human impact on plant cover was not significant until 2400 cal. yr. BP. Reconstructions of total woody cover show a good agreement with land-use history of the territory. An extensive agriculture during the periods of human occupation resulted in decrease in forest coverage, when the territory was abandoned forests recovered their areas. Large-scale landscape changes and the degradation of natural vegetation occurred in the Medieval time and become conspicuous over the last two centuries.
    This work was supported by RFBR grant 11-05-00557.


3) The Development of Tenjogawa (the Raised Bed River) and Human Impacts in the Lower Reach of Kizugawa River

    Satoshi Ishikawa (University Of Tokyo), Toshihiko Sugai

    “Tenjogawa” in Japanese means a raised bed river that has higher bed than the surrounded plain. Tenjogawa often has developed in Japan along artificially fixed river with embankments because of the convergence and deposition of sediment on the river bed. Development of Tenjogawa relates to flood process, environmental changes in historical age and civil engineering techniques in the past. Therefore, understanding Tenjogawa contributes to river improvement in the future and studies on development of alluvial lowland. However, there are few geomorphologic studies on Tenjogawa because it develops under artificial conditions. It’s not clear that why the deposition of sediment occurs and when Tenjogawa was formed and where it’s located on alluvial lowland. This study aims to clarify the development of Tenjogawa focusing on several rivers including the Kizugawa River located the south of Kyoto Prefecture in Japan. Many Tenjogawa concentrate along the tributaries of the Kizugawa River and there are so many engineering data and research results. We measure geomorphic parameters of rivers, such as catchment area, length, width and long profiles, and analyze sediment including radioactive dating. And we made a geomorphological map using aerial photographs, topographical maps, DEMs, and drilling core data. It shows the tributaries of Kizugawa River became Tenjogawa after construction of artificial levee and fixing channel along with the mainstream of Kizugawa River. We’ll discuss the changes of the amount of sediment, climate changes, human impacts and the relation between the alluvial lowland and Tenjogawa.



[CS10-1] Gender and Geography: intersectionality

    [ Wednesday 07 August 08:00-09:30 Room664 ]    Chair(s): Shirlena Huang (National Univ. of Singapore)

1) Intersecting inequalities and the experience of disaster: A case of the 2004 Tsunami response in Tamil Nadu

    Kanchan Gandhi (School of Planning and Architecture)

    In this paper I will demonstrate how gender intersected with class and caste in important ways to create differential experiences of a “natural” disaster among men and women in a Tsunami-affected village in the state of Tamil Nadu in India. Caste and class often overlap in the Indian context, thus rendering some communities chronically vulnerable to the lack of entitlements from the largely upper and middle class institutions such as the state and civil society. The coastal fishing communities are one such group that are considered “polluting” due to their occupation and thus live on the margins both socially and spatially. Post-Tsunami interventions caused significant class and gender struggles within these communities where violent conflicts occurred between the boat owners and fish-workers with regard to the distribution of fishing gear that altered class relations and some of the subaltern women emerged as new local leaders challenging the highly patriarchal milieu of these communities. The lowest on the caste hierarchy, the dalits received the poorest quality of housing after the disaster. It is difficult to appreciate most of these changes without understanding the intersectionality of the different vectors of social identity and inequality. Gendered differences alone cannot explain why some individuals and communities fared much worse before, during and after the disaster than others. Finally I will argue that a nuanced approach taking intersectionality of identities into account in a disaster or development context offers not only a better understanding of people’s differential vulnerabilities but also guides a more inclusive policy-making.


2) When Race Counts: Single Singaporean-Indian Women, Community, and the Biopolitics of Family

    Kamalini Ramdas (National University of Singapore)

    In the multiple spatialities of a globalising world, race is a crucial strategy for unifying and governing often disparate populations. It is implicated in the ‘myth of blood’ that is integral to understanding how roots, kinship and biological connectivity between individual bodies are naturalised. The strategy of race becomes internalised and transmitted across scales informing not only how national identities are produced, but also shaping individual subjectivities and community identities. This paper remains wary of the possible essentialisations of race that inform such a biopolitics of family and community. It provides a critique by analysing singlehood and the relationships of care between Singaporean-Indian women, their parents, and friends. Framing care in terms of a feminist care ethic, the paper draws from in-depth interviews with 39 single women across three cities, Singapore, Melbourne and London. It interrogates how race is strategically deployed not just by the state in Singapore but also contested and reproduced by the women and intimate others as they balance caring for each other across time and space. The caring relationships that emerge between the women and distant and proximate others problematise the scalar and racialised biopolitics of family in which family, community and nation seem connected in a nested hierarchy. Discursive contradictions of race somtimes emerge as the women and intimate others enact an ethics of care in which caring for and about the other is integral to living the life each wants to live, thus raising critical questions about how we become family and community.


3) Intersectionality in Transnational Spaces: Becoming Transmigrants in South Korea

    Hyunjoo Jung (Seoul National University)

    The concept of intersectionality is used to theorize how systems of oppressions operate in complex ways in constructing the positionality of marginalized subjects, and how different axes of identities, particularly gender and others, are interlocked in the processes. It is often adopted by feminist scholars to show multiple oppressions and dynamics in identity negotiation. Feminist geographers have contributed to expand this concept by incorporating space in constituting intersectionality. Based on this tradition, my paper attempts to further the discussion of intersectionality by bringing transnationalism literature. Transnational spaces often called as other similar names such as translocalities, transnational social fields or ethnic enclaves, are argued to constitute transnational positioning and imaginaries of transmigrants. Not all transmigrants, however, form their transnational identities in the same ways. Those spaces and networks that link those spaces are gendered, classed, raced, name a few, simultaneously. It is necessary to ask what kinds of transnationality are formed and by whom, rather than celebrate transnationality as a symptom of empowerment. The paper examines theoretical implications from both intersectionality and transnationalism literature in order to understand transmigrants in general and Asian migrant women in Korea in particular. Seeking for building theoretical foundation of proposed research, the presentation shows preliminary thoughts on this topic and highlights emerging issues in bridging two different approaches.


4) Migrant masculinities: the habitus of silence

    Junjia Ye (The Max Planck Institute for the Study of Religious and Ethnic Diversity)

    While there is a growing body of scholars that has examined the reproduction and experiences of masculinities, research on the experiences of migrant men remains relatively limited. My data shows that there remains considerable potential to contribute to this research field, in particular, analyzing the reproduction of masculinity through a class lens. Drawing upon migrants’ own narratives and notions of class by Bourdieu, I examine how Bangladeshi men make sense of their labour migration to Singapore, particularly after they fall out of work. Their responses are not only based upon instrumental calculation but are also powerfully shaped by a complex and enduring set of normative gendered formations which can further constrain their voices. Through the notion of habitus, I argue that men are also subjected to forms of symbolic violence and grapple with precarities in their work lives in ways that silence them.


5) Transnational Fathers 'Doing Family': Migrant Construction Workers in Singapore

    Shirlena Huang (National University of Singapore), May Ng

    The transnational, multi-local family configuration has become increasingly common across a wide spectrum of social classes across the world. The configuration most often identified (and best documented) is typically of poorer families of the Global South with a mother and/or father working abroad in wealthier countries of the West, or in East Asia, for economic survival. The literature has paid particular attention to how transnational mobility has impacted women’s lives, roles and identities and their intimacy with their families (particularly in terms of the mother-child relationship). In contrast, as Rhacel Parrenas has argued recently, transnational fathering has been little studied; she ventures that this is because fathering from a distance does not reconstitute normative gender behaviour within families. As a step towards filling this gap, this paper examines this oft-ignored aspect in the recent literature on transnational families, viz, the strategies and negotiations of the transnational father to maintain emotional intimacy with the children he has left behind. Through in-depth interviews with two dozen fathers who have moved from the People’s Republic of China and India to work as migrant construction workers in Singapore, the paper examines how they have negotiated the physical distance from their children, and the extent to which migration has shaped the fathering strategies (particularly with respect to the traditional script of fathering as breadwinner and authority figure) of these self-admittedly culturally conservative men from two different Asian countries.



[CS10-2] Gender and Geography: sexualities, sex, space and place

    [ Wednesday 07 August 10:00-11:30 Room664 ]    Chair(s): Lynda Johnston (Univ. of Waikato)

1) Queenstown’s Gay Ski Week: Queering local and global tourism spaces

    Lynda Johnston (University of Waikato)

    Gay Ski Week (GSW) is promoted as ‘the biggest gay alpine party in the southern hemisphere’ and attracts approximately 1000 attendees. During this week Queenstown, the ‘nature’ spaces of the ski and lake resort, as well as bars, restaurants, clubs, accommodation and retailing spaces, become ambiguously sexed. In other words, GSW complicates ideas of gender, sexuality, nature, and leisure in one of Aotearoa New Zealand’s most visited tourist places. The presence and performance of queer bodies challenges dominant representations of Aoteaora New Zealand’s pristine, ‘nature’ ‘100% Pure’ leisure spaces. Notably, the remote and beautiful Queenstown Lakes district, and the leisure that takes place there, features prominently in state sponsored tourism media campaigns. These representations are saturated with heteronormativity. Using interviews and participant observations I offer are three points in my presentation. First, I discuss the ways in which some participants are ambivalent about their role and place in Queenstown. I argue that despite Queenstown being a cosmopolitan tourist town, its traces of social and sexual conservativism is felt by GSW participants. Second, and in contrast, the majority of participants felt very relaxed about their sexed subjectivities and embodied performances during GSW. Many felt welcomed in Queenstown and drew on discourses of ‘holiday town’ cosmopolitanism. Third, I consider the mutually constitutive relationship between bodies, places, and nature spaces and show how GSW re-imagines the limited and normative representations of Aotearoa New Zealand’s tourism branding.


2) Ideology, feminised women body and luth in Japan: examining woman magazine Shufu-no-Tomo

    Masato Mori (Mie University)

    Post war gender issues are becoming examined in gender studies Japan currently. While some literatures focus on how women works were enclosed in domestic spheres through an ethical house wife ideology, a consideration of how that ideology was performed at women bodies tends to keep silence. Body space is an arena of continuous inscriptions of/by power. This paper discuss about historical development of women’s ethics of sexual desire through examining an influential monthly women magazine, Shufu-no-tomo that was launched in 1917 and survived until 2008 with an aim at disciplining good housewives, Japan. Women’s expressions of sexual desire and knowledge about sex were considered as immoral and expected to follow men’s instruction, while men could enjoy random love affairs. However, women were not passive subjects under the patriarchy, as the 1960s witnessed the rise of women’s interests in knowledge about sex life and increasing confessions of their sexual desire to an influential women doctor who gave sexual knowledge in the magazine. Importing an idea of ‘sexual organism’ from the West, Japanese women developed and recreated their bodies to enjoy sexual pleasure. Body space is not only an arena of governing power and but also a driving force of liberation.



[CS10-3] Gender and Geography: gender, risk and global change

    [ Wednesday 07 August 14:00-15:30 Room664 ]    Chair(s): Marcella Schmidt Di Friedberg (Univ. of Milano-Bicocca)

1) Women, risk and climate change in the Maldives

    Elena Dell'Agnese (University of Milano-Bicocca), Schmidt Di Friedberg Marcella

    More than any other country outside the Eastern Pacific, the Maldives are threatened by climate change and depend on coral reefs for the maintenance of land, building materials, food, and incomes related to fishing and tourism. In reason of its exasperated insularity, the Maldivian archipelago is subject to an increasing number of events at both global and local scale that jeopardize their integrity and functionality, such as resources over-exploitation, pollution, and episodic events such as tsunamis. The three-year research project of the University of Milan-Bicocca (Italy), located on Magoodhoo, Faafu Atoll, Republic of Maldives, aims to study the effects of global and local changes, in close proximity to the ecological and socio-economic systems under study, and to evaluate how these changes affect the social and economic resilience the country in relation to the exploitation of natural resources. Gender is an important factor in climate change debates and especially in adaptation to climate change. Women represent today about 70 per cent of the poor of the world. Climate change impacts on women are often not self-evident, and there is still little data, research, or case studies on the links between gender justice and climate change. Women, traditionally engaged in household subsistence activities are more dependent on the natural environment. To reduce the impacts of climate change on women’s lives is needed to implement gender mainstreaming in adaptation programs and measures, and to assure that women benefit from adaptation funds.


2) Gendering vulnerability reduction - Women and recovery from the 2011 East Japan Disaster

    Keiko Ikeda (Shizuoka University)

    This paper aims at enumerating major aspects of gender gap of vulnerability to disaster which manifested in the 2011 Great East Japan Disaster.
    Women and girls were disproportionately and differently affected in terms of health, livelihood, care-giving burden, security and social justice, though people’s experiences during the disaster and recovery also depended on age, class, ethnicity, family composition, individual pre-disaster experiences, and so on.
    All dimensions of disaster vulnerability - susceptibility to hazards, the potential to suffer damage, and the capacity for recovery - are affected by gendered patterns of access and control over resources, as well as by gender roles, responsibilities, and norms. This gendered pattern operates in all scales from family, community, region, nation to global level, and gives dynamic pressure putting specific group of people more at risk.
    While recovery efforts continue, generally, gendered vulnerability analysis is not utilezed in policy formulation and program planning for recovery, resulting in returning back to gender inequal pre-disaster society. Part of the reason is symply because there is not enough gender disaggregted data and systematic study on gendered vulnerability.
    As the first step to bridge this gap, this paper tries to propound a larger view on gendered vulnerability in Tohoku, which was constructed through gender patterns in various geographical scales, rather than focusing attention to any certain aspect of vulnerability. Most of the data was collected through interviews with disaster response and recovery planners and workers, most of who were also affected by the Great East Japan Disaster.


3) Rural Women's Access, Use and Adaptation Strategies to Water Scarcity in the Semi Arid Zone of Northern Borno State, Nigeria.

    Yagana Bukar (University of Maiduguri)

    The semi arid zone of Northeast Nigeria is an area of natural water scarcity characterized by low and highly variable rainfall and a continuous decline in water availability due to climate change.The area is located close to the shores of Lake Chad, identified as one of Africa's largest fresh water lakes. In recent years, the dramatic shrinkage of the lake has had profound effects on communities around the lake. The area also lacks adequate water supply infrastructure, increasing populations and other forms of human induced water scarcity all of which occur simultaneously leading to a complex water scenario. The provision of household water in this area is a gender defined role of women and as a result, women are disproportionately affected by scarcity. The women in these area are however not just mere victims of water scarcity but have rather developed coping strategies to ensure household survival in times of water stress. Yet despite their multiple roles, women's access and control of water resources are restricted. The situation of women is under researched and undocumented and the study attempts to fill this paucity in knowledge. The study examines the nature and extent of water scarcity using the WHO/UNICEF minimum recommended standard of 20 litres per capita per day. It also examines the sources of water supply, the distances covered and time spent by women in accessing water as well as women's coping and adaptation strategies to water scarcity.
    
    Key words: Water Scarcity, Gender, Semi Arid Zone, Nigeria, Africa


4) Marriage, gender and risk in southern Africa

    Nicola Ansell (Brunel University), Lorraine Van Blerk, Flora Hajdu, Elsbeth Robson

    This paper explores how global processes entailing increasing poverty and food insecurity alongside the global AIDS pandemic are impacting on the very local scale of gendered marriage practices. Using participatory research and in depth interviews with married and unmarried young adults mainly aged 18-24 in rural communities in Lesotho and Malawi, we explored attitudes towards, and experiences of, marriage. For both men and women the decision to marry (and whom to marry) was often highly strategic, based on a desire for ‘support’, particularly where a young person had lost their parents, lacked an independent income and was considered too old to continue to rely on other relatives. However, expectations and experiences diverged greatly between young men and young women and between the differing social and economic contexts. In both countries, marriage is strongly shaped by customary practices (involving, among other things, relocation of women in Lesotho and men in southern Malawi) and by contemporary pressures (orphanhood, education, unemployment, media depictions and risks associated with AIDS). These practices and pressures which are highly significant given that, in situations of poverty, when, where and whom a young person marries can have profound implications for their life chances.



[CS10-4] Gender and geography: gendering urban spaces

    [ Wednesday 07 August 16:00-17:30 Room664 ]    Chair(s): Ellen Rita Hansen (Emporia State Univ.)

1) Mapping Women in Tehran’s Public Spaces: An Application of Geo-Ethnography in Feminist Geography

    Nazgol Bagheri (University of Missouri)

    Functioning public spaces are the public arenas whereby individuals come together to exercise the ideals of equality and modernity through discourse and other actions. Feminists have critiqued the now classical position regarding the role of public spheres and modern spaces in building democratic societies. Part of their critique is that ideals of equality can exist alongside practices of exclusion and repression. These boundaries of exclusion are often gendered. My research engages these critical positions to suggest an even more nuanced use of analytical categories such as public/private and modern/traditional. The central theme of my work is to demonstrate that abstract analytical tools and methods merely replicate binary distinctions and mask the fact that public/private and modern/traditional do not map in simple ways with respect to gender.
    Meidan-e-Tajrish, Sabz-e-Meidan, and Marvi Meidancheh in Tehran accommodate a visualization of gendered space. The process by which Iranian women attach symbolic meanings to those public spaces offers ethnographic insight into the mutual construction of gender identities and public spaces. The contrasting urban locations of the selected case studies provide a useful comparison between what appear to be distinctly modern or traditional. Findings suggest we use caution in presuming gender as an essential category. This paper is also a response to the urgent need for more ethnographic work in Middle Eastern contexts in order to offer a more realistic picture of Muslim women’s presence in urban public spaces. In addition, the benefits of Geo-Ethnography, which combines what are often understood as competing methods are discussed.


2) New Town changing into Old Town: A case study of two major suburban new towns in Tokyo and Osaka

    Orie Sekimura (Gunma Prefectural Women's University)

    This paper highlights the reconstruction process of a major planned new town in the metropolitan suburbs in Japan and its regional context.
    
    In postwar Japan, metropolitan municipalities such as Tokyo and Osaka established large suburban residential areas since the 1960s, which were planned as an ideal “container” to accommodate the Japanese modern nuclear family on the basis of Fordism. The typical residents were nuclear families; men as the breadwinners commuted to the city center and worked long hours, while housewives devoted themselves to housework and childcare. The suburban new town thus functioned as a gendered space to instill prescribed gender roles.
    
    The Japanese suburban new town has greatly changed since then. After 2000, the new town greeted the era of privatization with the rebuilding of the housing complex, which had become obsolete. Luxury condominiums, which cost one hundred million yen, appeared in Senri New Town in Osaka. In Tama New Town in Tokyo, private developers are eagerly awaited as the “trump card” of estate regeneration. With redevelopment of private developers, the new town is being modified as a private space. In addition to the obsoleteness of the housing complex, this has become a matter of concern for the residents of new towns and the municipalities.
    
    The study examines two major suburban new towns in Tokyo and Osaka, which have experienced a radical paradigm shift during half a century and discusses the possibilities and problems of new towns from the gender view point.


3) Women employment under the one child policy in Urban

    Yu Qing Zhang (Program in Arts and Science Education)

    The labor rate of Chinese women is relatively higher in the world. However, it should be noted that several problems exist in working women. One of the serious problems is how to take care of their children. In the past, most Chinese families lived together with three generations, therefore grandparents always help young couples to take care of their children. By contrast, nowadays nuclear family has become common. It is essential to reorganize that the nursery school should reduce the child care burden for those women.
     This research aims to clarify the nursing conditions in Dalian, mainly focuses the change of the conditions of child care, the policy of local government for child care and the contents of child care service. I conducted an intensive interview survey for mothers with infants in kindergarten. Through the results of my study, I intended to consider the requirements from working women and the solution of child care.
     Most of women work from 9 o’clock to 17 o’clock. However, if not working overtime they can arrive at kindergarten at 17:30. It has already been late for picking up their children. Moreover, there are many women who work on weekends and national holidays. So it is necessary to substantiate the content of childcare services, such as holiday children care and extended day care. It is too difficult to balance the work and children caring, especially in the nuclear family. So it is essential to improve the childcare environment for working women.



[CS10-5] Gender and geography: women and work

    [ Thursday 08 August 08:00-09:30 Room664 ]    Chair(s): Hyunjoo Jung (Seoul National Univ.)

1) Gender and Industrial Restructuring in the Philippines: Impact on Urban Migrant Community in Metropolitan Manila

    Makiko Ota (Ochanomizu University)

    The recent industrial restructuring of the export sector in the Philippines has caused the growth of service economy and defeminization of manufacturing employment in Metropolitan Mania while increasing job opportunities for women in the export industries in its suburbia.
     This presentation explores the development process of gendered division of labor in the fish port area of Metropolitan Manila under the influence of restructuring of export industries. The livelihoods and migration practices of two kinships in the urban low-income settlement of the port area are examined to show the gendered impact of such restructuring on the microlevel community.


2) Female work participation and occupational composition among the tribes of Assam, India

    Madhushree Das (Gauhati University)

    The study of the tribal women’s work participation and occupational pattern is vital towards understanding the socio-economic functioning of a region. The work participation rate and occupational composition among them, and prevailing sex disparity in different economic pursuits certainly reveal their economic status and the system of social organization in it. In fact, the working force and the occupational pattern among the tribal women of a region greatly determine the character of its socio- economic progress. The participation of tribal women in workforce brings in two positive effects in their society- it raises the quality of living and exerts an effective control on family size. Moreover the entire chain of production functions is also shared directly or indirectly by them, working at home or outside. Hence, their economic contribution is immensely significant, although most of their work remain unpaid, unrecognized and undervalued. In fact, women share at least half, if not more the burden of most of the work (UNDP,1995). Thus, their employment status and contribution need to be viewed in the light of this reality. With this end in view an attempt is made in this paper to analyze the economic character of the tribal women in Assam based on both primary and secondary data. While secondary data has been obtained from relevant Census of India publications for the period 1991-2001, necessary primary data has been collected through a field survey in the dominant pockets of eight major tribal groups (2009-2012).


3) Work and Stress: An Insight into the Lives of Female Workers of Rungajan and Gopitara Tea Estates in Assam, India

    Parijat Borgohain (Cotton College)

    Work and stress are closely related. Stress may occur due to incapability, lack of energy and enthusiasm to perform a certain task or due to time constraint. Female tea garden workers suffer from stress and work frustration as they have to perform a multitude of household tasks as well as work in the tea gardens. However, the pattern of stress is in no way uniform among them. Besides, the effects of stress also seem to assume different orders and patterns. It is in this backdrop, the paper attempts to give an insight into the lives of the female tea garden workers of Rungajan and Gopitara Tea Estates in Assam. Factors such as income, education, nature of job, dependent members, earning members, job satisfaction, domestic violence and recreational facilities have been taken into account. The study has revealed that stress and work frustration are influenced by income, domestic violence and facilities available to the workers.
    The study is based on both primary and secondary data. Primary data has been collected through a field survey of the workers In addition; secondary information has been collected from sources such as books, journals and the Internet. Further, appropriate statistical methods and techniques including bar diagrams, pie charts, etc. have been used wherever possible for interpreting the findings of the study.


4) Some Issues on Rural Women Informal Sector Activities In Jigawa State, Nigeria

    Nuratu Badamasi Muhammad (Bayero University Kano-Nigeria)

    The study examined the spatial distribution of the informal sector activities engaged in by Women in rural areas of Jigawa State by means of taking inventory of these activities with a view to ascertain whether there is any variation between the villages and analyze and explain the factors or reasons for this. Ten settlements were randomly picked from four cardinal directions: North, south west and east for the study and data was collected from the 270 samples purposively selected from the sampled settlements. Field observation and the focus group discussion were used to collected information in addition to use a structured questionnaire. The data collected was analyzed through the use of descriptive statistics and the chi square statistical technique. The result of the study shows that the informal types of activities engaged in by women can be categorized into four major types namely; arts and crafts, farming, processing and petty trading, with petty trading (41%) being the dominant. The chi square analysis shows that there is a significant difference in location and type of females’ informal sector activity since. It however shows significant difference in investment and profit across the study settlement. The recommendation of this paper is that women need to be educated on new methods/ innovation in the production of goods and services meant to add value, expand production and increase profit income. In addition women need to be assisted by government and stakeholders with soft loans to expand their business or start a business of their own.



[CS10-6] Teaching and Learning: theory and practice

    [ Thursday 08 August 10:00-11:30 Room664 ]    Chair(s): Holly Hapke (East Carolina Univ.)

1) Crossing Borders, Exotic Women, and the Challenge of Teaching Gender in Regional Geography

    Holly Hapke (East Carolina University)

    In a 1997 essay entitled, ""Cross-Cultural Connections, Border Crossings, and ‘Death by Culture',” Uma Narayan identifies two problems underlying the project of learning and teaching about other cultures that are pertinent to the feminist geographic education. One set is related to the effect national contexts have on the construction of feminist issues and the ways these are then understood when they cross national borders. The second is the way “culture” is invoked to explain forms of violence and oppression of Third World women. Using Narayan’s critique of Western discourse about “dowry murder” in India as its starting point, this paper considers how geographers might confront the two sets of problems Narayan identifies to teach about gender issues in other cultural contexts in a way avoids exoticism and cultural reduction. My discussion focuses on how I have used the film, “Water” and commentary on the film and the controversy surrounding its production to teach about gender in South Asia in a way that makes apparent to students the misperceptions that arise when we try to understand women’s issues from our own cultural standpoint and helps them interrogate their own biases in how they understand women’s issues in different geographic contexts.


2) Gender, Ethnicity and White Privilege

    Ellen Rita Hansen (Emporia State University)

    An encounter with white students at a workshop on diversity resulted in a soul-searching exploration of personal privilege and my own right to instruct others about diversity, patriarchy, and hierarchy from a privileged insider's position. As a professor at a small state college campus with limited ethic/racial diversity, where efforts are underway to deal with increasing pressures to recruit and retain a more diverse faculty, staff, and student body, I attended and co-facilitated a workshop intended to educate students regarding diversity and to encourage and empower them to embrace a more diverse campus. Lack of familiarity with issues beyond a simple and generalized perspective on ethnic diversity, and lack of experience in venues that challenged their own privileged position meant that the students met the discussion of white privilege with resentment and skepticism. This paper reports on my ongoing efforts to understand, teach and learn more about white privilege in the context of an overwhelmingly white college campus; and on the work being conducted on campus to create a warmer climate for diversity of all sorts. The work includes a survey of the campus climate among students and faculty, participation in conferences on diversity, and efforts to include teaching about diversity across the curriculum.


3) Preparing the environment: Montessori education as a feminist intevention in neoliberalizing universities

    Carrie Mott (University of Kentucky)

    Maria Montessori (1870-1952) developed the Montessori method, a pedagogy oriented around the idea that a child has an innate drive to learn what s/he needs to know and an intrinsic motivation to explore and educate her/himself. The role of the Montessori teacher is to act as a guide, in support of students’ self-directed process. I extend Montessori’s approach to consider how geographic educators might better contribute to the preparation of a classroom environment conducive to self-directed learning in the neoliberalizing university context. Montessori’s insights for geographic education at the university level are self-evident: the classroom should be a place that fosters exploration and creative learning possibilities, there should be a meaningful relationship between educator and student, and students should have a meaningful relationship with one another. Neoliberalizing universities and the increasing consumer-culture of undergraduate education often stand in the way of educators’ ability to connect with students and adequately prepare a classroom for the kind of learning Montessori described. This presentation presents an overview of Montessori’s pedagogy and its possibilities for enriching geographic education. In addition, I offer some practical suggestions for ways that we might bring aspects of the Montessori method into the university classroom. In doing so, I build on the work of feminist geographers who emphasize the significance of emotion and the personal in the classroom (Browne 2005; England 1994; Kobayashi 1999). In addition, I hope to call geographers’ attention to the relevance of Montessori’s work for our thinking about feminist pedagogy in geography.


4) A Foot in the Door -- Teaching Feminist Geography in Taiwan

    Shew-Jiuan B. Su (National Taiwan Normal University), Yu-Ling Song, Nora Chiang

    Several reasons account for slow progress in the development of feminist geography in Taiwan: the male-dominated structure of geography departments, emphasis on the scientific as opposed to social scientific nature of geography; and a general lack of feminist consciousness among geographers who tend to study issues with male-dominated perspectives. The small proportion of women faculty has also slowed the development of feminist geography. While a few courses incorporate gender perspectives or lectures, gender blindness continues to prevail in teaching and research in human geography.
    
    Two recent factors may help to advance feminist geography in Taiwan:
    1) The number of female faculty members has increased, providing momentum in the appreciation of gender geography; 2) Increasing internationalization of the discipline in East Asia, may foster opportunities for collaborative work with geographers where feminist work is more developed, as at the National University of Singapore and through participation in the IGU Gender Commission.
    
    To assess the current status and prospects, this paper draws on interviews with women and men geographers teaching gender/feminist geography in Taiwan addressing the following questions: 1) What drives them in pursuing gender and geography in teaching and research? 2) Why do they think it is important to include feminist geography in their curriculum? 3) What are the opportunities for and obstacles to offering courses on gender and geography? 4) What impact does this have on students?
    
    Furthermore, this paper hopes to investigate the reasons why woman geographers do not adopt gender or female perspectives in their teaching for courses.



[CS10-7] Gender and Geography: emerging themes

    [ Thursday 08 August 14:00-15:30 Room664 ]    Chair(s): Ragnhild Lund (Norwegian Univ. of Science and Technology)

1) Studying gendered mobilities in Asia

    Ragnhild Lund (Norwegian University of Science and Technology)

    Indigenous people have increasingly been portrayed as marginalized victims with no rights. There has been little emphasis on their lived realities, namely how they strategize to survive on a daily basis. Mobility is becoming a major coping strategy, and the implications of mobile livelihoods are different for women and men. Such mobility may be seen as direct impacts of increasing geographical connectivity as well as increasing external influence, often manifested through neo-liberalist policies as enacted by majority groups. This presentation critically examines how mobility is changing people’s lives in indigenous communities in three Asian countries which are presently experiencing rapid livelihoods transformations; China, India and Laos. An analytical framework will be presented.


2) The migrant bride: Post-marriage residence of Arab-Palestinian women in Israel

    Orna Blumen (University of Haifa)

    This study sheds light on a rarely studied issue, the imposed migration of newly wedded young women to the vicinity of their husbands' family. Patri-locality is an important practice of Arab-Patriarchal societies, especially in rural areas. A Bride's re-location to the quarter of the husband's family compels loyalty and confirms her absorption in the men's lineage. Inasmuch this re-location attests to weakening and deteriorating links with her birth family, and even its abandonment. The burden this imposed migration entails for young brides and wives is immense. Based on in-depth interviews, this study aims to unveil the experience of such uprooted women. The respondents are Arab-Palestinian women who abide by the traditional code and following their marriage, emigrated from their home communities to those of their husbands in rural and semi-rural locales in Northern Israel.
    The most prominent themes that structure the experience of these women are vulnerability, estrangement, marginality, misplacement, and loss of their 'real' (birth) family, friends and homes. All the respondents endured an unremitting deterioration in their standings in the family and in the community, and demotion has been institutionalized into their lives as married women who are disparaged as 'foreigners in their village of residence'. While these women have been re-located to their husbands' place of residence they have been discriminatorily absorbed by the family and the community. The entanglement of power relations that surrounds these migrant women is discussed.


3) A scalar analysis of cross-border fertility: commercial surrogacy in China

    Elaine Ho (National University of Singapore)

    Cross-border commercial fertility has gathered interest amongst legal scholars and anthropologists, but remains relatively understudied in geography. Geographical concepts underpin and shape cross-border fertility options at the intersecting scales of women’s bodies, national reproductive concerns and international bodily and bodily substance flows (i.e. sperm and eggs). Cross-border commercial fertility options include international adoptions, IVF treatments for biological parents and commercial (gestational) surrogacy. The presentation focuses on commercial surrogacy in China and engages with feminist scholarship on the regulation of women’s bodies by society and the state. This research-in-progress is informed by analyses of news reports, legislation and websites. The presentation departs from extant scholarship on Indian commercial surrogacy by considering China where commercial surrogacy has become a popular fertility option for Chinese couples and non-Chinese couples. It draws attention to, first, the classed and gendered dimensions of commercial surrogacy when poor women’s bodies are subject to discipline by fertility agencies acting as economic intermediaries. Second, the presentation juxtaposes arguments of kinship and emotional attachments with commercial surrogacy. Third, the presentation investigates the ‘grey zone’ jointly inhabited by surrogate mothers and infertile couples due to Chinese regulations prohibiting gestational surrogacy. This argument links women’s bodies to the national context as lawmakers regulate the morality/immorality of procreation. There is further legal ambivalence regarding the rights of international clients, surrogate mothers and the child conceived cross-nationally. The presentation raises questions about the legal, moral-ethical and geographical implications of cross-border commercial fertility.


4) Background and Improvement Points of Low Birth Rate in Japan

    Eriko Ikeya (Kochi National College of Technology)

    Low fertility is a serious problem in modern world. Total Fertility Rate of Japan decreased from about 2.0 in 1970s to 1.3 in 2000s. Goodman classified Japan as an East Asian welfare model. On the other hand, Fukuda included Japan to Southern European group after comparing governmental supports. I want to make clear differences and background of low fertility to improve serious conditions.
    Compared with the United Kingdom, one of European Welfare countries, Japan has many low points in support system for child rearing. First point is poor support in pregnancy and child birth. Second is short of nursery seats and child care services. Over forty thousand small children are on waiting list in recent years. Third point is slow improvement in gender equality and work life balance policy. Japan has Lows of Maternity leave and Child Care Leave, but efficiency is low. Many small companies do not permit their laborers to take maternity leaves. And only fourteen percent of mother took child care leave in 2007. Forth is burden of education cost. Expenditure by family finance from kindergarten to university become almost same cost as build a house.
     Third and forth points are not easy to improve. Third point is based on gender division of labor. Forth point is more complicated. Popularization of higher education has spread in Japan gradually and it was supported by family finance. But burden of education are becoming too heavy to bear in recent years.



[CS10-8] Working Together: challenges and strategies for collaborating across boundaries (panel discussion)

    [ Thursday 08 August 16:00-17:30 Room664 ]    Chair(s): Janice J Monk (Univ. of Arizona)

1) Working Together: Challenges and Strategies for Collaborating across Boundaries

    Janice J Monk (University of Arizona), Joos Droogleever Fortuijn, Ragnhild Lund, Michael Solem

    This session will take the form of short introductory remarks by panelists who will review some approaches and experiences for collaborating across academic/community boundaries and for working together to conduct research and engage in teaching that crosses national boundaries. It will then invite those attending the session to take part in small group discussions to review their own experiences and the potential they see for future collaborations, especially those that take advantage of the relationships through the International Geographical Union and its Commissions. Following the small group discussions, the session will conclude with reporting back from the discussion groups to the audience.



[CS11-1] Traditional wisdom and modern knowledge in geography teaching for the earth’s future

    [ Thursday 08 August 08:00-09:30 RoomI ]    Chair(s): John Lidstone (Queensland Univ. of Technology)

1) A Study on the Geography Test: Comparative Analysis of Education Administration on Geography Education in Japan and the U.S.A.

    Toshimitsu Tabe (Japan Women's University)

    I have discussed evaluation in geography education . First, I have posed a problem of overemphasis on two subjects, Japanese and Mathematics, as a result of the recent Japanese test policy. Next, I have summarized favorable progress in the U.S.A. in activating geography education because of financial support from the NGS (National Geographic Society) from 1986 to 1995. However, as a result of NCLB (No Child Left Behind) Act enacted in 2002, overemphasis on English, Mathematics started. Recently, however, diversification of survey targets and evaluation methods has been progressing that we review Geography Test ,considering such needs from Education Administration in Japan.Evaluation system changed from absolute evaluation to relative evaluation in 2002 in Japan and content of tests has been coming under review since then. The contents of tests which put emphasis on rote knowledge changed, however, the quality of classwork would not improve. If classwork is not relevant to evaluation system, students who tried hard in class are not rewarded and would eventually lose interest in class activities . Under these circumstances, the Ministry of Education, Culture, Sports, Science, and Technology in Japan carried out Nationwide Academic Achievement and Study Situation Survey in April 2007. It is widely believed that the Ministry of Education decided to implement it in response to a “debate over a decline in academic performance” on the Programme for International Student Assessment (PISA) in 2003.


2) The Commission on Geographical Education: Traditions and Triumphs

    Joseph Paul Stoltman (Western Michigan University), Norman Graves

    The Commission on Geographical Education (CGE) of the IGU has a long standing tradition within the scientific organization based on the assumption that learning geography begins in childhood and continues through adulthood. Norman Graves and Joseph Stoltman, two of the chairs of the CGE from the latter part of the 20th century reflect on the traditions and triumphs of the commission over a period of approximately 65 years. They have drawn on archives, observations, and common memories to stitch together the ideas and projects that brought geography educators to international venues at least every four years, and increasingly more often in recent times, to present and discuss the international condition of geography as a school and university subject. The triumphs of the commission are highlighted by: the publication of international source books by the Unesco Press; an International Charter that guides development of geography curriculum in a wide range of countries; published research in topical books, special issues, and proceedings of conferences; the establishment of a flagship journal for reporting research; and the collaboration by people from many countries on research topics of importance to geographic education globally. The commission's work has been the product of individual and group dedication to the discipline with keen attention to students and teachers, those responsible for communicating the importance of geography to each new generation.


3) Combination with the traditional geographical learning and the geography to promote a logical thought.

    Yoshiyasu Ida (University of Tsukuba)

    In Japan, traditional geographical learning which means the great importance to memorize knowledge becomes the main stream of the geography learning. The importance of learning basic knowledge is emphasized by national curriculum. The one of reasons is the lesson style that one question has only one answer. Students would like to take one correct answer for one question. So both a teacher and the student request the geography which reveals correct answer. In other words, memorizing geography of geographical matters is popular in Japan. The image of geography learning by students is the memorizing of regional matters and taking skill of map and geographical information. Therefore, in iGEO, Japanese team has high score about multimedia test, but can’t mark high in description and field work tests. In this situation, the logical thought of geography should be promoted for Japanese students. For the revision of the next national curriculum, school geography should be altered. In the geography of junior high school, traditional geographical learning whose content is the main of regional geography would keep in national curriculum. On the other hand, high school geography would be promoted geography with the logical and critical thought. Now in Japan, geography is just optional subjects in high school. But geography should be required subject and student would learn how to investigate and deepen as geography. In addition, optional geography in high school, regional geography with traditional and innovation should be learned. The curriculum of high school geography is examining by us.


4) Learning disaster from the Ise Bay tyhoon through map making activities

    Koji Ohnishi (University of Toyama)

    The aim of this research is to analyze the effectiveness of children’s map making activities to learn about disasters. The Ise Bay typhoon did great damage in this area about 50 years ago. In 2009, there were many events that provided learning opportunities from the original disaster. One of these events was a map contest intended to support children's disaster learning. The concept of this contest was to carry forward the disaster impacts and meaning to future generations. The contest had two categories; one is the map ""at the time of the Ise Bay typhoon"", the other is the map ""looking forward from the time of the disaster"". When children's groups make maps, they need to do fieldwork. In the ""at the time of the Ise Bay typhoon"", all of the participants were from the heavily damaged district and the contents of the maps were complemented with interviews of the disaster victims and searching the traces of disaster. Through these activities, children got the objective knowledge of the district they visited. In the category of ""looking forward from the time of the disaster"", students used the data from local government. Participants learnt the scheme of disaster mitigation in the local area. In these activities, children not only gathered data from interviews and did, fieldwork, but they also made maps. They learnt the local district detail through disaster map making activities. Map making is effective activity for children to understand the situation where they live.



[CS11-3] Didactics and pedagogy in geographical education(1)

    [ Tuesday 06 August 10:00-11:30 RoomI ]    Chair(s): Joop Van Der Schee (VU Univ. Amsterdam)

1) International cooperation and geography education

    Joop Van Der Schee (VU University Amsterdam)

    Geography is concerned with human-environment interactions in the context of specific places and locations. Geography education helps people to understand differences and changes on planet Earth.
    Nowadays modern technology offers many possibilities that can help geography teachers all over the world to use information about other parts of the globe. Nevertheless the international exchange of geographical information between geographers in education does not seem to assume large proportions. Do for instance Japanese geography teachers have sufficient access to up-to-date and relevant geographical information about Peru, Bulgaria and Algeria and vice versa? Is there enough good geographical information easy available at the international level? And if not, what factors impede an international exchange of up-to-date and good geographical information? Is it desirable to build a network to get more up-to-date and relevant geographical information for geography teaching? And if so, should this be an important task in the programme of work of international communities of geographers in education like the Commission on Geographical Education of the International Geographical Union?
    This contribution explores this issue. Its focus is to strengthen the international community of geography teachers by improving its access to content knowledge and good practices of using geographical knowledge. It also wants to explore ways for students to communicate efficiently and effectively across borders about human-environment interactions in the context of their specific places and locations.


2) The collaborative production in Geography Teaching

    Yan Navarro (Colegio Pedro II)

    Nowadays, social networks have become part of life of millions of people. Since many users of these social networks are children or teenagers we must ask: are they prepared to use appropriately these social networks, and the Internet in general?
    It is very important to understand the positive and negative aspects of using social networks and to reflect on what should be the proper way to use these educational tools. Therefore our point of view should aim at making the user become, himself, a subject of the process, nor just a passive spectator within the social network.
    
    This active participation in social networks should be associated (linked) initially with the school, which is next to the family, the place where the child or adolescent should be educated in the use of these tools. Within this context, it is necessary to reflect on how to use these tools to manage this knowledge we have gained in the media and on the Internet.
    The new model based on information and communication technologies involves new forms of sociability, which only makes sense in collaborative environments.
    
    It is necessary to teach students that new skill: how to evaluate information sources, to be able to critically analyze contents and especially to produce their own content.
    The aim of this paper is to analyze the role of teaching geography in the above mentioned process by using the experience of the Center for Studies and Research in Geography Audiovisual - College Pedro II, in Rio de Janeiro.


3) The Development of Geographic Teaching Model in Hazard Mitigation of the Earthquake and Tsunami for The Elementary School in Southern Coast West Java

    Samsul Bachri (Institute of Technology Bandung), Irdam Adil

    ABSTRACT
    Indonesia located in the prone area to natural disaster, especially to earthquakes and tsunami. Up to now, teaching material related to Hazard mitigation is still limited in Social studies curriculum. Therefore, the lessons of Hazard management is needed in elementary school
    
    This research was conducted to develop a teaching model of natural disaster mitigation, in related to the earthquake and tsunami disaster for sixth grade of the elementary school. The study area is selected 3 areas; Pangandaran, Pamengpeuk and Pelabuhanratu. located in south coast of West Java. This study begins with a needs assessments, through surveys, curriculum analysis, observations, model development, Forum Discussion Group, through experimental trials Field tests to the teaching model which were conducted in Elementary School Pangandaran.
    
     The results of field tests showed that a significant progress toward understanding of the students in the disaster mitigation of earthquake and tsunami. Furthermore, the evaluation in some parts of the model were performed in order to fit the Indoneisan conditions..
    
    The constributions of this research are as a teaching model in Hazard Mitigation of the Earthquake and Tsunami which are Geographic subject as parts of social studies for six grade of the elemantary school . Those subjects were arranged in the form of 1). Curriculum and syllabus, 2) Lesson plans, 3) Teaching materials and model of learning rxercises, 4) Textbook and 5) Pre-post test exam materials for evaluation of students.
    
    :Key words : Teaching model, Disasster mitigation, Needs Asessments


4) Comparative Survey for Assessment of Geography in Mongolia and in Igcse of CIE

    Bayarmaa Zogsoosuren (New Era international laboratory school of MES), Batchuluun Yembuu

    Governmental International Laboratory School “New Era” that practices Cambridge educational curriculum was established in 2010 with goal to harmonize Mongolian educational system with International Educational trend of 21st century. Curriculum of this school includes 15 courses similiar to IGCSE of CIE, AS/A level and is preparing to take its first IGCSE Geography-0460 examination in June 2013.
    
    The objective of this study was to examine the differences in geographical education assessment between Mongolian and IGCSE of CIE.
    
    Geographical Education Standards of Mongolia consists of 3 domains, including 1) human and environment, 2) relationship between human and nature and 3) the regions. This theme correlates to CIE’s geographical curriculum in 90%. The survey that correlated the Mongolian and International Geographical Educational curriculum had showed before that rest 10% difference originates from Mongolian secondary educational system.
    
    Assessment criteria for evaluation of Geographical Education Standards of Mongolia and syllabus of its implementation program is developed equivalent to that of evaluation for IGCSE of Cambridge. Evaluation for skills to interpret and usage of Geographical maps or 2nd examination of CIE corresponds well to that of Mongolian practice. The main difference is observed within the 3rd and 4th examination to evaluate the skills and usage acquired during working on course thesis.
    
    We performed analysis on grade advancing examination of 37 ninetieth graders of “New Era” school in 2012 (undertaking Mongolian Geography course). Examination consisted of 4 types of 7 assignments, 25% for each and 100% in total.



[CS11-4] Didactics and pedagogy in geographical education(2)

    [ Thursday 08 August 10:00-11:30 RoomI ]    Chair(s): Joop Van Der Schee (VU Univ. Amsterdam)

1) Geography Case Studies of the 2011 East Japan Disasters: Materials for High School and University-level Instruction and Collaboration

    Michael Solem (Association of American Geographers)

    This paper discusses the process and outcomes of an AAG workshop organized in collaboration with the University of Tokyo to catalyze educational collaborations between high schools and universities in the United States and Japan.
    
    A delegation of 23 geography teachers and professors from the U.S. and Japan collaboratively developed new online case studies and collaborative projects for the AAG’s Center for Global Geography Education (CGGE). The case studies draw on geographical research by American and Japanese geographers to offer analyses of the 2011 East Japan earthquake, tsunami, and nuclear disasters. Each case study investigates a different geographic dimension of the disasters and is paired with a collaborative project. The aim of the collaborative project is to deploy social networking and interactive technologies for connecting geography classes in the U.S. and Japan for discussions, spatial data analysis, and problem-based learning activities. The materials are available at no cost on the CGGE website (http://globalgeography.aag.org).
    
    The workshop began with a two-day field study of areas in the Tohoku region that were impacted by the March 2011 disasters. After returning from the Tohoku region, participants from both countries worked in small groups to brainstorm and formulate the details of their case studies and collaborative projects, using guidelines for writing inquiry-based activities and interactive hypermedia.
    
    The paper presentation will conclude with examples of using the workshop products for collaborative online international learning.


2) An Augmented Reality App for River Fishing and Learning Geography

    Che-Ming Chen (National Taiwan Normal University)

    Fishing is a lifetime leisure activity and it provides the opportunity for learning about aquatic ecosystems. River fishing involves the complex interaction among the distribution of fish habitats and many local environmental elements such as water temperature, velocity, water quality, water depth, weather and season. Therefore, it’s difficult for most novice anglers to understand the implicit geographic information of the river and find the suitable fishing spots. The aim of this study is to design a mobile augmented reality (AR) application (App) to locate the relevant fishing spots for anglers. The AR App in the smartphone provides a “heads-up” display of geolocated fishing spots superimposed onto the real-world environment around the Xindian River in northern Taiwan. Meanwhile, it shows the environmental information of each spot including fish species, habitats as well as angling skills. It also reminds anglers about regulations on specific species, slot limits, and prohibited fishing areas. When users decide on a fishing spot, the App will navigate them to the destination using Google Map. The goal of this App is not only helping anglers to interact with the geographic information of the river in real-time but also hoping them better understand and apply environmental ethics.


3) Creating geography resources on migration post East Japan Earthquake disaster: An outcome of U.S.-Japan collaboration

    Takashi Shimura (Joetsu University of Education), Niem Tu Huynh, Wei Li, Rie Nakano, Peter Ndiang' Ui

    On March 11, 2011, an earthquake in the Tohoku region of Japan caused a tsunami and damaged the Fukushima Dai-ichi Nuclear Power Station, causing leakage of radiation material. This marks the first ever such triple-disaster in human history. Its impact has resulted in mass migration. This presentation describes the development process of the migration module for the AAG Center for Global Geography Education (CGGE).
    Migration patterns and processes resulting from disasters are distinct, causing mass migration that is influenced by both spatial and temporal dimensions. This module addresses these issues.
    The project began with brainstorming electronically, followed by an excursion to the devastated areas, which provided context and firsthand experiences for the non-Japanese team members, then a two-day workshop in Japan. The module, written bilingually in English and Japanese, was finalized through online communication. It consists of a Case Study (CS) and a Collaborative Project (CP). The CS examines the ongoing human response and adaptation to the disaster, in order to develop an understanding of the disasters and the impacts on Japanese communities. The concepts of migration are explained, followed by some statistical data, maps, and a story by a high school principal at the disaster-impacted area. Further learning includes creation of online maps and analysis of statistics. The CP provides activities for students living in different parts of the world to engage and benefit from a synergistic learning environment. They include migration data mapping, interpretation, and contextualization of impacts on people from reading authentic victims’ stories.


4) The Teaching of Geography in Kano State Secondary Schools: From the Gender Perspective

    Nuratu Badamasi Muhammad (Bayero University Kano-Nigeria)

    The need for teaching Geography in secondary Schools as Foundation for other courses in tertiary institution cannot be over emphasized. However, as with other science related disciplines, the Geography tend to be gender biased in its study and teaching. It is view of this that the study examined and analysis the teaching of Geography in Kano state secondary schools from gender perspective. Random sampling technique was used to select the schools for the study- where in each school sampled all the geography teachers were used as samples. Primary source of data was through the administration of questionnaire to the samples selected. To analyze the data descriptive statistics and chi square was used to test for significant differences in the female/male teachers’ ratio .The findings of this research showed significant difference in the number of male female teachers in the teaching of Geography Kano state secondary schools. The recommendation of this paper is that women need to be given all the necessary incentives to study and teach Geography at tertiary and secondary schools respectively.
    Key words: Geography, Teaching, Secondary schools, Gender



[CS11-5] Perspectives in geographical education (1)

    [ Thursday 08 August 14:00-15:30 RoomI ]    Chair(s): Clare Brooks (Univ. of London)

1) Consequences of Replacement of Geographical Education With Social Studies is School Curriculum : A Case Study of Nigeria

    Lawal H. Salisu (Federal College of Education Kano)

    Geography which is widely recognized as very essential in making a child to appreciate his environment, and learn how to live peacefully with it, has however, being substituted with social studies for long. The consequences of such shift on the overall teaching and learning of Geography in general and the depth of knowledge of even those that study it remain generally not documented for many years. This paper examined the consequences of this change. This study was conducted during 2011/2012 academic session in FCE Kano, Nigeria and involved 360 students that graduated from senior secondary school between 2003-2011. The result obtained indicates that for Human Geography pass and fail was 36% and 64% respectively. For physical, it was 32% and 68% respectively for pass and fail. For Regional it was 33% and 67% for pass and fail while for Map work only 28% of them passed and 72% failed. It was concluded that the student’s depth of Geographical knowledge was generally weak and most probably reflect relatively shorter period over which they were exposed to the discipline during the last 3 years of secondary school period. Likewise, it’s apparent that long period of learning social studies have not equipped the student’s the fundamental thematic Geographical issues. It’s recommended that the teaching of Geography in Nigeria school should be re introduced back at the very 1st year of primary school education. A model for such re introduction has been proposed, and is referred to as GEOPYRAMID


2) Geography Education for Sustainability in Chile

    Fabian Rodrigo Araya (University of La Serena)

    This presentation analyzes diverse aspects of the school system and geography education for sustainable development in Chile. These fields are part of the social sciences curriculum for primary and secondary schools. The increasing interest in geography education for sustainable development is connected to the training of geography teachers in which official publications and the use of new technologies are two valuable components of this new trend.
    
    The subject matter associated with sustainable development and environmental education has been a major concern among biology and natural sciences teachers in Chile. This situation is currently changing since geography teachers are becoming also involved with environmental education.
    
    All geography courses in primary and secondary education are integrated into the area of social sciences, through learning areas and sub-areas. During the first cycle of primary general education (first to fourth grade), geography curricular contents are integrated into the learning area titled “Comprehension of the Cultural, Social and Natural Environment.”
    
     This importance is funnelled by the environmental global concern which has reached Chile, as an advanced country open to globalization. Two factors, among others, are clearly defined as main causes for this change. First, environmental publications made by governmental agencies which reach schools through official channels and scientific journals related to geography education and geographical disciplines. Second, information and communication technologies (ICT) applied in the school environments along with the development of World Wide Web and Internet.
    
     This Paper is a parcial results of research proyect FONDECYT N° 11110068.


3) Spatial Thinking, Habits of Mind, and GIS

    Robert S. Bednarz (Texas A&M University), Minsung Kim

    This presentation explores spatial thinking skills by identifying five components of the study participants’ spatial habits of mind: pattern recognition, spatial description, visualization, spatial concept use, and spatial tool use. It proceeds to discuss the development of an inventory and assessment strategy to measure these components and to detect changes that occur over time. Analysis of the assessment results revealed that the inventory is a reliable and valid test instrument for measuring spatial habits of mind. The assessment procedure was used to investigate the effects of GIS learning on students’ spatial habits of mind. Pre- and post-tests were conducted at the beginning and end of a semester-long GIS course at a large public university. Analysis of student test results and follow-up qualitative data revealed that completion of a GIS course enhanced students’ spatial habits of mind. In addition to geography, this research is relevant to a wide range of disciplines whose practitioners are interested in spatial literacy.


4) Research in Geography Education: Suggesting an Agenda

    Sarah Witham Bednarz (Texas A&M University)

    The Road Map for 21st Century Geography Education released in early 2013 recommends guidelines for research in geography education. It proposes a framework of questions to shape an agenda; discusses lines of research that will contribute to advancing knowledge in geography education research; and suggests standards for research methodologies. The purpose of this presentation is to examine the elements of this report and to discuss implications for future research. The changing context of geography education in various regions of the world makes it more important than ever that the small community of scholars interested in the processes of teaching and learning in geography at a range of academic levels work collaboratively to address significant questions.



[CS11-6] Perspectives in geographical education (2)

    [ Wednesday 07 August 08:00-09:30 RoomI ]    Chair(s): Clare Brooks (Univ. of London)

1) Geographical Education in Ukraine: challenges of current transformations

    Boris Pavlovych Yatsenko (Taras Shevchenko National University of Kyiv), Olga Oleksandrivna Lyubitseva, Viktoria Kostiantynivna Kiptenko, Valentyn Ivanovych Stafiychuk

    Geographical education in Ukraine traces its roots back to the 19th century. The universities of Kyiv, Lviv, Chernivtsi and Kharkov introduced the first curriculums on nature studies, meteorology and cartography. High school geographical education evolved at the beginning of the 20th century based on researches deployed by prof.Stepan Rudnyskyi. Since then the priorities of learning varied within domains of nature, social and human geographical studies.
    Modern geographical education challenges the philosophy of space interpreted in ecological consciousness and aimed to sustainable development. The focus is on time-space interactions and interconnections of social and nature processes and phenomena. According to the current social demand the learning waymark shifts to human geography: international and global studies, spatial management for regional development and spatial planning for recreation and tourism, in particular. Getting through challenge of informational and conceptual synergy, the transformation of the traditional disciplines relates to the curriculums strengthening by geoecology, geourbanistics, geologistics and GIS. The scientific assignments and internship practice make consistent part of the learning.
    Nowadays, 10 classic and 12 pedagogical universities provide high geographical education in Ukraine. The pedagogical universities train geography teachers for secondary schools. Geography faculties of classic universities envisage wider spectrum of domains and qualifications: scientists and specialist further employed in ecological and nature protection institutions, state agencies of regional development, recreation and tourism entities. Hydrologists, meteorologists, cartographers and surveyors for land management are as well in demand. Correlation of education with labour market situation and prospective vision of the society needs constitutes another acute challenge.


2) The future dimension in geography education in the Netherlands

    Tine Beneker (Utrecht University), Iris Pauw

    Secondary education aims to prepare young people for their future. Literature shows a need for stimulating students to think about the (global) future. Students are cynical about their influence on the future of our planet. They believe change is necessary, but feel helpless and de-motivated when it comes to taking responsibility. Geography is an important school subject for the students’ orientation to the future. Geography provides a basis for understanding and thinking about the world, it’s features and shaping processes. Moreover geography contributes in thinking about current spatial issues, debates and policies. Through creating a learning environment which stimulates pupils to think about their influence on a desired future, geography education can contribute to more existential and empowering learning at secondary school.
    In this paper the focus is on ‘the state of the art’ of the future dimension in Dutch secondary geography education, in content as well as in pedagogy. Therefore the curriculum and textbooks are analyzed on their futures dimension. And geography teacher educators and geography teachers are interviewed about their practices. In general it seems that in Dutch geography education looking at the past is (still) more important than looking into the future. And the future presented is often ‘taken for granted’ or based on stereotypes. However this is mainly due to a lack of knowledge in how to address and work with a future dimension in geography education. A world to gain.


3) Solidarity as a geographical aspect of sustainable development

    Tomas Torbjornsson (Uppsala University)

    In April 2013, national tests in geography were carried out for the first time in Swedish compulsory schools. One of four tested geographical skills was the students’ ability to “evaluate solutions to various environmental and development issues, based on considerations grounded in ethics and sustainable development”. Here it is emphasized that values, apart from subject knowledge, are an important part of the school subject of geography. One of the key values, stressed in UN Millenium goals as prerequisites for sustainable development, is solidarity.
    The purpose of this presentation is to discuss conclusions from a study where Swedish students’ understanding of solidarity, as an aspect of the social dimension of sustainable development, was explored. Geographical aspects such as time, space and scale were also related to solidarity. A methodological combination of a questionnaire (N=900) and interviews (N=20) provided both width and depth to the results. Preliminary findings from the interviews show that most students are inexperienced or simply unable to define the word ‘solidarity’. Those who define solidarity often place its meaning close to charity. Students in science programs, in particular, have also found it difficult to connect solidarity with something that has anything to do with learning or teaching, or important knowledge. Quantitative findings show significant differences in prosolidaric attitudes with regard to sex and educational programmes. The results provide important guidance on how teaching geography can, and needs to be, developed to enhance students’ opportunities to take a more active part in shaping a sustainable future.


4) Assessing excellence in Geographical Education: Olympiads and the Case for the iGEO

    Alexander I Chalmers (University of Waikato)

    Geography and geographers are socially constructed, and national education systems have a significant role in this construction. In most national communities education is compulsory, and geography is one discipline that has been embedded in the compulsory curriculum for some time. Assessment of performance against curriculum goals is a feature of compulsory education, with assessment often a prime determinant of vocational options available to students. Assessment frameworks have ideological biases, and are just one view of a learner’s ability.
    
    Using a national curriculum and the related assessment framework as starting point, this paper provides a context for identifying excellence. The name of the national excellence programme explored in the paper is ‘scholarship’. While it covers a range of skills, its primary purpose is to provide access to tertiary studies in the physical and social ‘sciences’.
    
    Beyond national assessments, a number of school subjects offer international ‘Olympiads’. These are competitions that give national teams the chance to benchmark their performance against young scholars from other countries. Olympiads sit alongside international performance assessments such as PISA and International Baccalaureates. All such assessments have biases and limitations, but they provide benefits for both teachers and learners in geography. The paper concludes with a commentary on the nature of the current International Geography Olympiad (iGEO), and some reflections on its value.
    
    Key words: International educational assessments, PISA, Olympiads



[CS11-7] Perspectives in geographical education (3)

    [ Wednesday 07 August 10:00-11:30 RoomI ]    Chair(s): Clare Brooks (Univ. of London)

1) Systems thinking - a key concept for geographical education

    Armin Rempfler (University of Teacher Education Lucerne), Janine Buchholz, Johannes Hartig, Eva Marie Ulrich-Riedhammer, Rainer Uphues

    As a result of the PISA-shock in Germany the scientific community started an intensive discussion about how geographical education should be like in 21st century. In this process systems thinking respectively system competence turned out to be the basic concept for geographical education. In this concept earth is seen as a human-environment-system from a spatial perspective. Interactions, which are not linear but rather multilateral with feedback, take place within a geographical situation and between several geographical situations. Taking superordinate system principles into account in a cognitive analysis and mental representation of geospatial situations therefore appears to be the only adequate concept if geographical education wants to impart systemically adequate and future-oriented, spatial behaviour qualifications.
    
    Competence models are the foundation for testing the corresponding educational standards, as well as for the diagnosis and for the improvement of pupils’ competences. Accordingly a theory-based geographical system competence model for secondary school students is the basis of the research project to be presented. It assumes the three dimensions of ‘system organisation’, ‘system behaviour’ and ‘system-adequate intention to act’. To empirically validate the model we developed 17 master problems, each with 8-10 items. The Rasch scaling analysis of the first study (N=956) form the foundation to establish the definitive problem pool. Should the existing results be confirmed, an empirically validated system competence model would be available for the first time, permitting the definition of competence levels for geographical system competence which can be described by criteria based on problems and their requirements.


2) Status of geo-capabilities in the framework curricula in Finland, UK (England) and the US

    Sirpa Tani (University of Helsinki), Michael Solem, David Lambert

    The presentation introduces the Geo-Capabilities research project, the aim of which is to improve geography teacher education and in-service teaching. The project derives from the ideas of ‘geo-capabilities’ defined by Lambert and Morgan (2010; also Lambert 2011). In this presentation, the concept of geo-capability will be first briefly explained. The main emphasis of the presentation will be put on the results of the content analysis of secondary school geography curricula in Finland, England and the US. The analysis was conducted in the end of 2012 when the geography curricula were under renewal processes in all the three countries. The content analysis which formed the first phase of this international project was based on three selected capabilities; the first one on individual freedoms (understanding autonomy and rights), the second one on choices about how to live (understanding citizenship and sustainable development), and the third one on being creative and productive in the knowledge economy (understanding economy and culture). The main results of the analysis will be described in this presentation and, based on these results some challenges for curriculum preparation in future will be raised. The results of the analyses, when considered together, provide a conceptual starting point for transatlantic collaboration in geography teacher training rooted in a capabilities approach.


3) Representations of Japan in English geography textbooks 1850-2000

    Liz Taylor (University of Cambridge)

    Textbooks have been a key part of classroom geography teaching in the England since the mid-nineteenth century. They are an important way in which the world has been constructed and represented to young people in schools. Often, this representation has been seen as carrying significant authority. This paper examines the ways in which Japan was represented in geography textbooks for 9-14 year olds used in England over the period 1850-2000. These dates span a period of substantial change, not only in the individual histories of England and Japan, but in the ways that the two countries have related. What themes and trends can be seen in the representations of Japan over that time?



[CS11-8] Perspectives in geographical education (4)

    [ Wednesday 07 August 14:00-15:30 RoomI ]    Chair(s): Clare Brooks (Univ. of London)

1) Nternational Competition Karst Under Protection, Gift for the Generaions as a Part of the Educational Strategy Prokarsterra - Edu

    Dimitrina Mikhova (Faculty of Education, Yamaguchi University), Peter Stefanov, Dilyana Stefanova, Dimitrina Mikhova

    Wide distribution of Karst and its increasing economic, social and environmental importance make topical the problems of sustainable development on these territories. Solving them is closely related to the role and place of the Karst topic in Education and its potential for intra-disciplinary connections. Targeting these aims an Educational “proKARSTerra - edu” strategy has been developed. It envisages using real conditions in protected karst territories to introduce new forms of integration between modern sciences (the Concept of Karst Geosystems) and the Educational system (Life-long Education).
    
    This paper presents the International competition Karst under Protection,Gift for the Generations, which is a part of the pilot educational strategy proKARSTerra-Edu, aiming at attracting young people from different countries to expand their knowledge about this sensitive natural environment and its problems. The competition is a Bulgarian initiative and has been held twice (2005 and 2012). 150 participants in total from 11 countries in Europe and Asia took part in 5-competitioin categories (including pupils, teachers, University students and nature lovers). The exhibition of winning works, judged by an International Jury, was organized with the support of UNESCO as a traveling one, exhibiting works in Bulgaria and abroad.
    
    The paper discussed this initiative’s effectiveness, difficulties in organizing it and its future. The third edition of this competition is planned for 2014, within an International Scientific-applied forum Protected Karst Territories and Life-long Education. The competition is in line with one of the initiatives (supported by UNESCO) to proclaim International Year of Karst.


2) ‘Real world’ Geography: preparing students for a changing world through the Participation and Community Engagement (PACE) Initiative

    Anne-Louise Semple (Macquarie University), Kate Lloyd

    As Watson et al (2011: xvii) have argued, “higher education systems are experiencing common pressures for fundamental change.” McKenzie et al (2002: 426) have proposed that student learning experiences should relate directly to the real world in order that graduates are “prepared for the real world.” Against this backdrop universities are charged with delivering curricula which will foster the capabilities of future graduates to meet the demands of these challenges. In response to this, Macquarie University has introduced the University-wide Participation and Community Engagement (PACE) initiative, which embeds units in the undergraduate curriculum that involve learning through participation that is mutually beneficial to the student, the University and the partner organisation. One of the key missions of the initiative is to “develop the capability of Macquarie students and staff to actively contribute to the well being of people and the planet (PACE, 2013)” and this fits within the University’s strategic directions to, in part, “promote local and global perspectives in the curriculum” (PACE, 2013). Such principles are fundamental to geographic education. This paper argues that more than ever Geography Matters! Applied approaches to learning have a long tradition in the geographical discipline (Kent et al. 1997; Welch and Panelli, 2003; Panelli and Welch, 2005). Moreover, geography as a discipline has much to contribute to the development, implementation, and operation of the PACE initiative and this will be demonstrated through pedagogical examples.


3) Revitalization of Geographic Curricculum for Senior High School in Indonesia

    Samsul Bachri (Institute of Technology Bandung)

    ABSTRACT
    Indonesia is an archipelagic country which is located in ring of fire area for natural disaster, especially to earthquakes and tsunami. These conditions need well geography curriculum design for senior high school students. In 2008 National curriculum for High school Indonesia is divided into two major interest in the field of sciences and social studies.
    
    The main problems is that Geographic subject in National curriculum is only given for students who choose major interest in social studies. However, the students who take sciences study are not lesson the Geography subject. As the results, A lot of sciences students do not know about social and physical Geography. Due to the change national curriculum every 5 years, therefore Geographic subject in National curriculum for year 2013 is needed to revitalisation in order to get better knowledge related to geographic matter for Senior High school
    
    This paper propose to Indonesian government that the High school should be change become “Universal school” without discriminates between major interse in sciences and social studies. Then Geographic subject has to be given in national curriculum 2013 for Universal school. The reason is that Indonesia consists of thousands islands and many different cultures and tribes Furthermore, Indonesia is located in Earthquackes zones. Hence, Geographic lesson is needed and compulsory given in High School.
    
    The constribution of this paper is to give suggestion for Indonesian Govern- ment that Geography undoubtly important to be given in school as knowledge for next generation in order understand to save our earth.



[CS12-1] Geographical information science and global studies (1)

    [ Wednesday 07 August 14:00-15:30 RoomJ ]    Chair(s): Francis Harvey (Univ. of Minnesota)

1) GIScience and Global Surname Analysis

    James Cheshire (UCL)

    Surnames represent a near ubiquitous form of identification the world over. They can be obtained from large population datasets, such as electoral rolls, and their spatial distributions offer insights for geographers, anthropologists and geneticists alike. This talk will outline the ways in which GIScience approaches have been applied to the large-scale analysis of surnames. It will reflect on the ways that‘a name is a statement', not just of individual identity, but also as a means of viewing the effects of locational proximity at a range of scales - from the individual to the international - alongside the social similarities identified through conventional geodemographic classification. For many countries our findings suggest a surprisingly stable underlying population structure, the knowledge of which has a number of applications in regional, cultural and historical geography, in addition to population genetics and studies of contemporary and historic migration. From this work it is clear that the automated application of established GIScience methods to a novel dataset has made it possible to unearth temporal changes in population structure that would have previously gone unnoticed. Examples will be drawn from both Europe and Japan to demonstrate the utility of surnames as population datasets and also the innovative approaches to their analyses.


2) Exploration of the use of VGI on social and culture perspectives

    Bor-Wen Tsai (National Taiwan University)

    Volunteer geographic information (VGI) is a newly developed research issue in the discipline of geographic information science (GISc). It is also an evolutionary development in the discipline of geography. Turner (2006) has termed it “neogeography”. This research focuses on the use and value of VGI on social and culture perspectives.
    The Taiwan government has prompted the “One Town One Product (OTOP)” program in 2007 which is similar with the ""One Village One Product (OVOP)"" in Japan. It aims at promoting and developing local cultural industries. The local communities identify the most significant cultures in each of the townships such as the unique products or tourism and recreation services. Those products or services are upgraded from individuals into marketing strategic alliances. The success of OVOP will facilitate local sustainability. However, what is the significant culture in each township? Are those significant cultures identified by the local communities consistent with the perception of general public? The success of OVOP highly depends on the consistency between the two. We extract VGI data from web photo albums and use a couple of spatial analysis methods to analyze culture significances of townships. A comparison is conducted to evaluate the consistency between VGI results and the OVOP program.


3) Twitter geodemographics

    Paul Longley (University College London), Muhammad Adnan, Guy Lansley, Alistair Leak

    Geodemographics are small area summary measures of neighbourhood conditions. They are created by taking what by the historical standards of social science, are ‘big data’, that is large numbers of variables from population censuses. Open data are data which can be used, re-used and re-distributed freely by anyone - subject only at most to the requirement to attribute and share-alike (APPSI: http://origin.nationalarchives.gov.uk/appsi/appsi-glossary-a-z.htm#apps-o). Big, open data can make potential huge contributions to the spatial and temporal enrichment of geodemographic indicators. Yet richer data bring with them difficulties in assessing the provenance of sources and the impact of self selection of participants. One potentially valuable source of geodemographic information is locationally referenced Twitter feeds, yet the sources and operation of bias arising in their assembly are far from clear. This paper reports on attempts triangulate Twitter data with other spatial data sources in order to devise richer geodemographic classifications of human activity patterns. The background research is under development as part of an investigation into the 'Uncertainty of Identity' (http://www.uncertaintyofidentity.com/)



[CS12-2] Geographical information science and global studies (2)

    [ Wednesday 07 August 16:00-17:30 RoomJ ]    Chair(s): Yasushi Asami (Univ. of Tokyo)

1) GIS laboratory in cloud: educational experience

    Andrey A. Medvedev (Institute of geography, Russian academy of sciences), Alexander V. Koshkarev, Sergey A. Polikarpov

    GIS laboratory is based on a technology platform UniHUB (http://www.unihub.ru), developed by the Institute of System Programming, and is aimed at the integration of remote sensing for the Earth sciences. Cloud environment of UniHUB used to solve geographic problems, including the handling of satellite images and digital elevation models using the methods and techniques of spatial analysis and GIS tools geomodeling using open source.
    Collaborate virtual laboratory and its members organized through a single work space and interaction of information-based process portal solutions, and web services. It is universal ""point of entry"" to the stage of authorized users with access to files and programs, the formation of file storage and document sharing access rights to data, documents and software applications, job control (distribution of tasks and performance control, archives and version control of documents).
    User lab has the ability to find information in the file repository of spatial data - directory of remote sensing data, digital elevation models, GIS projects, etc., and keep the information in the user's workspace, having carried out the selection of thematic data and other cartographic materials of various sizes.
    The laboratory is based not only on the software applications installed in the workspace, and training materials and inputs, which allows to use the laboratory for educational purposes.
    In the course of practice and training in the Laboratory of the students get the skills in digital elevation models, and in particular obtaining morphometric characteristics of the terrain.


2) Assessing Communication Effectiveness of PPGIS ─ A Case Study of Meinung National Nature Park, Taiwan

    Shu-Kai Lin (National Taiwan University)

    Public Participation Geographic Information System (PPGIS) have become an important approach to facilitate consensus-building and decision-making in various public issues. Through PPGIS workshop, we can not only show the spatial information, but also record local knowledge and visualize different public demands simultaneously. Reviewing the current literatures about PPGIS, the focus tends to discuss the empowerment issue in the process of public participation. However, few articles have addressed the capabilities and limitations of PPGIS to achieve successful communication. By the case study of the proposed Meinung National Nature Park in Taiwan, we aim to examine how PPGIS, applied during 2008-2012, substantially contributed to a community scale consensus-building in defining boundaries. By conducting questionnaires to local residents and analyzing theories of communication effectiveness, we will make an evaluation of PPGIS in achieving communication effectiveness and make suggestions for future application.
    
    Keywords:PPGIS, spatial information, communication effectiveness


3) Improving Satellite Data Utilization with FOSS4G - Approach from an MEXT funded project in Japan -

    Kanetaka Heshiki (Orkney, Inc.), Toru Mori, Raghavan Venkatesh, Shinji Masumoto, Go Yonezawa, Yoichi Kayama, Nobusuke Iwasaki, Daisuke Yoshida, Taichi Furuhashi

    Recently, remote sensing data become more and more easily accessible and social demands for utilizing it have been growing steadily. On the other hand, most people are confused about how to get original satellite data and how to deal with it.
    
    Under such circumstances, Ministry of Education, Culture, Sports, Science and Technology in Japan (MEXT) has considered the plan of removing the barriers on data usage. From 2010 to 2012, we have taken part in this project, and have strived to overcome this problem through the following three points.
    
    1. Developing the Free & Open Source Software for Geospatial (FOSS4G) tools, such as GRASS, QGIS, GDAL/OGR and Proj.4, especially for Japanese users.
    2. Making tutorial about processing and analyzing the satellite data with FOSS4G tools.
    3. Constructing the e-learning contents of satellite data usage.
    (cf. http://www.osgeo.jp/foss4g-mext)
    
    The software and knowledge base have been rapidly improved by our works. These achievements are anticipated to expand base of satellite data users and to create a new utilization scene for space derived products. One of the effective results from this project was shown in actions against the Tohoku Earthquake in 2011. Many people could collaborate on that software base and offered ortho-image of Tohoku region (i.e. Iwasaki et al. 2011, GISA-Japan).
    As a next step, we are planning to develop an evaluation system for environmental issues based on above GRASS and QGIS. This activity has just started from the year 2013. We will report the status of it as well.


4) The Next Age of Discovery and the Future of GIS

    Francis Harvey (University of Minnesota)

    Global science, and with it geography, is entering now a new age of discovery with geographic information technologies holding central importance. Networked digital environments hold the potential to alter scientific research in a fundamental way. Called the Fourth Paradigm, data intensive science goes hand-in-hand with intensely collaborative and large group research.
    
    Similar to computer programming, the increasing availability of data and computational ability, is fundamentally altering how we will be able to work in geography. Because of the shifts in access and abilities to use digital information, work with geographic information is bursting the limits of GIS, developed in an era defined by far more sweeping limits on abilities to access information and abilities to process information.
    
    This paper overviews global science activities to show how these changes have already begun to take place. It closes with considerations of what issues arise in data intensive science for professional and academic geography.



[CS12-3] Geographical information science and global studies (3)

    [ Thursday 08 August 10:00-11:30 RoomC-1 ]    Chair(s): Yasushi Asami (Univ. of Tokyo)

1) Spatiotemporal Distributions of Households with Children: Thinking from the Number of Public School Children: A Case of the Osaka Suburbs

    Takashi Kirimura (Ritsumeikan University)

    This paper aims to reveal spatiotemporal distributions of households with children in the Osaka suburbs from 1956 to 2011, using the data of the number of public elementary school children. This analysis intends to shed light on changes in the patterns and their socioeconomic backgrounds in recent years. Urban geographers have been paying attention to the fact that, since the 1990s, decrease in the number of households with children coming into suburbs has accelerated aging of metropolitan areas in Japan. The number of these children indicates that of school-age population in each school zone, which indirectly corresponds to distribution of households with children. The availability of data from the 1950s onward makes it possible to quantitatively analyze how suburbs of metropolitan areas change in the long term.
     My analyses of not only changes in the number of these children, but also the censuses in 2000 and 2010 lead to two findings. One is that, as most of the public elementary schools in the Osaka suburbs had the largest number of pupils in the 1970s, that must be the time when households with children rapidly spread to these areas. Yet, changes in the pupils' number since the 2000s and differences in residential characteristics in each school zone, as censuses show, lead to another finding. That is, the suburbs have become divided into areas with many households with children coming in, and areas without, depending upon each zone's accessibility to Osaka's urban center and socioeconomic characteristics.


2) Japanese Geodemographics based on the 2010 Population Census of Japan

    Keiji Yano (Ritsumeikan University), Takashi Kirimura, Tomoki Nakaya, Takeho Satani

    This paper introduces Japanese geodemographics based on the latest 2010 Population Census of Japan. Geodemographics, by definition, is the analysis of population by where they live, using profiling, mapping and GIS software to display and analyze geodemographic information. It has been one of the important research topics in human geography and geographic information science.
    The latest population census of Japan includes various variables about neighborhood attributes by Cho-cho units, which is the smallest area unit of the population census. The population census provides so many variables regarding demographic, household composition, housing, occupation, education, commuting migration and so on. The number of Cho-cho units throughout Japan is 211,548 excluding the 6,099 hidden areas. The averages of people and household are 605.3 persons and 245.6 households, respectively.
    First, we draw a lot of census maps of Japan based on Cho-cho units, using the 2000 and 2010 population censuses. These census maps will be put on the web.
    Second, we create the Japanese Geodemographics which is geodemographic classifications by Cho-cho units. Basically we follow the method which constructs the OAC (Output Area Classification) using the UK 2001 Population Census. We create large geographic matrix of demographic and socio-economic data. After that, we apply the k-means cluster analysis to the dataset.
    We will demonstrate the results of the Japanese geodemographics we created, and discuss various utilization possibilities of it.


3) Scale Adaptability Study concerning Geographic Data and Dynamic Model in Geographic Process

    Chunxiao Zhang (The Chinese University of Hong Kong), Hui Lin, Min Chen

    Abstract: Scale is a fundamental concept in geography. Although multiscale data, models, etc., are taken into account to study geography, due to scale dependency, the scale mismatching may cause adverse results. As more data and models are available and applied to study geography, scale adaptability between multiscale data and model is becoming a significant issue to simulate and decode geographic process. This paper thoroughly discussed this type of scale matching issue, and taking meteorology simulation in Hong Kong as case study, scale adaptability considering multiscale DEM data and meteorological model is investigated. The experiments show that: 1, the Root Mean Square Error (RMSE) and Mean Absolute Error (MAE) of the residuals between the surfaces and the validation points indicated that the 3 arc second DEM data with 1km model can give better topographic expression; 2, DEM data of 3 arc second resolution with 1 km resolution model is the most adaptable to meteorology reproduction in Hong Kong; 3, fine scale model is sensitive to the resolution of DEM data while coarse scale model is lack sensitivity to it; 4, better topographic expression is not stuffiest condition to better weather process simulation. This case study gives practical explanation for the significance and implementation of the scale adaptability between multiscale data and dynamic models.
    
    Key Words: Scale adaptability; geographic process; meteorology simulation; DEM.


4) Optimal configuration of residential segregation based on neighborhood externalities

    Masaya Uesugi (The University of Tokyo), Yasushi Asami

    The purpose of this study is to propose an optimization model of residential segregation and examine optimal configurations of residential patterns under the various conditions of neighborhood externalities.
    First, in this model, a two-dimensional grid space made of all in which either the poor or the poor inhabitants live is considered. Then, the land price of each cell is calculated based on the externality effect which is determined by the composition of surrounding residents and other factors such as accessibility and zoning effect. Finally, the total amount of land price is maximized by changing the allocation of residents under the condition that their proportion in the city as a whole remains constant.
    Applying a Genetic Algorithm, various kinds of patterns are simulated and investigated, changing the neighborhood conditions which include neighborhood effect type and the extent of externalities. Some neighborhood externalities considered in this model are as follows. 1) The rich generate positive effects and the poor generate negative effects proportionally to land price, 2) a high concentration of rich generates positive effect and 3) a high concentration of poor generates negative effect.
    The results show typical residential patterns depending on the externality type and the effect of concentration is especially remarkable. Furthermore, large-sized neighborhoods tend to engender denser clusters, reflecting the accessibility and zoning conditions.



[CS12-4] Geographical information science and global studies (4)

    [ Thursday 08 August 14:00-15:30 RoomC-1 ]    Chair(s): Francis Harvey (Univ. of Minnesota)

1) Land Use Change and Morphometric Analysis of the sub Watersheds of Umtrew River Basin, North East India using Geospatial Technology

    Dhanjit Deka (B.Borooah College), Pradip Sharma

    A drainage basin is a most suitable geomorphologic unit for organization of all kinds of human activities and natural processes continuing within it. Knowing of drainage basin characteristics becomes an important pre requisite to evaluate the basin hydrology. The amount of water reaching a stream system is dependent on the morphometry of the basin, total precipitation, losses due to evapotranspiration and absorption by soils and vegetation. Evaluation of morphometric parameters requires preparation of drainage map, contour map, ordering of streams, measurement of catchment area, perimeter, relative relief, relief ratio, length of streams, drainage density, drainage frequency, bifurcation ratio, texture ratio which further helps in understanding the basin environment. Similarly Land use change due to natural causes as well as human interferences is a common phenomena almost each and every river basins of the Northeast India. The changes that have taken place in the basins due to human activities have been accelerated in last few years. Such changes have been identified as the cause of many environmental problems in the region. For this, accurate monitoring and management of land use/ land cover is very much necessary. The present study involves the use of Remote Sensing and Geographic information System technique to evaluate the morphometric analysis of the sub watersheds of Umtrew river basin as well as the changing pattern of land Use/land Cover of the said basin for the last three decades.


2) Historical changes in land price formation factors over 100 years in Kyoto, Japan: comparison of the land price distributions in 1910s and 2010s in a GIS environment

    Kazuto Aoki (Uji City), Koji Takeda, Daigo Ito, Keiji Yano, Tomoki Nakaya, Manabu Inoue

    Although a large number of studies have been made on evaluating land price formation factors which show socio-economic situations, most of the studies have been cross-sectional analysis focusing on specific factors, such as zoning, road width and accessibility to public transportation. Little attention has been paid to historical changes of land price formation in a long-term perspective, mainly because of the lack of historical data representing land price distribution in the past. Fortunately, the Kyoto cadastral map made in 1912 was digitized to create the historical GIS database containing detailed land price information for each land parcel by the GIS research team at Ritsumeikan University. It should be noted that the city has not received large-scale disasters and war damages since the age of the cadastral map. We can thus investigate historical changes of the city without effects of such large-scale disasters. Comparing the current land price distribution with that in early 20th century in the city of Kyoto, we examine historical changes in the geographical factors of land price formations reflecting changes in urban physical and social formations of the city.
    With the aid of GIS-based mapping and overlay analysis, we mainly argue on the effects of the changes in socio-economic situations on land price distributions over 100 years in the city.


3) Evaluation of the Dynamics and Reclamation of Ravine Erosion along the River Chambal in Dhaulpur District, Rajasthan, India

    Rama Prasad Rama (University of Rajasthan , Jaipur, Rjasthan), Rani Rani Singh

    Ravine erosion problem is a serious problem in India. Dhaulpur is one of the areas with the highest impedance of ravine erosion in Rajasthan state. Zones of severe ravine trenching are found along the margins of River Chambal .The present study evaluates the view of land degradation with the increase in wastelands in the easternmost part of Rajasthan state, where more than 60% of the economy is dependent on agriculture.
    Here, ravine has antagonistically affected the agro- economical activities of the area. More than 40% the area is affected by severe gully erosion. Prevailing of the semiarid climate, the area is renowned for its Badland topography. Objectives are to analyze the changes in wasteland of the area for 10 years interval, to find the association between the dependent and independent variables responsible for ravines, to suggest reclamation remedies and to access the pattern and problems at field level by selecting sample village.
    Analysis reveals that the villages, located in the ravine areas are not connected by roads, making them isolation from other places, which found favorable for the local inhabitants to involve into crimes. At the end, successful ravine reclamation requires the support and involvement of the local cultivator and local community, and probably, reform of local and tenure and arrangements. Yes, efforts are needed for bringing out sustainable management planning that provides the clear insight into the real need of our people and also to improve, the quality of life of the people of the area.


4) GIS for Cryoshere studies

    Tatiana Khromova (Institute of Geography RAS), Vladimir Kotlyakov

    Cryosphere is one of the Earths spheres, where negative or zero temperatures prevail and water is present in solid or supercooled state. The Earth history is intimately linked with the natural processes running within the cryosphere itself and in its interaction with the atmosphere, hydrosphere and the land surface. However, many processes of such interaction as well as consequences of them are still not sufficiently studied. Under conditions of the global warming serious changes proceed in the cryosphere whose results are of the global scale (sea level rise, permafrost degradation, etc.). Substantial and rapid environment changes request methods which could manage a huge information flow, optimize the processes of data acquisition, data storage, data analysis and exchange. Such facilities could be given by GIS technologies. We present the system of cryo data management, developed in the Institute of Geography RAS. The system provides cryo data access, generates an environment for solving of scientific problem, gives opportunity to use GIS techniques for cryo data analysis. Digital Atlas “Snow and Ice on the Earth” is a principal structure which arranges cryo knowledge and cryo data on global and regional levels. The system of links provides an access to distributed cryo info resources. A popular science part of the information system could be useful both for an education and a decision making in the fields of a natural resources development and an environmental control.



[CS12-5] Geographical information science and global studies (5)

    [ Thursday 08 August 16:00-17:30 RoomC-1 ]    Chair(s): Yasushi Asami (The Univ. of Tokyo)

1) Software Tool for the Introductory Course on Geospatial Technology

    Morishige Ota (Kokusai Kogyo Co., Ltd.)

    Today, reuse of geo-data is much easier than a decade ago, because Geospatial Information Standards regarding data exchange and share are utilized in Information Systems and Networks. However, the education environment for Geospatial Technology is still not sufficient. Especially all-in-one package for the introduction to Geospatial Technology is few at least in Japan. This was the reason to develop the software called "gittok". This presentation aims to introduce this software.
    The tool consists of a series of slides and gittok. 15 sets of slides are prepared for the semester course. They refer to the Body of Knowledge on Geospatial Technology developed in Japan. It comprises modeling, acquisition, management, analysis, exchange and representation of geo-data. While, gittok is developed for exercises that students can apply fundamental knowledge learned in the lecture. Students design application schemas, digitize geo-data, input geospatial metadata, select a dataset by using stand alone clearinghouse, analyze the data-set by applying fundamental functions, and encode/decode geo-data, application schema, metadata, symbol styles, etc. Finally, students may design symbols and print maps.
    The tool will be provided through Internet and anyone can use them freely. However, we need to get the comments from users and we shall try to give lectures and exercises for students in order to brush up the content. And we need to evaluate the quality of the tool under certain criteria for future improvement. These are the future works.


2) GIS education in Korea

    Sohee Lee (The University of Tokyo), Takashi Oguchi, Mizuki Kawabata

    The Korean government established the master plan of the National Geographic Information System (NGIS) project in 1995, and the project has been successfully ongoing. This paper reports the present status of GIS education in Korea in relation to the activities of the NGIS project. The GIS education has two components. First, online GIS education started in 2003 concerning such items as theory, practice of GIS tools, relevant governmental policy and newly arising technology. All contents are presented in the web site of the National GIS Education Center. Second, offline GIS education is also provided with two programs: 1) some selected colleges and universities constitute the GIS education base to train public officials, school teachers, students and employees in GIS-related industry, and 2) some selected graduate schools educate students to be GIS experts. The present situation of GIS education in Korean universities was also surveyed. Using 11 keywords such as GIS, urban, geography, and geomorphology, we listed up departments of colleges and universities that may have s of GIS courses. Then, we investigated relevant information such as whether GIS courses are actually offered, how many courses are offered, style of each course (lecture, practice, or both) and history of each department. This analysis has revealed some specific characteristic of current GIS education in Korea.


3) Developing spatial thinking skills as fundamentals of understanding global studies

    Minori Yuda (The University of Tokyo)

    Geographic Information Science can lighten global issues. Especially Geographic information system is very powerful tool to show phenomena and to help understanding problems and correlations among spatial patterns. Spatial thinking skills are a set of essential skills for GIS users. Of particular importance is the understanding how to interpret a map with multiple layers of information. Also reading maps skill is helpful to consider global issues from various perspectives. The author has worked with university students to formulate a workshop that helps high school students develop spatial thinking skills and check participants’ spatial thinking skills before and after the workshop.

    

    The one-day workshop, held in July 2012, focused on disaster reduction and spatial thinking. Forty-two students in grade 9 participated. Participants learned GIS application, role of spatial thinking and problem-solving suggestions, and they experienced to know how GIS works using paper maps and how they can read a map to find a place on a campus using a map and narrative data including geographic information of the site. Spatial thinking concepts such as spatial cognition, spatial reasoning and spatial representation were used in the activity.

    

    Before-and-after the activity, participants were given a spatial thinking test to measure gains of the workshop. The test contained spatial thinking and GIS skills as measuring directions, recognition of spatial distribution and pattern, correlating spatially distributed phenomena, assessing similarities, identifying shapes. Forty-five percent of students received a higher score and twenty-four percent of them were the same after the workshop.



[CS13-1] Traditions and innovations in governance: better meet the needs of people (1)

    [ Tuesday 06 August 14:00-15:30 Room673 ]    Chair(s): Jan Bucek (Comenius Univ. Bratislava)

1) District Plans in Israel: Post-Mortem?

    Eran Razin (Hebrew University)

    Planning at the regional level has returned to the public agenda in recent decades as a response to challenges of economic globalization and sustainable development, adopting innovative approaches aimed to meet citizens' needs. I evaluate the changing nature and position of Israel's district outline plans, aiming to explain the swing of the pendulum from strong emphasis on district plans to their demise and vice versa, and the role of local government and governance networks in these swings. Planning discourses emphasize the proper balance between rigid statutory regional plans and flexible strategic statements, between strict regulation and market-led processes, and between top-down planning processes and decentralized collaborative decisions. However, I argue that the Israeli case reveals a major friction between two forms of centralization: one led by central state professional bureaucracy and the other by central state elected politicians. The former adheres to regulatory statutory planning in the name of ""good"" planning and environmental principles whereas the latter seeks to break free from the shackles of statutory plans in the name of proactive-developmental goals. Local governments and the private sector frequently side with elected politicians while NGOs and grassroots activists with the professional bureaucracy. The paper assesses the evolution of district plans from their British colonial roots in 1936, through their decline, grand comeback, and possible elimination by a proposed planning reform, shedding light on changes in regional planning conceptions, and the major role of central state stakeholders in local decisions also in a period when horizontal governance networks apparently proliferate.


2) Governance and tourism sustainability: A case from New Zealand

    Brent Lovelock (University of Otago)

    Sustainable tourism has been well articulated in New Zealand’s national tourism strategies, which commit to managing environmental, sociocultural, and economic resources for present and future generations. At the regional level too, numerous tourism plans and strategies espouse forms of sustainable tourism. However, the extent to which these have guided sustainable tourism development within their constituencies is unclear. Importantly, this appears to be an issue faced by destinations globally.
    
    Sustainable tourism implementation is essentially a governance issue, exacerbated by legislative complexities within the policy domain.This paper considers this ‘implementation gap’, and how the norms of sustainable tourism may be translated to the local level. This paper argues that there is an over-riding crisis of legitimacy for tourism policy, and that this impedes sustainable tourism outcomes. We focus on two New Zealand destinations - Queenstown and the Catlins - both facing challenges in terms of how tourism policies are translated into workable policies for local planners and tourism industry stakeholders.
    
    Effective governance, in these cases, will involve enhancing the legitimacy of tourism-related policy. While extant tourism plans may have community and industry stakeholder buy-in and thus 'input-legitimacy' within the immediate tourism policy domain, because of the manner in which they are developed, and who they are developed by, they have limited legitimacy outside the tourism domain. Effective governance requires strengthening the legal status of tourism planning, and the legislative connection between tourism and other statutory policy processes. This will improve policy legitimacy and lead to more sustainable tourism outcomes.


3) Qualitative approach to ex-post evaluation of regional development programs- reflections from local studies

    Anna Maria Borowczak (Adam Mickiewicz University)

    This paper aims at verifying the utility of participative evaluation design, a concept to be applied in micro-scaled ex-post evaluations of public interventions in regional development. Although this design highly corresponds with the pluralistic model of multi-level public management, its application in European evaluation studies is very limited. The aim of the ex-post participative evaluation rests upon identification of development effects to be determined in the course of qualitative research. Population targeted in this research encompasses main stakeholders of the program and, if possible, includes also communities that were either marginalized or not addressed in the intervention. The subsequent use of the concept-mapping procedure allows for sorting the qualitative data (ranking thereof and establishing coherent linkages through cluster analysis), underpinning the hypotheses that refer to actual impact of public intervention on regional development. The ex-post participative evaluation will be exemplified on a case study of multi-faceted regional development program (IROP) implemented in years 2004-2009 under European cohesion policy in poznanski sub-region (NUTS 3), a sub-urban zone of the city of Poznan. This paper shall present the effects of doctoral research project, Application of selected research concepts in ex-post evaluation of regional development programs-an example of IROP’s implementation in the poznanski subregion (ref. no.: 2011/01/N/HS5/01100), financed by the National Science Centre in Poland



[CS13-2] Traditions and innovations in governance: better meet the needs of people (2)

    [ Tuesday 06 August 16:00-17:30 Room673 ]    Chair(s): Eran Razin (Hebrew Univ.)

1) Governance challenges of big scale urban development programmes: the case of Pecs ECC project, Hungary

    Ilona Palne Kovacs (Centre for Economic and Regional Studies, Hungarian Academy of Sciences)

    Hungary has joined almost 10 years ago to the European Union. The money came from the structural and cohesion funds generated development projects having crucial impact not just on the city infrastructure and economy but also to the governance and actors working, participating both in the traditional 'ordinary' organisations and temporally 'project' agencies, partnership bodies etc.
    This phenomenon is a part of the so called 'Europeanisation', when the national and local public administration is starting to converge forming the 'European Administrative Space'. The governance innovations and learning is far from a peaceful process.
     The paper will provide a case study of a middle size Hungarian city, Pecs, where the European Captial of Culture (ECC) project was implemented in 2010. The ECC is a kind of projects aiming to enhance creativity of the concerned cities by putting them on the European map and by pushing them for multilevel and multi actor collaboration.
     ECC , Pecs was a chance to launch a completely different way of development based on the culture.
    The local struggle with time, politics, media, central government departments, development agencies, European offices and with the increasing number of disappointed local stakeholders can provide evidences on mechanisms and determinants of a complex urban development programme in the governance context characterised by centralised finance and decision making system, by paternalistic political culture, and the ambivalent relationship between the local government and the project management.


2) Spatial development and governance in port urban regions: towards a new role for municipalities? Comparative approach of Antwerp, Le Havre and Rotterdam

    Maite Verdol (Paris Sorbonne University)

    As nodes between land and sea (Ducruet, 2004, R.Brunet, 2001), port urban regions gather maritime and industrial assets coupled with coastal activities. They face an accurate need for spatial development.
    
    However, under economic and administrative pressures, the configuration of actors was modified, shaking the traditional planning processes.
    
    Municipalities, the traditional leader of spatial policies, underwent a shift from managerialism to entrepreneurialism (D.Harvey, 1989).
    In Rotterdam as for Antwerp, it started with the adoption of municipal strategies since the end of the 1980. In France, the shift occured in the middle of the 1990.
    
    In parallel, port authorities, the other traditional major actor became more autonomous due to port governance reforms.
    The Belgian autonomous municipal port company was created in 1999. In Rotterdam a public corporation was settled in 2004. In France, the Grand Port Maritime of Le Havre was enacted in 2008.
    
    The resultant port-city relationships within the frame of a complexified governance landscape now challenges the role of municipalities in spatial development processes.
    
    Through a comparison of the Dutch, Belgian and French cases, we would like to determine how the evolution of governance could change the role of municipalities in spatial development since the implementation of port governance reforms. Our contribution could take place through the session Geography of governance.
    
    To reach this goal, we will use the publication of P.Healey (2006) to analyze the strategic documents making processes as " episodes of governance activity" before examining their contents to dissect the resultant spatial strategy implemented.


3) New spaces of neighbourhood governance and democracy: a comparative case study of the UK and Japan

    Yosuke Maeda (Niigata University)

    This study explores new directions of neighbourhood governance especially in term of democracy, and their relationship to the trajectory of urban or community policies, using empirical materials collected in Bristol (the UK) and in Nagoya (Japan). During the last few decades, the word ‘neighbourhood’ (or ‘community’) has attracted a great deal of attention in urban policies under restructuring of the post-war welfare state. In the process, the way of delivering services or decision-making has gradually become based on partnerships between the public and voluntary sectors, and ‘neighbourhood’ (or ‘local’) has become a main policy target to construct partnership-based governance. But the development of this kind of partnership has raised questions about its relationship to representative democracy. While this partnership-based governance has become common, recently the neighbourhood has also become a key site of devolution of local government or of governance based on more representative democracy. Drawing on cases in Bristol and Nagoya, over the last few years, both cities have introduced a new form of neighbourhood governance. This neighbourhood governance takes on functions of raising local issues and of decision-making on part of the city budget, and is incorporated into a system of elected representation based on geographical territory. This study suggests that, while this form of governance and its aims have salient differences from partnership-based governance, the new form of governance, to some extent, relies on the outcomes of the former urban or community policies, and that produces a complex and contradictory form of democracy at neighbourhood level.



[CS13-3] Traditions and innovations in governance: better meet the needs of people (3)

    [ Tuesday 06 August 17:30-19:00 Room673 ]    Chair(s): Ilona Palne Kovacs (Hungarian Academy of Sciences)

1) Traditions and Europenization in the case of new countries formed in the Carpathian Basin after the cold war

    Zoltan Hajdu (Hungarian Academy of Science)

    Carpathian Basin is one of the most classical physical geographical unites of Europe, and the same time of the most fragmented by state borders.
    After collepse of Yugoslavia (1991), the Soviet Union (1991) and Czechoslovakia (1993) new independent countries (Slovakia, Ukraina, Serbia, Croatia, Slovenia were established beside Austria, Hungary and Romania.
     Slovakia is a post-Czechoslovak, Ukraina is a post-Soviet, Serbia, Croatia, Slovenia are post-Yugoslav countries, and they had to form relation to the public administration of the former countries. There is a common relation to: refusing the federative system, and territorial authonomises.
    Forming new administrative structures the new countries one hand were depended on their long range history, and other hand on practises of member states of European Union.
    Under EU influence a special Europenization was taken in the new states. We can see these processes on central, territorial and local levels. Probably, forming of euro-regions and special cross-border cooperations are the most iportant elements of Europenization.
    In some cases are appeared special ""borderlandscapes"" not just on the maps, but in the every day activities of people, and public authorities.
    Because of EU membership of Austria, Slovakia, Hungary, Slovenia, and from 2013 Croatia we can speak not just about common economic space, but in many cases common living together spaces of different groups of communities and public administrative unites.


2) Change in governance in the UK: making local decisions with the public

    Helene Draux (London metropolitan University)

    In the past two decades, the UK has embraced public consultation for local decision-making. Shoreline Management Plans (SMP), drawing recommendations on coastal land use and protection in England and Wales, are one example of this trend. These plans implement Integrated Coastal Management in England and Wales, through partnerships that bring together coastal stakeholders. Considering management for the next 100 years, they aim to achieve a balance between social justice, economic growth and environmental protection.
    SMPs rely on local partners from local government, land owners, NGOs, public and private companies; mirroring the shift from government to governance that happened in the UK. However, when considering coastal management of common land more attention should be given to local communities and populations. Using stakeholder interviews, this research looks into the way decisions are currently taken within the SMP, the impacts the plans have on coastal management practices, and ways in which the local population could be involved more actively in policies that affects their daily life. It focuses particularly on ways decisions regarding open spaces are taken in these plans. It argues that decisions for the future of these lands cannot be decided using cost-benefit analysis based on ecosystem services, and suggests a model based on participatory GIS.


3) Community-based monitoring and Post-normal science

    Ming-Kuang Chung (National Taiwan University), Bor-Wen Tsai, Dau-Jye Lu

    The community-based environmental management of protected areas has become the mainstream discourse in 1980s. It focuses on bringing down to community scale and emphasizes on participation and value of local knowledge which were regarded as the subject and theoretical basis for resource management. There is a long tradition of spatial information to be used as the intermediary of environment management. Volunteered geographic information (VGI) is a newly developed idea in GIS and is considered the practice of the citizen science. This paper discusses a community-based monitoring project in terms of the viewpoint of the post-normal science. The case study is in the Wu-Wei-River community locates in Yilan County, Taiwan. How community residents collected monitoring data spontaneously and how community residents interpreted those spatial data in a participatory way were discussed. In addition, how community involved in government decision-making by utilizing those monitoring data was elaborated.
    
    Keywords: Post-normal science, Protected-area environment management, Community-based monitoring


4) Traditions and innovations in regional government: Debating Slovak experiences

    Jan Bucek (Comenius University Bratislava)

    Regional level of government has long lasting tradition in the Slovak Republic. There were regional institutions and regional units existing already since the period of early Hungarian Kingdom and later during Austro-Hungarian Empire. Regional structures were quite stable during these centuries (until the early 20 century). The situation had been much different during the periods of the Czechoslovak Republic and newly established Slovak Republic. Last century has been typical by radical political and economic changes, as well as penetration of various approaches, expectations and external models that intervened into regional level of government quite radically.
    Building of new democratic regime after 1989 offered new possibilities to adopt positive features form previous stages of regional government. However, such attempts were unsuccessful. It concerned for example - territorial delineation, or institutional environment. Old centres of regions also lost their struggle for obtaining regional centre status. Even traditional names of regional government representatives were not accepted, although they are extensively used by people and media (as name for regional chairperson ""zupan""). What really had been reintroduced from previous periods are symbols, as flags and coat of arms. Among the reasons that prevented more continuous development, we can mention geopolitical issues, political interests, lack of decentralisation, or even Europeization of regional government and search for more competitive regions. The most damaging influence of such discontinuities is blurred regional identity and only slowly evolving relationship of citizens to their regional institutions and representatives. More sophisticated compromise between traditions and innovations could be more beneficial.



[CS14-1] Informational Society: Culture and Tradition

    [ Tuesday 06 August 14:00-15:30 Room501 ]    Chair(s): Yoshio Arai (The Univ. of Tokyo), Takashi Wada (Prefectural Univ. of Hiroshima)

1) Digital Innovations in the Kimono Industry of Nishijin, Kyoto

    Yoshio Arai (The University of Tokyo), Harumichi Yamada

    Nishijin district in Kyoto is a famous production center of kimono, traditional Japanese clothes. Nishijin Ori (textiles) for kinomo and obi (wide belts in kimono fashion) are often sold at extraordinary prices. Kyoto was the capitol of Japan from 794 to 1869, and the origin of Nishijin textile dates back to the 15th century. Historically, main customers of Nishijin textiles were the Imperial Court and the nobility. Nishijin textiles have also long been connected to such traditional cultures as Chano-yu (tea ceremony), Ikebana (flower arrangement) and dances. Consequently, Nishijin textiles have been famed for their fine and sophisticated designs, which require superior weaving techniques.
     Traditionally, Nishijin had confined its market locally around Kyoto. After the Meiji Reformation, the industry expanded their market nationwide and established a leading position in kimono production. Nishijin experienced two major technological innovations in its modern history. First was the introduction of the Jacquard loom technology from France in 1880's. Nishijin textiles require complex control of loom machines to make fine patterns. Jacquard loom technology automated the loom controls using the punched card system, a primitive and mechanical “digital” technology. The Jacquard loom improved the productivity of manufacturing, and enabled the market expansion. Second was the digitization in 1980's, which replaced the punched cards to electronic digital technologies, or the “direct-Jacquard” system. Those technologies were developed locally, and penetrated into smaller factories. Simultaneously, computer graphics technologies were introduced in designing and control-code making of the fabrics patterns. Today, key technologies in Nishijin textiles are extensively digital.


2) Kendo and the Internet: diffusion, exchange, and selling

    Takashi Wada (Prefectural University of Hiroshima)

    Kendo is a Japanese martial art based on traditional sword-fighting, which was established in the early 1700s. The number of players in Japan was about 1.66 million in 2007. However, the number of players has been declining since the early 1980s because of the decline in the birth rate and the popularity of other sports such as soccer. Therefore, it is said that the number of players should be increased again to revitalize Kendo through various publicity and promotion activities. The Japan Kendo Federation (JFK) started the promotion activities using social media on the Internet in 2008. JFK is using video sites, photo sharing sites, social networking sites, and Twitter. As a result, the audience of Kendo tournament TV shows and the number of tournament visitors has risen since 2008.
    Exchange among Kendo players, called Kouken-chiai, has been one of the most important ways for them to advance their knowledge and make progress when playing Kendo. Since about 2000, the Internet has been used as a medium for them to communicate with one another. They have been sharing information about Kendo events, talking about Kendo skills, and planning events to practice together. The website Ichini-kai and the Facebook site Kouken-chiai are typical sites.
    In addition, the Internet has been used for selling Kendo equipment. Most retailers of Kendo equipment in Japan have created websites to sell it recently. They can now sell it to players who live in peripheral areas of Japan or abroad through the Internet.


3) The Cultural Geopolitics of Cybercafes

    Barney Warf (University of Kansas)

    In many countries in which ownership rates of personal computers are relatively low, cybercafes are important segueways into cyberspace. They often play significant roles in the social lives of netizens as well. The geographies of cafes, however, are driven by several forces, including the location of local commercial districts and volumes of tourists. This paper examines the location and politics of cybercafes in several national contexts, synthesizing literature from an international series of case studies. It addresses government attempts to censor cybercafes (e.g., in China), one of the primary forms of internet restriction in less democratically inclined states. It also explores the contested and complex age, gender, and class issues that swirl around cybercafes.


4) Geographical Identity in the Domain Name Space: the Case of Ukraine

    Viktoriia K. Kiptenko (Taras Shevchenko National University of Kyiv)

    Twenty years ago Ukraine got its own domain name (ua). The identified digital resources of the country grow by 13% in 2012 having accounted about 706 thousand domain names this January. Only 2.1% among them are private public names of the second level because of the registered trade mark requirement, which is sign of identity itself. The dominance of .com.ua (39.74%), followed by org.ua (13.34%) and .net.ua (7.43%) goes in line with the global trend. The peculiar feature of identity in the domain name space of the country, which has 25 regions and two administrative units, is that 54 out of 61 available public domain names are geographical ones. The situation depicts geopolitical and geo-cultural impact of the USSR separation related to Russian or Ukrainian language transliteration of the regional center city names. Nine regions of the country have two and four areas have three domain names of different (but similar because of Slavic origin) spelling or acronym per each. The latest developments certify the growth of shorten names share, which prospects avoidance of the future identity confusion, however, maintains already existing. The true regional domains (.crimea.ua and .volyn.ua) mark indigenous cultural areas. The capital-city gravitation of the Ukrainian domain name space proves the 9.21% share of .kiev.ua (Ukrainian spelling domain - .kyiv.ua has imperceptible development yet) and slow decrease of 5-top registrars dominance (over 53.4%) on the domestic market. The recent introduction of Cyrillic domain name (2.46%) can be another challenge.



[CS14-2] Information Society (1) Quality of Life and Health Care

    [ Monday 05 August 16:00-17:30 Room501 ]    Chair(s): Yoshio Arai (The Univ. of Tokyo), Mikoto Kukimoto (Nara Women's Univ.)

1) ICT and health care efforts in sparsely populated areas. An example from a northern Swedish town

    Andreas Koch (University of Salzburg)

    The northern Swedish province Norrland is historically a sparsely populated region with an uneven economic and demographic distribution which has grown through demographic changes over the last decades. There are however new kinds of mobility, phrased as “fly-in-fly-out” or “seasonal distant-commuting”, in regions where timber and mining industries have gained economic strengths which led to new complex patterns of settlement structures, community processes and infrastructure functions.
    Information and communication technologies contribute significantly to this economic and socio-cultural changes by not only keeping social relations of the mobile labor force alive, but by supporting infrastructures logistically and due to a fast and easy knowledge transfer between remote and central parts of the country. Based on a visit in 2012 in the town of Storuman, Vaesterbotten (as part of the province), some empirical insights of ICT’s use in a clinical context will be presented. The hospital’s ICT infrastructure is embedded in an interregional network in order to organize the logistics of patient transportation depending on the severity of injuries or the local capabilities of medical staff and/or equipment. Moreover, an expert knowledge exchange network has been created to tele-diagnose illness symptoms and decide next medical steps. ICT also serves as a facilitator to attract young doctors to live and work in a town which may be perceived as remote from a geographical perspective, not (so much) however from a quality of life perspective. ICT can thus be seen as one important contributor to enhance social capabilities and regional resilience.


2) Growth mechanism of ICT-based health care system: A case of Japan's remote areas

    Tsutomu Nakamura (The University of Tokyo)

    Despite the ambition, health care information computerization in Japan is behind schedule and Japan is lagging behind many developed countries. As a result, ICT utilization in health care was due to self-help efforts in each region in spite of national eHealth policy. ICT diffuses not only due to a lack of medical resources or changing numbers of patients, but also building of human relationships among doctors or between doctors and vendors.

     This study illustrates the growth mechanism of ICT-based health care system in the most advanced case. Nagasaki Prefecture is the area where ICT-based health care system spread into major medical institutions. The system can be used for sharing of patient data among health care professionals. The growth mechanism can be broken into three stages based on participation rate and geographical coverage. There were bottlenecks in achieving the goal at each stage. During the time when Japan had closed its doors to the outside world, Nagasaki played the role of gateway to Japan and was the first place to accept Western medical education in Japan. Nagasaki has many hospitals due to medical care for A-bomb survivors and for supporting to remote healthcare providers in many remote islands. These geographical characteristics are closely related to good relationship between members of local medical association and hospital doctors. The administrators of the system broke the bottlenecks by making extensive use of relationship of cooperation based on a network of personal contacts.


3) Provision of web-based childcare maps by local governments and the role of local NPOs

    Mikoto Kukimoto (Nara Women's University), Yoshiki Wakabayashi

    With the spread of the Internet and the digitalization of maps, many local governments have been providing online maps containing useful information for residents’ daily lives. In particular, online maps for childcare support have shown a rapid increase in recent years. According to Sekimoto et al. (2011), the ratio of this kind of map accounts for approximately 10% of online maps made available by Japanese local governments. Some of these maps are prepared in collaboration with voluntary sectors. The objective of this study is to analyze the present conditions of web-based childcare support maps provided by local governments, with particular attention being given to map creation process and collaboration with voluntary sector such as local NPOs. We sampled web-based childcare support maps in the Tokyo metropolitan area and classified them into three grades to analyze style, contents, expression, and the map creation process. As a result, approximately 35% of total samples are interactive map that uses Web GIS, for which users can choose the information and its expression. Further, some local governments maintain a website for mobile phones because it is common, especially among Japanese women, to use the Internet on their mobile phones. Some local governments outsource the operation and management of the website or online maps to private companies or NPOs, others collaborate with local NPOs who has created childcare magazines including childcare maps and built community networking. The grass-roots activities by the local voluntary sector plays significant role in provision of web-based childcare maps by local governments.


4) Broadband deployment and living in the island: a case study in Japan

    Yoshio Arai (The University of Tokyo), Madoka Uemura, Yasukazu Satake

    Geographical gaps in Internet access increased after broadband services became widely available in developed countries in the 2000s. The conditions for broadband deployment in less favored regions, such as mountainous areas or small remote islands, are particularly severe because of their small populations. Broadband deployment in an island is particularly difficult because of a large cost of the telecommunication channel connecting an island to the mainland. In the later half of 2000s, however, broadband have been deployed in almost all of inhabited islands in Japan. The national policies aiming to diffuse ICT uses throughout the whole country boost broadband deployment in islands of Japan. Massive subsidies of the Japanese Government were injected into the deployment projects. Although the transportation between islands and mainland have been improved by the island development policies of the Japanese Government, no little handicaps of the island remain. Broadband networks are expected to overcome partially the difficulties in living and economic activities in the island. In this paper, the broadband deployment and its impact to everyday life in the island will be examined based on a case study in Japan. We will mainly focus Ogasawara Islands, which is located in the Pacific Ocean, 1000km away from the Japanese Mainland. A submarine optical-fiber line connecting the islands to the mainland was constructed in 2011. Access conditions of Internet and digital broadcasting services in the islands were drastically improved. Broadband services seem to change the way of life in the most remote island in Japan.



[CS14-3] Information Society (2) Knowledge, Technology and Research

    [ Tuesday 06 August 10:00-11:30 Room501 ]    Chair(s): Mark Wilson (Michigan State Univ.), Yoshio Arai (The Univ. of Tokyo)

1) Creative and knowledge-intensive teleworkers relation to e-capital in the Helsinki Metropolitan Area

    Tommi A Inkinen (University of Helsinki), Maria Merisalo, Teemu Makkonen

    This paper examines the extent to which teleworkers in the Helsinki Metropolitan Area (HMA) fit the profile of knowledge or creative workers. Furthermore, the concept of electronic capital (e-capital), referring to the use of ICT, electronic services and social media, is redefined and applied in relation to teleworkers. The data were gathered through a stratified postal survey (n=971) conducted in the HMA in 2010. Statistical testing indicated no difference in terms of knowledge intensity, creativity and e-capital between home-anchored workers and mobile or part-time teleworkers. However, a significant difference was noted between teleworkers and non-teleworkers. The results reveal the complexity of telework in both a theoretical and empirical context. The paper also points to the significance of e-capital in relation to telework, networking and the creating and maintaining of social relations, supporting the theoretical proposition of e-capital.


2) Location and Transformation of Enterprise R&D Institutions in East Japan: Case Study of Electric Machinery and Equipment Manufacturing Industry

    Nana Li (Nara Women's University)

    In Japan, R&D institutions are highly concentrated in eastern Japan, especially in Tokyo and its surrounding regions. Against this background, this study examines the location features and spatial transformation of enterprise R&D institutions in East Tokyo from the perspective of relationship between R&D institutions and other enterprise organizations. In this study, the location of R&D institutions are divided into four types: (1) the same location with headquarters and production plants (H+P+R Type), (2) the same location with headquarters (H+R Type), (3) the same location with production plants (P+R Type), and (4) the independent R&D institutions separated from headquarters or plants (R Type).
     The enterprise’s organization of work, whether dominated by hierarchical or horizontal principles, is dependent on the type of production. The role of management was to organize work in a way that would maximize the productivity. The knowledge gap between management and workers was one of several factors that obstructed the creation of positive vertical relations. Compared with the archetypal workers on the assembly line, the worker in the knowledge economy needs both to communicate and to cooperate in order to meet new implicit demands for the creation of tacit knowledge. Therefore, through this study it can be found that, although enterprise R&D institutions are decentralized to the surroundings of Tokyo along with the decentralization of production plants to peripheral zones, most of them are still highly concentrated in areas which are proximity to headquarters. Consequently, hierarchical function distribution of management, innovation and production is formed in urban area.



[CS14-4] Information Society (3) Media and Cultural Industries

    [ Tuesday 06 August 08:00-09:30 Room501 ]    Chair(s): Shinji Hara (Kagawa Univ.)

1) Path-Dependent Evolution of Digital Distribution of Film in Japan and the U.S.

    Shinji Hara (Kagawa University)

    Information and digital technology has been transforming the landscape of film industry dramatically these days, not only at production side but also at distribution side of the industry. Growth of digital distribution is quite path-dependent. Digital delivery or VOD(Video on Demand) of Film, TV program etc. by internet has been expanded in the U.S., as is known by the success of Netflix, Vudu, Hulu and so on, but it is not the case in Japan, though there are a few early providers like Akutobira. On the other hand content delivery by mobile phone is so popular and uniquely developed in Japan. The paper aims at clarifying what is underlying the different development on the use of information technology for film industry in Japan and the U.S. As well as analysis on the present condition of digital distribution, future opportunities provided by digital distribution of film for the industry and for regional development are also explored.


2) A Case Study of Job Transfers in the Animation Industry: The Dissolution of Studio A and Its Workers Job Searches

    Kenta Yamamoto (Kyushu International University)

    This article studies how the human networks built between workers at animation studios affect their job searches or transfers and is based on an analysis of a certain studio, in this study referred to as Studio A.
     All of the subject workers belong to Studio A, which was founded in 1989 but dissolved in 2011 because of a conflict in business policies. Some workers have transferred to a studio newly founded by one of Studio A's former executives. However, this new studio incurred Studio A's liabilities and debts, and so it also dissolved in 2012.
     Under such severe conditions, workers were forced to find other jobs. Fortunately, they could rely on the personal connections they developed when they worked at Studio A. In some cases, workers heard about new jobs from friends working at partner studios, while others found work by contacting former Studio A co-workers, and some transferred to new studios along with their Studio A workmates.
     The studio is not only a place of work, but also a place where workers can build human networks. The workers who build this network both within and outside of the studio have comprehensive knowledge of individual abilities and transactional connections, and this allows them to act as a kind of employment agency. This presentation will cover the detailed attributes of these workers and the changes to their working environments after transfers.


3) Reorganization and Agglomeration Dynamics of Advertising Industry in Tokyo

    Satoshi Furukawa (The University of Tokyo)

     This study discusses the agglomeration dynamics of the advertising industry in Tokyo. In the 1990s and later, Japan’s advertising industry reached a turning point owing to the diversification of media, stagnation of advertising market, and industrial restructuring. Tokyo is the location of the greatest concentration of advertising-related firms in Japan and is one of the international advertising centers as well as New York and London. Using a company directory, I analyzed the locational changes of advertising-related firms in central Tokyo. Because the Japanese advertising industry is characterized by an oligopolistic market, I focused on the reorganization of major advertising agencies.

     With the foundation of commercial broadcasting companies and high economic growth after the Second World War, many advertising agencies were established, and most of them were located in areas where major advertisers and media companies had offices. Advertising production companies were spun off from the advertising production departments of advertisers and advertising agencies. This led to the expansion of the geographical area of the agglomeration. Over the last few decades, several changes have occurred in the agglomeration. The number of foreign advertising agencies increased in Tokyo, and a new agglomeration of Internet-based advertising companies appeared in Shibuya. In addition, owing to changing advertiser needs, major advertising agencies formed a corporate group through establishing subsidiaries and buying out companies specializing in specific domains. This resulted in the formation of an agglomeration of corporate groups in central Tokyo.



[CS14-5] Information Society (4) Space and Place

    [ Monday 05 August 14:00-15:30 Room501 ]    Chair(s): Mark Wilson (Michigan State Univ.)

1) The satisfaction of human needs in physical and virtual spaces

    Aharon Kellerman (University of Haifa)

    This presentation attempts to explore the spatial dimension of Maslow’s basic theory on the hierarchy of human needs, in light of the growing role of virtual space via the Internet in the contemporary information age. Generally, virtual space constitutes a space for the gratification of human needs, side by side with real space. Its role, as compared to real space, grows along the hierarchy of human needs: physiology; safety; love/belonging; esteem; and self-actualization. Thus, its role for the gratification of physiological needs is complementary whereas its role for self-actualization is significant. The growing role of virtual space has evolved into an equivalent hierarchical relationship with physical space: complementarity; competition; substitution; escape and potentially also exclusivity. Escape from physical to virtual space, as both need and relationship, has been brought about by social networking, being similar to physical escape offered by tourism. It does not seem real to foresee that virtual space will offer exclusive fulfillment as of yet unforeseen new human needs.


2) Does Place still matter in a Spatially Enabled Society?

    Stephane Roche (Universite Laval), Michel Lussault

    The answer is undoubtedly yes, but it’s not obvious. This paper reflects the state of the authors’ thinking about the issue of “place”, analyzed in the context of the Spatially Enabled Society. SES is an evolving concept where location and spatial information are available to citizens and organizations as a means of managing their activities and information. Place can be seen as space where Euclidian or metric distance does not matter. By nature, a place is time sensitive; it is created by an event at a certain location to a certain time. However, the concept of place has evolved in the SES as location technologies are not limited to answering ""where"" we are or ""who"" and ""what"" is close to us, but rather can provide extended capabilities for users to create and access new forms of places (virtual, augmented, enriched…) by adding digitals artefacts. This hypermodern context is characterized by its wikinomics, where places could be sensed, characterized by citizen (seen as sensors), and their meaning could be crowdsourced (Volunteered Geographical Information). Places become hyper-places (other authors also refer to wiki-place, digi-place…), i.e. spaces where physical Euclidean distances are no longer relevant, but where other forms of distance (time, connectivity, digital, social...) play a key role. This paper aims at providing a brief overview of the idea of SES and the issues it raises, based on the current literature and illustrated with a few examples. The concept of “place” will then be discussed, along with the space one.


3) ICT and the Change of Notion of Place

    Tabea Bork-Hueffer (National University of Singapore)

    The concepts “sense of place” and “notion of place” have received substantial scientific attention and appraisal. Nevertheless, due to the increased spread of various forms of information and communication technologies (ICT), the ways in which people are confronted with and communicate about space and place as well as the meaning that space and place have for them are significantly changed. Hence previous insights into how people directly and indirectly experience and perceive place need to be reconsidered. So far, there is no study that explicitly analyzes the variety of exogenous factors that nowadays have an impact on notion of place. In this paper first results of a qualitative interview study with migrant groups living in Singapore are being presented with the aim to analyze how migrants' notions of the city of Singapore are constructed, negotiated and debated in the face of various influences. Discourses on and constructions of the city increasingly take place in virtual space, where new notions of the city are constantly (re)produced.


4) Concepts et méthodes pour améliorer l’accès aux soins : les enjeux d’une nouvelle organisation des médecins

    Joy Raynaud (University of Montpellier 3)

    L’accès aux soins est un concept multidimensionnel dont les obstacles sont de natures géographiques, financières, socio-culturelles et organisationnelles. Afin d’améliorer l’accès aux soins sur les territoires, une association de médecins libéraux en France a souhaité déterminer précisément ces obstacles afin de proposer des solutions en adéquation avec la réalité du terrain. Dans ce contexte, deux enquêtes ont été réalisées afin d’évaluer les difficultés des patients pour consulter et celles des médecins libéraux pour répondre à la demande de soins. Les résultats des enquêtes montrent que les médecins rencontrent des difficultés croissantes pour répondre à la demande de soins, ce déficit s’observe à travers les deux principaux obstacles des patients pour consulter : le temps d’attente en cabinet et les délais d’obtention des rendez-vous. De plus, les médecins ont le sentiment que l’offre de soins est suffisante dans leur secteur de patientèle et que la situation va fortement empirer dans les prochaines années (départs à la retraite, augmentation de la population, etc.). Afin de répondre à leurs besoins et ceux des patients, les résultats montrent que les médecins privilégient le regroupement avec d’autres confrères pour un meilleur accès aux soins jour et nuit. Ces cabinets, à vocation pluriprofessionnelle, permettent également la présence d’un secrétariat mutualisé, allégeant la charge administrative des médecins et diminuant le temps d’attente des patients grâce à la possibilité de prendre des rendez-vous. Ainsi, ce projet a permis de mettre en évidence l’intérêt d’une démarche intégrative reposant sur les perceptions des acteurs de santé afin de proposer des solutions efficaces et durables pour l’accès aux soins sur les territoires.



[CS14-6] Information Society (5) Business Applications

    [ Tuesday 06 August 16:00-17:30 Room501 ]    Chair(s): Mark Wilson (Michigan State Univ.)

1) On-Site Broadband and Technology Training for Small and Micro Rural Business Establishments: A model for local engagement

    Eric Frederick (Connect Michigan), Elizabeth Riesser

    Small/micro-businesses (those employing less than twenty workers) are the life-blood of economic growth in rural areas of the United States. In the state of Michigan, one-third of all employment is provided by these establishments. As the world continues to progress digitally, small/micro-businesses in rural areas will rely increasingly on dependable broadband connections to stay competitive and take advantage of growth opportunities.
    Research identifies, however, a paradox between the availability of broadband infrastructure and the adoption and use of such infrastructure by small/micro-businesses. A study, conducted in 2011 found that only 60% of rural small/micro-businesses adopt broadband and less than half utilize a website. When asked the reason for non-adoption, 43% of small/micro-establishments state, "we don’t need it," or "we’re getting by without it," while 10% identified infrastructure access as an adoption barrier.
    This research suggests a lack of awareness and technology training among rural, small/micro-businesses. A literature review examining training and awareness programs for small/micro-businesses discovered that on-site training is most effective for the sustainable adoption of new technology. Analysis of existing programs offering training to small/micro-businesses in Michigan revealed a lack of training of this sort.
    With declining funds and focus on conducting on-site technology training for small/micro-businesses at all most levels of support, local informal networks of public, private, and non-profit community stakeholders may provide the framework for developing creative and innovative means to provide technology training to the small/micro-business community. The proposed model is being tested in four Michigan communities during spring 2013.


2) Spatial Strategies of Cultural Industry and Entrepreneurship: Comparison of the 2 Ad Agencies in Taiwan

    Zhengyuan Zhao (The University of Tokyo)

    In creative activities, human capital is always the most important resource. The place experiences of entrepreneurs and artists who are involved in the cultural industry have a profound impact on the industrial clusters and network organizations. In this study, we discussed the following topics by comparing two local ad agencies in Taiwan: (A) personal roles in enterprise spatial strategies; and (B) the survival methods of local family-run ad agencies based in Taiwan amid the fierce competition with multinational agencies in the context of the globalization strategies relating to multinational ad agencies and political economic changes in Taiwan. Although the agency that has been merged with a multinational ad agency (firm K) has obtained more resources from its parent company, its management and creative staff have shifted their attention on the domestic, and strive to enable the globalized enterprises and their brands to penetrate into the local markets. In contrary, the family ad agency primarily relying on the domestic market usual (firm D) has strived to explore and expand its overseas markets for survival in competition, and carry out cooperation with local enterprises in business, personnel and technology, although their resources are still derived locally.


3) Effects of broadband on the hotel business in mountainous areas: a case of Higashikawa town, Japan

    Yasukazu Satake (The University of Tokyo), Yoshio Arai

    Broadband services that diffused quickly in the 2000s have influenced the way the Internet is used. For the hotel business, this led to increased promotion of online booking; hotel businesses established their own websites to manage bookings. However, in regions that are less convenient for developing such infrastructure, such as mountainous areas, broadband is not often available because its deployment by private sector companies is difficult in part due to unprofitability. On the other hand, in Japan, broadband infrastructure was deployed in many mountainous areas by local governments to resolve the problem of poor digital terrestrial broadcasting reception, because TV broadcasting fully shifted from analog to digital in 2011. This brought broadband Internet to the mountainous areas. In this study, we examined the effects of broadband deployment on tourism in mountainous areas, a case study of Higashikawa town, Japan. This town is located in Northern Japan and is part of a National park that contains mountains around 2000 meters in elevation. Hotel business is located at the foot of these mountains that contains hot springs. Higashikawa town deployed broadband in this area between 2010 and 2011 in order to provide broadband access and improve digital broadcasting reception. This promotes the provision of Internet access for visitors as a new service by some hotels. Moreover, tasks such as handling online booking and updating websites are quicker via broadband. Therefore, it is considered that broadband deployment for mountainous areas affects both local businesses and tourists.


4) The Impact of ICT for the Distribution of Fresh Sea Products from a Remote Island

    Hiroaki Kammura (The University of Tokyo), Kenji Hashimoto

     The development of information and communication technology (ICT) brought many changes to our society. For example, introducing ICT system affected the “power shift” to retailors in the distribution system. Also, ICT improved business communication and brought the benefit of mail order selling. Through this, the distribution of products from remote islands or mountainous villages has been changed its marketing systems. From the viewpoint of public sectors, the development of ICT and its economic effect is highly concerned. Therefore, the purpose of this study is to clarify how ICT changed the distribution of products from remote islands, and how public sector contributed to it.
     The case of this study is Ama town, a remote island in Western Japan. Ama town is 60 km away from mainland of Japan. Similar to other remote islands, Ama town experienced depopulation in recent years. From the middle age, people in Ama town engaged in fisheries, and main products are fish, calamari, and oyster. However, since Ama town is a remote island, its logistics cost becomes high. To make differentiation, Ama town introduced a new frozen system called “Cell Alive System (CAS) “ through public projects, and try to keep “freshness” of its products, especially oyster, better than others. In the CAS, ICT plays important role in exchanging information between fisherman and CAS processing factory, between the factory in the remote islands and the market in urban areas. In this presentation, it would be discussed that ICT has the multifunction for the distribution of marine products.



[CS14-7] Information Society (6) Urban Perspectives

    [ Tuesday 06 August 17:30-19:00 Room501 ]    Chair(s): Mark Wilson (Michigan State Univ.)

1) City in the Web. Cyberspace visibility and connections of Wroclaw, Poland

    Krzysztof Janc (University of Wroclaw)

    The purpose of presentation is to show the position of Wroclaw in comparison with the other large Polish cities and its connections within cyberspace. The position of Wroclaw in relation to other cities was determined through the analysis of the results obtained using the Google search engine regarding the occurrence of phrases connected with cities (the name of the city). The connections in the cyberspace were approximated using the analysis of co-occurrence of terms connected with cities (pairs of cities) on websites and the analysis of hyperlinks on websites of selected institutions based in Wroclaw. The reason for choosing this subject is the author's conviction that a city can be assessed not only through the prism of traditional measuring methods, but also those methods regarding their existence and functioning on the Internet.
    On the basis of the conducted research process it can be stated that the hierarchy and the connections between the cities in cyberspace are closely connected with those found in the real world. The presented research results indicate that the information analysis of the Internet resources can be applied in determining the significance of cities and connections between them. An additional advantage of this type of analyses is an easy and constant access to the data. What is important, a query in Google allows to determine the periodic reinforcement of the ranking position of a city, which is caused by important social events.


2) The role of 'trusted intermediaries' in addressing the digital divide: the case of social housing in the UK

    Ranald Richardson (Newcastle University), Angela Abbott

    Despite a range of policies throughout the last 10 years to encourage greater digital participation, a Europe-wide digital divide still persists in terms of both access and effective use of ICTs. This divide affects certain social groups, notably older adults, the poor and the disabled. This digital exclusion is often spatially concentrated in poorer urban areas and rural areas. In the UK several commentators have argued that there is a crucial role for ‘trusted intermediaries’ to take a greater role in promoting digital inclusion, both to improve well-being, and to deliver services more efficiently and cost effectively. These intermediaries, in the shape of community and third sector organisations, are also being looked to for strengthening the delivery of public services, as states restructure welfare provision under the tenets of neo-liberal theory and the ‘realities’ of austerity. This paper explores the potential of these ‘trusted intermediaries’ to address digital exclusion. It does so through a case study of the social housing sector, over seventy per cent of whose clients are not on-line. The paper is based on a 2 year study of the sector during which the authors interviewed a range of policy makers, organisational actors and tenants. It explores positive cases where new technologies, particularly social media, had a positive impact on tenants’ lives. It also reports on the cultural, organisational, skills and other barriers which need to be overcome if such positive outcomes are to be replicated.


3) E-government in Poland: development level and success factors

    Robert Perdal (Adam Mickiewicz University in Poznan)

    The development of e-government is one of the most important challenges in the development of the information society and it is one of the most significant determinants of socio-economic development in European Union and on the world. The e-government development level is very diverse in the international as well as in the regional and local level. In Poland similarly to other developing post-communist EU countries this process is internally diversified and rather slow-paced. The main reason of this situation is the lack of recognition of the development factors. The aim of this paper is to analyze the level of e-government development in Poland and empirical verification of the theoretical model of e-government development. In the first approach, there will be presented the analysis of the level of e-government development in Poland in comparison to other EU members and in the regional units of Poland. In the second approach, it will be presented the results of the analysis of factors influencing the development of local e-government. The study was conducted on the example of 20 territorial units (gminas) of Poznan agglomeration. Among the analyzed factors are: human capital in municipal offices, the ICT infrastructure, e-government services, the attitude of the authorities and local leaders, the legal and organizational conditions, financial resources, collaboration and partnership, the demand for e-government services from citizens and others. The paper presents the synthetic results of research project “Model and development factors of e-government in self-government in Poland” (UMO-2011/03/N/HS4/00375) financed by the National Science Centre in Poland.


4) Knowledge city and digital planning: the case of Montpellier, France.

    Alexandre Schon (University Montpellier III), Henry Bakis

    Montpellier Metropolitan Area, located in County Languedoc-Roussillon, counts 257 351 inhabitants in the main city and 419 291 inhabitants in Montpellier Agglomeration. With a young and dynamic population growth, innovative companies and universities have invested sectors of the knowledge economy (Agronomy, Tic, and Health). The economic dynamics of the regional capital was encouraged by major infrastructure development projects such as new modern digital networks (R3LR and HDMON, Pegasus, Num’Her@ult mainly). Boasting a ""digital legacy"" of France Telecom (historical french telecom operator) and a favorable geographical position in major national and continental internet backbones, Montpellier digitally plans his space. The digital networks built by public actors have the objective of linking the strategic spaces of knowledge between them, improve and harmonize electronic mobilities between institutions, strengthen their collaborative relationships, and to develop largest ""digital gateways"" to spaces outside the Montpellier Area. This communication followed a previous work, it will give an important place to the observation, description, measurement and analysis of the digital infrastructure finalized in the Montpellier Metropolitan Area. Interconnections, complementarities, nested scales, distribution of responsibilities between public and private actors will be analyzed. These networks have had differentiated targets: business parks, universities, laboratories, computing clusters and cultural buildings. Different internet network development strategies are developed by public authorities (adapted internet facilities, delegation contracts), they create indirect effects on citizens themselves (project ""Territoire Montpellier Numerique"", medico-cultural link, installation of new private telecom operators and their NGAN).



[CS14-8] Mega-event Planning (1) Identity, Place and Tradition

    [ Wednesday 07 August 10:00-11:30 Room501 ]    Chair(s): Eva Kassens-Noor (Michigan State Univ.), Laura Huntoon (Univ. of Arizona)

1) Mega Event Heterotopias

    Eva Kassens-Noor (Michigan State University)

    This paper conceptualizes mega event heterotopias that represent the merging of mega event utopias, the ideal forms of mega-event hosts from the mega event owner points of view, with pre-existing urban and regional structures of bidders. These mega event heterotopias, namely the “World’s Fair Host,” the “Olympic Host,” and the “World Cup Host,” represent a variety of real urban and regional configurations for having staged a particular mega event. The paper first describes the three mega event heterotopias based on an analysis of bidding documents for mega events, Transfer of Knowledge documents in data and local archives of mega event owners, interviews with mega event owner representatives and host planners, urban master plans and communications between mega event owners and bidders. Second, it discusses to what extent the ideals have been modified to fit host structures thereby forming heterotopias. Finally, the paper concludes with the impacts mega event utopias will have on future hosts.


2) Porto Maravilha: The social and cultural impacts of event-led urban revitalization in Rio de Janeiro.

    Anne-Marie Broudehoux (University of Quebec at Montreal)

    This paper is interested in the politics of urban image construction, especially with regards to the hosting of sporting mega-events in Rio de Janeiro, host of the 2014 World Cup and 2016 Olympics. It examines the impacts of image-driven urban redevelopment upon the social and material landscape of a rich but fragile community. The paper focuses on Porto Maravilha, a major port revitalization project that represents the largest public-private-partnership in Brazilian history. It seeks to turn five square kilometers of devalued housing and industrial buildings into a world-class mixed-use entertainment district. The project encompasses an area long known as “Little Africa”, site of what was once the world’s most important slave market, and birthplace of many Afro-Brazilian cultural traditions such as samba and capoeira. At the heart of the vast project lies Providence Hill, a 115 year-old informal settlement, the earliest in the city and first to bear the name “favela”. The community is threatened by interventions that seek to limit its visibility, shrink its population, and pacify its image. Approximately one-third of the community will be displaced to the urban periphery, causing concern for growing socio-spatial polarization, and the social homogenization of the port area. The paper examines how culture is being used as both a marketing tool to increase the port’s tourism appeal and as an instrument of legitimation, giving a benevolent face to a speculative neoliberal project, while local cultural practices, especially the area’s unique heritage, are blatantly disregarded, obliterated or transformed into objects of consumption.


3) The Role of Megaevents in Developing Agglomeration Economies

    Laura Huntoon (University of Arizona)

    Cities continue to compete for the right to host a variety of megaevents although many studies have shown mixed financial returns for international expositions and world’s fairs as well as Olympic Games for host cities. Typically public spending to create an event outweighs public revenues received during the operation of an event. A review of the potential motivations for hosting megaevents led to a consideration of agglomeration economies as a public motivation. The development of agglomeration economies as a consequence of megaevents is understudied in analyses of the process of hosting an international fair. A world’s fair or international exposition has the potential for developing long-term positive effects as these events provide a platform for a metropolitan area to create agglomeration economies.
    
    Megaevents lend themselves to immediate positive externalities, providing local public goods such as cultural and social events, as well as increased social interaction via a public event in which spectators may participate. After the close of an event, facilities, organizations and networks may lead to further agglomeration economies. This paper considers the provision of local public goods at three international expositions in order to assess the increase in supply of local public cultural and social events both during the run of the exposition and in subsequent time periods. The case studies fairs were held during the last decade of the 20th century, providing a retrospective look at the consequences of hosting an event.


4) Balt, Switch and Execute: the Olympics and urban planning in Rio de Janeiro

    Christopher Thmoas Gaffney (Universidade Federal Fluminense)

    The 2016 Summer Olympics are a catalyst for massive physical transformations in the city of Rio de Janeiro. Consistent with mega-event planning in other cities, these changes were detailed in the Local Organizing Committee`s candidature file, or bid book. However, as the Olympic project has evolved it has expanded to include myriad redevelopment and mobility projects not originally included in the bid book. The Olympic project, therefore, has taken on a form and scope that goes well beyond the winning candidature proposal and brings into question the role of the IOC in effectively evaluating and controlling the urban impacts of their events. This paper will evaluate the role of the Olympics in city planning in Rio de Janeiro. We suggest that the Olympic Games are a mechanism through which vested interests have eliminated public input into planning processes, using the Games as a justification for permanent alterations to the city`s long term plan. We suggest that the IOC needs to re-structure the spatial and temporal frameworks of the candidature system to allow for cities to grow into the Games over time versus having the Games, with their onerous urban demands, suddenly emerge onto the landscape.



[CS14-9] Mega-event Planning (2) Urban Regeneration and Event Legaciesidentity, place and tradition

    [ Wednesday 07 August 08:00-09:30 Room501 ]    Chair(s): Eva Kassens-Noor (Michigan State Univ.), Laura Huntoon (Univ. of Arizona)

1) Legacy of the UEFA EURO 2012: Spatial Effects to Ukraine

    Viktoriia K. Kiptenko (Taras Shevchenko National University of Kyiv), Yuriy Barbash

    The UEFA EURO 2012 in Poland and Ukraine (European football mega-event) proved to be a success story for two large countries (EU member Poland and Ukraine) with spatial patterns gravitated to the capital-cities. The host cities in Ukraine applied the regional development impetuses in addition to capital, in particular.
    Apart from the world recession, the differences in regulatory and business environment, infrastructure promptitude challenged the event planning and staging at regional and local levels as from the start of preparation (2007). The event with operational budget of 260 mln euro effected the wide territorial scale (the internal distance range 1900km). The experience and legacy of integrated planning for seven key domains (host cities, stadiums, local authorities, safety and security, accommodation, promotion, infrastructure) modernized the opportunities for identity and tradition representation. The impact of investments (9% of Ukraine’s GDP) and new jobs created (0,31%) prospect about 0,32% growth of tourist receipts share in GDP. The role of regions got emphases due to the spatial-based solution of cities’ satellites involvement (areas of about 150 km proximity to the host-cities of Kyiv, Donetsk, Kharkiv and Lviv). Besides increase in hotels and airports capacity in host cities and vicinities, this country enjoyed improvement of railways facilities (principally in the East), roads (West-East direction) and fiber-optic (Central, North, North-East and East, South-West parts) networks. In addition to the geopolitical sign of the move to the East, the UEFA EURO 2012 proved to be the geo-economic and cultural allure for the regions in Ukraine.


2) Megaevents and Urban Regeneration: A Case Study of Expo2012

    Mark Wilson (Michigan State University), Irene Shim, Eunseong Jeong

    Mega-events, such as world’s fairs, serve as vehicles for a range of economic, political and social agendas that focus on changing a city/region. While often attractive to city leaders and residents, world’s fairs also have the potential to reshape urban form with both positive and negative outcomes. Held in one of the smallest cities to host a megaevent, the experience of Yeosu Expo2012 illustrates the costs and benefits of small centers hosting international scale events. Yeosu developed a brownfield port district for the 25 hectare site of Expo2012, invested heavily in high speed rail and highway linkages, as well as tourism and event infrastructure. Expo2012 is examined not only in the context of an isolated mega-event, but also within national context as South Korea has held more mega-events recently than any other country (Olympics 1988, 2018; Expo93; World Cup 2002). This paper will analyze the planning and development of Yeosu Expo2012 and evaluate its impact on a small city/region.



[CS14-10] Traditional wisdom and modernity: ICT and intangible culture (Joint session with the Commission on Mediterranean Basin)

    [ Wednesday 07 August 08:00-09:30 Room555A ]    Chair(s): Maria Paradiso (Univ. of Sannio), Barney Warf (Univ. of Kansas)

1) Broadband divides in mountain communities: a disrupting factor for ‘place attachment’, spatial justice and mobility. Insights from Sannio Appennines (Italy).

    Maria Paradiso (University of Sannio)

    The research is based on the concept of place elasticity (Barcos, Brunn 2010). It further elaborates on it investigating firstly about how the lack of broadband coverage in small rural and mountain cities and villages can reinvigorate or weaken place attachment and retention. Secondly how broadband digital inclusion may limit trends of exodus and abandonment on mountain areas in western countries (migration) or sustain personal mobilities (virtual ones) . The assumption is that in contemporary lives place attachment could not be based anymore on emotional linkages to places and communities mediated by the sense of nature or kinships and the digital gap may seriously interfere with place attachment and mobilities decisions. For this purpose interviews (narratives) were conducted with three categories(students/headfamilies/elderly) of residents in an European Mountain area, Sannio-Appennines in Italy which well represents other mountain regions in Europe which are affected by digital gaps.When traditional agriculture job markets, values, cultures and routines have been disrupted and not adequately replaced, place attachment and roots to communities are likely to be severely eroded. The hypothesis is that Internet is perceived everywhere and along generations too as a distinctive trait of society thus shaping everywhere residents’ rooting, and a main environment enabling citizens, residents in all their life-worlds. Oppositely, the enduring state of broadband coverage lack may thus affect place elasticity, place attachment in declining mountain communities, and cause spatial justice problems par example rural/urban.


2) From videogames to geopolitics: we should discriminate transparency, "panopticism" and "situational awareness"

    Olivier Lefebvre (olivier lefebvre consultant)

    Some specialists of geopolitics having analyzed electronic warfare (like Henrotin) think that it triggers a desire of order generating “panopticism”. The promise is “all will be seen, observed and identified”. The consequence is “panopticism”: an illusionary vision in which a quick, complete victory is granted, thanks to a perfect control allowed by technology. The desire of order is satisfied. But what is Order? Indeed, we have a few ideas on this topic. We find in the works of the American sociologist Sorokin, the German lawyer Carl Schmitt and the specialist of political science Huntington, three arguments:
    - Violence increases when the values and ethical codes are heterogeneous (Sorokin)
    - Technology makes the conflicts more and more violent (Sorokin, Schmitt)
    - Some sociologists think that anomy makes violence more probable: anomic people are attracted by utopias and violent projects.
    To show the difference between “panopticism” and “situational awareness” we examine the topic of the Islamist strategy, building two scenarios, “Latent Islamist strategy” and “Real Islamist strategy”. We propose a mapping of the world in the style of the Spykman’s one, with concentric circles,but based on other reasons. At the center, there is the Isle of World (Eurasia, the Mac Kinder’s notion), then the Mediterranean where the Navy of the Sea Power is, then the Arab countries, then a strip of countries from Afghanistan and Pakistan to Mali through Yemen and Somalia, that Islamists try to control. The stake is to win in the political struggles in the Arab countries.


3) Lifestyle of Citrus Farmers in Setonaikai, Japan

    Madoka Uemura (The University of Tokyo)

    The purpose of this study is to explore lifestyle of citrus farmers in Setonaikai (Seto Inland Sea). Although most of the Japanese archipelago is in the temperate monsoon belt and is thus ideally situated for irrigated paddy farming, the coastal regions around the Setonaikai that lies between the islands of Honshu and Shikoku -where the climate is moderate- are known for their citrus and olive plantations. In addition, Setonaikai’s major industries are citrus farming and shipbuilding, which is flourishing, and many citrus farmers work in this industry. In recent years, however, the number of farmers who have retired from shipbuilding around the age of 60 has been increasing.

    Farmers in the 2000s, often just after their retirement, traded in mikan (mandarins) and hassaku (oranges), old citrus cultivars for lemon and a number of new citrus cultivars. To clarify the purpose of introducing new citrus cultivars, 18 citrus farmers were interviewed. Although prices per yield are higher for new cultivars than for older cultivars, new cultivars are less profitable than older ones, owing to low productivity per 10 are. Regardless, the citrus farmers introduced these new cultivars, not to earn a living but to challenge themselves by trying their hand at new cultivars, or to produce attractive gifts for their friends.


4) Developing the broadband network in Japan’s remote island: A case of the Ogasawara Islands

    Kenji Hashimoto (WASEDA University)

    Ogawawara Islands are a typical remote island which consists of about 30 islands. Although an administration top belongs to Tokyo metropolitan government, these islands are located on the Pacific Ocean separated from the mainland of Japan about 1000 km with distance in a straight line. For this reason, the roles of ICT in Ogawawara Islands are various.
    
      Ogasawara-mura(village) which has jurisdiction over Ogawawara Islands was positive to the dispatch of information through the Internet, and established the official website of the village in 1997. This belongs to an early category also in many Japan’s local governments. Moreover, the optical fiber network by a submarine cable was fixed, and broadband environment was improved in 2011 when Ogawawara Islands were registered as a Natural World Heritage site. Realization of the broadband network which led the optical fiber network prepared the activity base of SMEs which performs tourist business, catalog retailer, for example, in Ogasawara Islands.
    
     This report analyzes the economic impact which maintenance of broadband environment had on SMEs of Ogawawara Islands, and comparison examination is performed with some islands in the Mediterranean.



[CS15-1] Tourism, sustainability and global change (1)

    [ Monday 05 August 14:00-15:30 RoomJ ]    Chair(s): Jarkko Saarinen (Univ. of Oulu)

1) ‘Tourism policy of enclavisation’: Critical sustainability in tourism and regional development

    Jarkko Saarinen (University of Oulu)

    Traditionally the development modes and impacts of tourism have been governed by market-driven operators and/or state authorities and institutions. In general, the tourism industry is conceived as a viable tool for regional development and many governments and development agencies are supporting the industry by planning and constructing tourism infrastructures for purposes of catalyzing regional development. Especially in peripheral areas and the Global South the promotion of tourism has been regarded as highly beneficial for the goals of regional and national development. Since the 1990s there has been a trend to transfer tourism growth and benefits towards the principles of sustainable development, and several development policies and strategies aiming for sustainability and local/regional development have been proposed. Emphasis on sustainability in tourism has further highlighted the role of tourism as a viable ‘soft’ tool for using regional resources for development i.e. well-being and quality of life in localities and regions. However, due to intensification of globalization, neo-liberalization of regional policies and nature of transnational tourism operations, among other issues, the connections between sustainability in tourism, regional development and policy-making have become partially challenged in many places. Based on this background the paper aims to overview some of the ideas and challenges in sustainability, tourism and regional development by analysing the transforming tourism policies in Botswana and their socio-spatial outcomes. A special focus is on the idea of enclavisation in tourism and how tourism development policies have responded and guided the tourism space structures in this southern African context.


2) Global Change and Sustainability Practices in Coastal Tourism in Southeast Asia

    Lei Tin Jackie Ong (James Cook University)

    In Southeast Asia, coastal tourism is growing very rapidly and significantly in the past four decades. However, the rapid coastal tourism development does not always bring desirable outcomes, typically for the natural and socio-cultural environments. With the call for more sustainable development, there is now a greater need for sustainability in such areas as coastal resources are not only vital for economic development but also very important for social and cultural developments. Many nations with coastal zones are now incorporating sustainability programs to rectify the problems associated with negative development outcomes and to bring about a more sustainable coastal development to the local communities. This paper, thus, examines the dynamic growth of coastal tourism urbanisation process and sustainability practices by the stakeholders in the Southeast Asian context using the cases of Boracay (Philippines), Pattaya (Thailand) and Sihanoukville (Cambodia). The intent is to highlight those aspects of contemporary coastal resort growth and sustainability practices that require greater attention by policy makers, planners and practitioners. While significant attention has been given to sustainable development, the paper indicated that there are both structural and specific problems to be addressed and policy makers, planners, managers and practitioners must be flexible to adapt to global change.
    
    
    Key Words: coastal tourism, sustainability, Boracay, Pattaya, Sihanoukville.


3) Sustainable Tourism in Kerala - chances and obstacles

    Tatjana Thimm (HTWG Konstanz)

    The Indian state Kerala is positioned by Kerala Tourism as a sustainable tourism destination for domestic and foreign markets (cf. Jean-Francois 2011). Indeed sustainable tourism projects take place and are conducted either by NGOs like Kabani or Equations or private companies like The Blue Yonder or CGH Earth. However there are critical voices, expressed e. g. by Kerala Tourism Watch, whether Kerala may serve as a role model for sustainable tourism or whether this is still a far goal to reach. Based on that controversy this contribution evaluates the tourism activities of Kerala regarding sustainable tourism on a multilevel scale: the official tourism strategy, the grassroot activities of NGOs, sustainability standards of private companies, the use of sustainable tourism labels and training activities eg. by the Kerala Institute for Tourism and Travel Studies (KITTS). All three dimensions of sustainability i. e. economy, ecology and social issues are examined. The scheme of Strasdas et al. (2007) serves as a framework for analyzing the situation in Kerala. This scheme that was especially designed for tourism in developing countries will be adapted according to the specific characteristics of Kerala in cooperation with the KITTS and then applied during a research stay of the author in Kerala in February 2013. A method mix will be used to collect material and data: The results are based on desk research, qualitative in-depth-interviews with experts and practitioners of the Kerala tourism scene and participant and non participant observation.


4) The de-territorialisation and re-territorialisation of environmental perspectives with reference to satoyama tourism in and beyond Japan

    Megumi Doshita (Tama University)

    In the period of globalisation, diverse objects and ideas ranging from agricultural products to political ideologies cross national borders, and various social scientists have investigated them in order to reveal the nature of globalisation. However, the de-territorialisation and re-territorialisation of environmental perspectives have not been highlighted, even though they are crucial in terms of international environmental movements. In this paper, satoyama tourism practices will be examined in order to gain some insights into the mechanism of globalisation and to provide useful arguments for the future development of environmental tourism. Satoyama was once a local term indicating forests or mountainous areas near villages in Japan. However, in line with nationwide environmental discussion, this word had come to mean a whole set of rural environments by around 2000. Since 2010 when the Japanese government and its counterparts launched the Satoyama Initiative to protect cultivated land globally, satoyama has been understood as an example of socio-ecological production landscapes. The socio-ecological landscapes are expected to be utilised for tourism development in the world. In this paper, the international recognition of satoyama-like landscapes as a type of irreplaceable resource will be reviewed at first, and a case study of satoyama tourism in Japan will be evaluated to understand how hosts and guests enhance their perceptions of the environment influenced by this multifaceted satoyama. After that, international activities related to the Satoyama Initiative will be examined to grasp the way local people interpret and accept Japanese environmental perspectives in the context of globalisation.



[CS15-2] Tourism, sustainability and global change (2)

    [ Monday 05 August 16:00-17:30 RoomJ ]    Chair(s): Jarkko Saarinen (Univ. of Oulu)

1) Vacant House Renovations and Community-based Tourism: A Case Study of Privately-Run Shops in Traditional Temple Areas in Nagano City, Japan

    Misumi Ishikawa (Graduate Student, Dept. of Tourism Creation, Hokkaido Univ)

    This paper examines the present state of the commercial use of vacant houses in the local community of Zenkoji Monzen (Japanese traditional temple area) in Nagano city, Japan. It specifically aims to consider the current status of community-based tourism in a developed country.
    
    Zenkoji Monzen is located in the central area of Nagano city. This area is a tourist and residential mixed area. Recently, some ateliers, cafes, restaurants, and hostels have been opened in the Monzen area by newcomers, artists, and residents. These new facilities have been renovated vacant houses around the Zenkoji temple.
    
    This study considers the following points:
    1) Clarifying the process of change in the local community, it will investigate a spatial disposition of the Zenkoji Monzen area in terms of the commercial use of vacant houses by privately run shops; and,
    2) Investigating how the backpackers hostel owner and staff introduce these renovated shops to their guests. This point will be analyzed through participant observation.
    
    This study has found that some renovated shops in Zenkoji Monzen are renovated on a personal basis. They are not usually developed as souvenir shops or restaurants for tourists. This study has also found that the hostel can serve as a local community information hub. The final suggesting of this study is that, the privately run shops become central to community-based tourism in the local community.


2) Complex patterns of corporate social responsibility in community development of the tourism periphery

    Russell Arthur Smith (Nanyang Technological University)

    While some knowledge exists on the regional development dimensions of the tourism sector in specific physical geographical space, such as region and destination, less is understood regarding the global tourism business landscapes and their impacts on local communities in these places. It is generally known that global tourism has well established corporate control in the north yet has extensive operations in the south. For example in 2010, 10 of the largest 300 hotel management organizations controlled more than 50 percent of both all hotels and all guestrooms in the world. On average these 10 organizations had operations in 78 countries. The hotel sector has an economic role spanning developed and developing contexts. Much of their hotel operations have economic impact in their respective operational locations. Alongside their normal operational roles these hotels organizations seek to positively influence the communities in which they operate through their corporate social responsibility (CSR) programmes. CSR applies their organizations’ resources to social and environmental community projects. Unlike obligatory taxes paid to government, CSR is voluntary, scaled and targeted by individual tourism organizations. These organizations’ CSR projects thus are contributors to community development in the periphery, where it is significant especially in less-developed countries. Drawing on coastal tourism cases from Indonesia, Malaysia, the Philippines and Thailand, this paper seeks to expand the understanding of CSR implementation in the south through examination of the complex patterns of CSR intent, type, duration, partnership and location as well as the internal organizational periphery-centre structures.


3) Jewish heritage niche as sustainable tourism: Evidence from Belmonte,. Portugal

    Shaul Krakover (Ben-Gurion Univ. of the Negev), Anabela Dinis

    Niche tourism is perceived as a strategy offering sophisticated products to specific clientele. Massive streams of religious tourism gave birth to a small and specialized niche market of Jewish heritage tourism. The objective of this paper is to explore adaptation of niche strategies to small and traditional places in a framework of sustainable development. The study focuses on Jewish heritage tourism as a niche market in a small peripheral traditional setting. The main research question is to explore to what extent Jewish heritage can support the development of a sustainable tourism industry in such places. To answer this question a case study of exploratory nature was applied to Belmonte, a small Portuguese town employing a strategy of development based on different sorts of local heritage, one of which is the town's Jewish heritage. This specific tourism niche has been receiving attention from the community and local politics. Results indicate that Jewish tourism is an important segment of tourism for Belmonte, able to attract visitors from the local and global markets. However, this niche market is still not able to constitute the sole engine of development. Means of improving the local Jewish heritage offer are observed and discussed.



[CS15-3] Tourism and regional development (1)

    [ Tuesday 06 August 08:00-09:30 RoomK ]    Chair(s): Dieter K Muller (Umea Univ.)

1) A Study of Sustainability of Rural-Tourism in Japan. Case Study of Niiharu district, Minakami town, Gunma Prefecture.

    Kosei Yamada (Teikyo University)

    In Japan, it is focused to rural-tourism since 1990s, for developing rural areas. Especially, by means of green-tourism and special product development, it is going to break through from the decline in those areas. But most regions followed a drop line at the peak in first years, and it followed that the decline accelerated more. However, there are a few cases that continuing popularity for a long time. TAKUMI-NO-SATO, Minakami town, Gunma prefecture, increased getting into tourists steadily after the 1990s.
    This study considered the factor that maintains a lot of tourist in TAKUMI-NO-SATO and that is high evaluated as a success case by means of questioner survey to inhabitants around TAKUMI-NO-SATO. Specifically, the survey carried for approximately 200 households to clarify a change of the attitudes of inhabitants in 20 years, setting the items such as an evaluation for rural-tourism in TAKUMI-NO-SATO, the change in 20 years, present problems.
    From the results of this survey, it is cleared that most households favorably evaluated rural-tourism in TAKUMI-NO-SATO. However, there were a few answers that was an economical effect, and a population decrease is not stopped, while there were many evaluations to the identity for inhabitants by the popularity having risen. Moreover, in this case of Niiharu district, it is characterized that good relationship between local government and inhabitants, smoothly transfer between people in charge, a good change of generation. It is thought that this becomes the big element of the sustainability of rural-tourism.


2) Price Discrimination in Tourism: The Case of Zimbabwe

    Velvet Nelson (Sam Houston State University)

    Countries around the world use policies of price discrimination in which subsets of tourists, often based on origin or nationality, are charged different prices than other tourists. The primary goal of this practice is to maximize the economic benefit of tourism at the destination. Secondary goals can also be social (e.g. allowing people from the local communities access to domestic tourism resources) or environmental in nature (e.g. restricting access in sensitive ecological areas). Zimbabwe is one such example. The country has a strong tourism resource base with many significant natural and cultural attractions. Tourism became one of the country’s leading economic activities, and international tourist arrivals reached a high in the late 1990s. However, Zimbabwe has been in economic crisis since 2000 with problems of high inflation, unemployment, poverty, and emigration rates. These problems, combined with the country’s poor international reputation, caused a dramatic decline in both domestic and international tourism. As tourism stakeholders seek to rebuild the industry, price discrimination policies have been implemented for both attractions and accommodations with prices as much as 50USD higher for foreign tourists over domestic. This has generated resentment on the part of foreign tourists and, given the perceived substitutability of tourism products, has resulted in a shift in tourism to other destinations in the region, such as Zambia. While one of the key markets remains VFR, concerns about price discrimination has led to fraudulent practices, such as the borrowing Zimbabwean identification cards by foreign visitors.


3) Ecotourism and regional development in the Huastec region of San Luis Potosi, Mexico: challenges and experiences

    Valente Vazquez (Antonomous University of San Luis Potosi), Miguel Aguilar Robledo Aguilar, Alvaro Gerardo Palacio Aponte Palacio

    Mexico has widely regarded as one the most important destinations in the world by the number of tourist received. In the last years, with the increase the ecotourism, the nature tourism and another practices asociated with the sustainability in some regions, has concentrated the public policies to support the energize of the local economies in the last years.
    Particularly, the Huastec region located in the east of the state San Luis Potosi, in the core of country, is distinguished as a geographical space characterized within the most important tropical forest relict in the north of Mexico in where also exist some indigenous groups heirs of prehispanic cultures -pames, huastecos, tenek, i.e.-.
    The particular conditions that the region meet, has increasing the affluence of visitors at the cascades, rivers, caverns and exceptional landscapes that seek the incursion and the contact with the natural sites. In fact, the emergence the cooperatives, special services directed at this new recreation modalities has induced controversy in the local, state and national context if take in account that the apparent economic benefits should to contribute at the regional development in the poorest region of the state.
    Under this critical point of look, this paper discused some experiences obtained in the field work realized in the municipalities of Ciudad Valles, Tamasopo and Tamazunchale, three of the most representatives, as part of research project developed, whose goal was reveal the socioeconomic potencial to development the ecoturistic activity in the state of San Luis Potosi, Mexico.



[CS15-4] Tourism and regional development (2)

    [ Tuesday 06 August 10:00-11:30 RoomK ]    Chair(s): Marek Wieckowski (Polish Academy of Sciences)

1) Tourism development owing to the commodification of rural space in Japan

    Akira Tabayashi (University of Tsukuba)

    Rural space in Japan is characterized by the increase role of consumption rather than the traditional activity of production, as in growing rice or other crops. This situation may be understood as the commodification of rural space. This study examines the possibilities of developing tourist industries based on the commodification of rural space by presenting case studies of the Nasu region in Tochigi prefecture which is well know as a traditional hot spring area, and the Joetsu region in Niigata prefecture which has been high-profile castle town since the age of Kenshin Uesugi in the 16th century. In the Nasu region, attractive hot springs played an important role in creating a famous tourist area. However, residents are now attempting to revitalize their tourist industries by building hiking routes, introducing farm experiences, establishing farmers’ markets, and opening restaurants to serve dishes using local agricultural products. This strategy of developing tourist industries firmly depends on the commodification of rural space. The current issues in the Joetsu region are how to mutually connect the many small-scale scattered tourism resources, what new tourism resources should be promoted, and how educational and experiential tourisms should be incorporated. Thus, the commodification of rural and urban space is essential.


2) Regional Revitalization Using Cartoon Characters: A Case Study of Shimane Prefecture

    Takashi Wada (Prefectural University of Hiroshima)

    The computer software “Flash”, which was developed in the late 1990s, enables individuals to create animation works owing to the reduced cost of production. And they were able to upload their works on the Internet owing to high broadband penetration. Some works made with Flash and uploaded on the Internet have been broadcast on television in late night shows or in local programs. Eagle Talon is a pioneering case.
    The cartoon character Yoshida-kun in Eagle Talon comes from Shimane prefecture and Shimane is the location of the work. Some government workers of Shimane prefecture hit on the idea of using him to promote Shimane. The Governor of Shimane appointed Yoshida-kun as the Shimane Super Ambassador in May 2008. In addition, he appointed him as the cheerleader on the website for promotion of Shimane and the advertizing manager of the Shimane tourism campaign. Shimane prefecture has used Yoshida-kun in various media under contract with the production company, and many companies in Shimane have developed products associated with Yoshida-kun and sold them.
    The creator of Eagle Talon had lived in Shimane for eight years and had become attached to it. Therefore, he has been eager to contribute to Shimane by talking about it in his works. And the production company has tried strategically to promote Yoshida-kun himself and expand the range of his activities. The enactment of their similar ideas has increased the cooperation between them.


3) Restructuring of the Network between PYO Farms and Regional Resources: A Case Study in Koshu-city, Yamanashi Prefecture

    Takuya Koike (Tokyo Metropolitan University)

    In PYO (Pick-your-own) farms, customers can pick fresh fruits or vegetables on their own at a reasonable price. At the same time, farmers can save labor required for harvesting and packing process. Many PYO farms are distributed in the suburbs of the city and attract a lot of customers. Hence this study focuses on the relationship between the distribution of PYO farms and the number of customers to go there. The area of study is Koshu-city in Yamanashi Prefecture which is a famous place for viticulture in Japan. Koshu-city had received many tourists to PYO grape farms since the 1950s due to its easy accessibility from the Tokyo metropolitan area. Many of these PYO farms were located along the National Route 20 or National Route 411. The spatial analysis showed that the PYO farms with high number of customers were located around the other tourism attractions in the area. According to previous studies, the customers of PYO farms had tended to stop by the farms on the way to other destinations. However this study found out that there is a network of tourists only in the area near the PYO farms and the results indicate that the farms have become the main destination for many tourists as individual farms have enriched the activities in the farms and spread the information of activities via Internet.


4) Transformation of The Community through Tourism Development in Oshima, Izu islands, A case study of Moto-machi and Habu-minatot

    Kantaro Takahashi (Tokyo Metoropolitan University)

    Oshima is the biggest island in Izu islands, which belongs to Tokyo, and it has been well known as an island destination since a long time ago. Although Izu islands were for place of exile until 19th, tourism development in Ooshima set off the early of 20th because the ship company that had mainly carried the freight changed their management policy influenced by the world depression. They established the passenger’s line from Tokyo to Ooshimaa. Since then many of the tourist started visiting the destination, and tourism was made an effect to each of the communities in the island. The island is divided into six communities, and this thesis focuses on two areas. Moto-machi is one of the communities and is the center place in this island. This area has a developed port for the passengers and tourists who aim to climb the mount Mihara gather and prepare for hiking before they start. Meanwhile Habu minato is another community used to be known as an artist colony in the early of 20 century and still be one of the destinations because some historical buildings such as Minatoya Ryokan that was an accommodation, and some famous artists stay or old townscape, which used to be crowded with fishermen have still existed. Two areas has transformed through the development since tourism started in the island. Purpose of this study aims how two communities of each transform through the long history of the tourism development.



[CS15-5] Tourism and regional development (3)

    [ Tuesday 06 August 14:00-15:30 RoomK ]    Chair(s): Jie Zhang (Nanjing Univ.)

1) From Olympics to annual mass sport events: The success of the Birkebeiner Races.

    Thor Flognfeldt (Lillehammer University College)

    Lillehammer did organize the 1994 Winter Olympics. This event was a success, but what should happen after international media and sponsors left the area? Would the venues, accommodation units, volunteers and inhabitants who had been in the focus of the “Sixteen days if international fame” be able to recover.
    Many studies are presented on the “after-use” of Olympic towns, and are telling that such events could only be followed by other prime International Mega events to prove to be successful.
    This presentation focus on the other side of the post-Olympic challenge: International mass sport events. Since 1932 the local ski club in Lillehammer had organized the Birkebeiner ski race, at that time the second oldest and largest mass cross country event in the world (after Vasaloppet in Sweden). A Saturday in March every year some 6.000 skiers cross the mountain for 55 kms to celebrate a historical event of bringing a royal baby across the mountain. What about extending this event to annual races also including mountain biking and running?
    Since 1994 the three main Birkebeiner races, the mountain biking of 80 kms and the running of 25 to 60 kms have been able to attract more than 70000 athletes annually.
     The purpose of the paper is to look on these events and their consequences for local tourism trade, second home sales and for mass tourism management systems and to show that such a success is as important for the local economy as the World Cups in winter sports.


2) Road-Stations and the Tohoku Disaster Renewed recognition of their significance through disaster prevention function

    Kaori Toda (Kobe University,), Yasumasa Sakamoto

    Michinoeki are MLIT registered road-station facilities with three basic functions: “rest-area” (toilet, parking), “local area solidarity” (culture, sightseeing), and “information dissemination” (roads, tourism).
    The initial 103 Michinoeki in 1993 increased up to 996 by September 14, 2012. Apart from above basic functions, Michinoeki “evolved” as regional vitalization bases through varied functions like selling agricultural products. In particular, their disaster prevention function was noticed in the October 2004 Niigata Chuetsu Earthquake. Some are already designated as a “disaster prevention base.” During the 2011 Tohoku Disaster, road-stations of the area dealt with, or “had to” deal with disaster in some way.
    
    In the three disaster affected prefectures (Iwate, Miyagi and Fukushima) the tsunami washed away three Michinoeki. Among them, OoyaKaigan is at Kesenuma, Miyagi. It reopened extremely quickly in a month. This was because the station master and the municipality aimed for a quick re-opening, not only for the residents’ livelihood, but also the need for mental/emotional support. Support for reopening also came from five other Michinoeki in Miyagi with which OoyaKaigan had cooperative relations. These five were themselves temporary disaster relief facilities. OoyaKaigan’s own struggle and efforts, plus support from nearby road stations made quick reopening possible. Through this reopening, OoyaKaigan received renewed recognition as indispensable to the regional community. Relations of the other five Michinoeki with their regional communities also changed.
    
    This research paper aims to clarify the significance of Michinoeki in regional communities brought about by the Tohoku Disaster, through an analysis of OoyaKaigan’s reopening and the support of nearby Michinoeki.


3) Attractiveness and accessibility as factors of tourist flow differentiation in the Tatra Mountains (Poland, Slovakia)

    Marek Wieckowski (Polish Academy of Sciences)

    The Tatra Mountains are the highest mountain range in the Carpathians, and have a great natural potential and good conditions favourable to the development of tourism. They constitute one of the most important tourist region in Central Europe (both in Poland and Slovakia).
    The Tatras are a relatively easily accessible region although this accessibility is better on the Slovak side. The Tatras are relatively close to Krakow, Poland’s second largest city, and to Upper Silesia, which has Poland’s largest urban population. The differences in the potential accessibility and attractiveness of the Tatras are visible in the case of strong concentration of tourist traffic, and nationality of tourists coming to this region (e.g. “national effect”). The analyses presented shows that the level of accessibility is also significant from the point of view of competitiveness (e.g. between neighbouring countries and tourist centres).
    The internal accessibility within the region of the Tatras also varies. Some of the smaller municipalities located in the peripheries of the region have problems with good quality of road and public transport as well. As a result of varied accessibility and attractiveness tourist flow is not evenly distributed. Form the point of environment protection of the Tatras a risk is the high rate of tourist concentration in some most popular and good accessibly places. Despite the fact that location with high numbers of visitors can be found on these places, some less accessible valleys are deserted also during the summer season.



[CS15-6] Tourism and regional development (4)

    [ Tuesday 06 August 16:00-17:30 RoomK ]    Chair(s): Jie Zhang (Nanjing Univ.)

1) Sustainable Development and regional Differentiation of Tourism in Ukraine

    Olga Lyubitseva (Taras Shevchenko National University of Kyiv), Victoria Kiptenko

    Tourism sustainability differs across Ukraine in terms of time-space impacts. This country enjoys preconditions for tourism within four nature zones, along the Dnieper river as well as Black and Azov seacoasts. In addition, the World Heritage list inscribes one natural and four historical and cultural properties of the country’s rich and diverse resources. The last decade international arrivals dynamics brought the country to the world top-ten in 2007. After the 2008 maximum (25.5 mio), the flows dropped by 18.3%; the recession caused slow revival, including domestic tourism mostly hurt by prices skip of 45%.
    With almost 10% of European arrivals (2011), Ukraine prospects shift in international tourism receipts from current 1.5% due to UEFA EURO 2012 co-hosted with Poland, which jumped arrivals by 10% already in the first half of the year. Besides the arrivals-receipts gap challenge, tourism sustainability in Ukraine suffers from seasonality (high summer and lower winter seasons), low share of organized tourism (10%) and vulnerability of the mountain and coastal areas.
    Tourism prioritizes 10 of 27 administrative units of the country. The capital - Kyiv, however, hosts 2/3 of arrivals, assisted by Lviv and Chernivtsy (west), Odessa (south) as sight-seen destinations and several places for green tourism and pilgrimage. The spatial differentiation counts on two key regions. The Crimean mountains and coast allow to diversify traditional 3S by product of balneal muds and springs resorts, sports (including spelean) and extreme activities. Besides usual mountain and balneal activities, the Carpathian region prospects events (festivals), gastronomic and ecological tourism.


2) Hotel managers’ attitudes and perception towards tourism development. - How do they affect their management in the destination? -

    Yoshimi Kunieda (Osaka Seikei College), Shoji Tanaka

    Reviewing previous research, it is considered that the residents’ perception towards tourism and tourism development in the destination is deeply connected with their quality of life. It is inferred that the same connection also applies to hotel managers, who are also residents of small and medium-sized accommodations in the destination such as hotels and inns. By the 1990's, not many researches dealt with the small-scale tourism & hospitality enterprises. On the other hand, studies of the residents’ attitude towards tourist destination development have been actively done (Friel 1999). Nara prefecture, ancient capital of Japan having three World Heritage sites, is a well-known destination for tourists. However, the number of accommodations ranks 46th out of the 47 Japanese prefectures. Due to its geographical location and easy access to the big cities, most of visitors are day trippers. Therefore, the managers, who are mostly residents of lodgings for many years, have some difficulties to run their business throughout the year especially in remote areas. In this research, we will clarify their attitudes towards tourism develop-ment and how they are affected in their management in order to make suggestions for the tourism policy in the future. The following main topics are covered : 1.Evaluation of perception and attitude to tourism development of hotel and inn managers in Nara prefecture. 2.Clarification of the hotelier's positive or negative perceptions to tourism. 3.Classification of the managers based on their attitude towards tourism. 4. Presentation of the classified managers’ characteristics.


3) Structural changes in Japanese traditional spa through utilization of the internet in accommodation: A case study of Kusatu Onsen, Gunma prefecture.

    Kazuki Fukui (University of Tsukuba Graduate School of Life and Environmental Sciences)

    The purpose of this study was to clarify changes in Japanase traditional spa through utilization of the internet at accommodations in Kusatsu Onsen, Gunma prefecture. Direct reservation system on the internet recently plays an important role to get tourists for accommodations in spa resorts, where the number of individual visitors rises, although group travel was dominant between the 1960s and 1980s. In Kusatu Onsen, which is typical spa in Japan opened before 1500s, small number of large scale and long-established accommodations took the initiative in its development. On the other hand, small scale accommodations were in the majority at this spa and depended on large scale accommodations. So Smal scale accommodations were in a disadvantageous position and there was a close and durable structure in Kusatu Onsen.
    The internet has come into general use in accommodations irrespective of those accommodation scale in Kusatsu Onsen there have been some accommodations that depend strongly on the internet to get visitor’s direct reservation.
    Some large accommodations make special department about the internet and enrich their own website with adding contents continuously. Small scaled accommodations tend to have their own particular services advertising their new style of services on their website.
    Today, the initiative for attracting tourist in Kusatu Onsen is dispersed. As a result, advantage of accommodations depended on their location and scale formerly, but today, literacy of the internet and product differentiation affect visitor’s preference of accommodations and spa.


4) Tourism, catastrophes and social media

    Mekonnen Tesfahuney (Karlstad University), Cecilia Moller

    Tunisia & Egypt 2011. Australia 2011. Haiti 2010. Iceland 2010. Lebanon 2006. New Orleans 2005. Thailand 2004. New York 2001. Memorable dates, striking political events and tragic images amplified via ICTs and new media, circulate globally. Tourism mobilities are intimately bound up with multiple processes of time-space compression, shrinking real and imagined spaces of a global “risk society”. The aim of this study is to analyze the role of social (new) media in disaster situations in conjunction with tourist mobilities. The article sheds light on the changing geographies of tourism, illustrated by three interrelated ‘scapes’; risk-scapes, media-scapes and mobility-scapes. Critical theory and power geometries of space guide the theoretical perspectives of the study.
    
    Tourism is often perceived as a risk free pursuit, recreation and enjoyment. Yet, tourists are increasingly being caught in the swirl of political events and disasters. At the same time, tourist mobilities produce and spread risks. Social media play a key role in the mediatization of spaces, everyday lives, social relations and geographical imaginations. New media are producers and consumers of information, not least in communicating risks, problems and images of destinations and tourism. As such, social media are crucial in risk reduction or minimization strategies. Mobility-scapes denote the complex globalized and interlocking spaces that assemble and channel movements and flows of people, goods and information, which affect the (re)distribution and impact of social/natural risks and disasters.



[CS15-7] Tourism and regional development (5)

    [ Tuesday 06 August 17:30-19:00 RoomK ]    Chair(s): Dieter K Muller (Umea Univ.)

1) Poetry, Art, Landscape and Tourism: English and Japanese Interpretations of the Lake District

    Collier Mike (University of Sunderland), Brian Thompson, Kevin Hannam

    Previous research has identified that culture, language and novelty to be important pull factors for Japanese tourists to the UK, with media representations being particularly important in defining the Japanese experience of the UK as a destination. In particular, the English Lake District has been identified as a quintessential place that represents English culture for Japanese tourists through its artistic and poetic associations. This paper begins by analysing these representations but then takes this a stage further by reflecting on the work of contemporary English and Japanese artists and poets in the re-imagining of the Lake District through the construction of an exhibition entitled Walking Across Continents: Wordsworth and Basho. The exhibition consists of newly commissioned visual art and poetry by ten artists/poets (five from the UK and five from Japan) with an interest in the poetry of either or both of Wordsworth and Basho in collaboration with the Gallery Fleur in Kyoto and Dove Cottage in Grasmere. The paper concludes by reflecting further on the dialogues that can be had between geographers and artists in terms of developing innovative research outcomes that meet the overall theme of the conference: “Traditional Wisdom and Modern Knowledge for the Earth’s Future.”


2) Preserving an Intangible Cultural Heritage from Tang-China and Nara-Period Japan: Chi Lin Nunnery and Nam Lin Garden in Hong Kong

    Michael W H Chan (Hang Seng Management College)

    Being proposed as one of the 45 properties on the China’s World Cultural Heritage Tentative List, the Chi Lin Nunnery (“Nunnery”) and Nam Lin Garden (“Garden”), completed in 1998 and 2006 respectively, demonstrate one of the most successful cases of preserving Intangible Cultural Heritage (ICH) in Hong Kong. The monastery complex is a classical Tang dynasty architecture referenced from the Toshodai-ji in Nara, Japan; while the Garden, sited in front of the Nunnery, is based on the blue print of Jiangshouju, the only Tang landscape garden that has survived from the vagaries of time in China.
    
    The successful realization of both the Nunnery and Garden witnessed a unique path of ICH transmission: An ancient Chinese building style dated back from Tang China, faithfully succeeded and preserved by the Japanese, has been transplanted back to China again after more than one thousand years.
    
    Three key questions are examined: 1) How can an ancient intangible heritage be reproduced in a modern environment? 2) To what extent and how an ancient heritage of building style and related skills can be transferred from the Tang dynasty, preserved in Japan and transplanted back to the country of origin after more than a millennium? 3) How can this heritage be installed and managed for public enjoyment and a tourist spot (in a public park environment) without compromising its authenticity?
    
    It is believed that such an assessment of the site can offer insights to other ICH conservation projects to enhance and inform better planning and management.


3) From Landscape (landform) to Shan-shui image: Geomorphology, landscape painting, tourism interpretation and destination image genetics- case of Huangshan (Yellow Mountain), China

    Jie Zhang (Nanjing University), Jin-He Zhang, Hong-Lei Zhang, Shi-En Zhong, Shao-Jing Lu

    Reseach on genetic mechanism and evolution of destination image seems few. Huangshan (Yellow Mountain) as a World Natural Heritage is one of most famous tourist attraction in China. In this paper, we analyzed the character, evolution and the genetic mechanism of the tourist/public image of Huangshan based on the following investigations:
     1)Geomorphologic classification and the visual effect with in situ survey especially with reference to statistics of joint structure,
     2) Grounded Theory oriented coding analysis on the texture techniques and visual effects based on about 200 master pieces of landscape paintings,
     3) Image perceiving dimensions of Huangshan and its evolution based on about 100 pieces of famous poems and travel notes as well as prefaces to chorography of Huangshan in different historic periods,
     4)Contemporary tourism image revealed by tourist guide’s interpretation.
     It is proposed that destination image of Huangshan is changing with mechanism as follows:
     1) Joint-genetic granite peak landform and physical geographical landscape composed the basic background of the image, while the evolution of the image resulted from the historic socio-geographical interaction,
     2) Huangshan got its reputation as national famous mountain during the process of migration of social-economic centre of China to south, and pioneer literati tourists played important roles in creating primary Huangshan image from landform (landscape) to Shanshui (picturesque landscape) Image,
     3)Contemporary destination image of Huangshan were formed through a long process of folkloristic and artistic modification of the primary image, and modern scientific interpretations also causes image evolution.



[CS15-8] Geographies of heritage and cultural tourism (1)

    [ Wednesday 07 August 08:00-09:30 RoomF ]    Chair(s): Carolin Funck (Hiroshima Univ.)

1) Hearts and minds: making "our" heritage attractions socially sustainable

    John D S Melvin (Nottingham University Business School)

    Given the increasingly prominent role of the heritage sector as a driver for tourism there has been considerable focus on the physical pressures that increased visitation places on cultural and heritage resources. Such studies have often considered the difficulties of balancing access for present generations with conservation for future generations. Yet there has been only limited attention given to the social sustainability of these resources. This study considers how heritage can be managed to pass on the significance to younger generations, who will one day be charged with their safekeeping.
    
    Set within the novel context of family visits to Edinburgh Castle, this study combines multiple perspectives through in-depth pre- and post-visit interviews with families and with management and attraction staff. This was supplemented with covert field observations. Families were provided with video cameras, creating highly revealing and rich data.
    
    Through investigating local families’ attitudes and behaviour towards ‘their’ heritage resources, important findings for academics and practitioners were made concerning managing heritage in a socially sustainable manner. The vital role of tailoring interpretation for specific visitor groups and using site management to facilitate families’ enjoyment and memorable experiences is identified. Adopting a range of interpretive approaches engages visitors on an intellectual and emotional level and helps creates visitor attachments to the site and its preservation. With visitors having higher expectations and increasingly seeking an ‘authentic’ experience, attractions must become more visitor-focussed. This has a number of benefits, including positive word of mouth, repeat visitation and wider support for heritage conservation.


2) Kogi Indians interactions with eco-tourists in Sierra Nevada de Santa Marta, Colombia.

    Andres Ricardo Restrepo (Universidad de Antioquia)

    Tourism's interest in natural places and ancient cultures has been growing. Tourists visit these spaces which they perceive as home of values opposed to those of modernity, looking for an escape to urban hustle. The Sierra Nevada de Santa Marta, a mountain formation with a huge biodiversity located in Colombia’s Caribbean, home of four ethnic groups and near to an active touristic area constitutes a good example for it. The kogi are the most famous of these four groups and are seen in mass media as very traditional indigenous peoples in harmony with their natural environment. Although they have been quite reluctant to interaction with strangers, some of their lands are now natural, adventure and archaeological tourism destinations. Among the kogi, the concept of Tradition also reveals outstanding as a status measure that sets hierarchies into the group as well as a guide on how to deal with tourism that allows getting benefits from it but establishing clear barriers. The study of interaction between tourists and Indians in this place give us an opportunity to inquire about the complex relation of modernity and tradition in a local context. Our research explore from an ethnographic and discursive approach these daily interactions emphasizing the role of silence as an indigenous defensive strategy that evidences power struggles, sometimes mutual indifference and specially a micro scale manifestation of the tension of different world views and global forces in a local context.


3) From Reindeer Herder to Tourism Entrepreneur: On the Establishment of Indigenous Tourism Industry in Sweden

    Dieter K Muller (Umea University), Fredrik Hoppstadius

    Tourism development is often seen as possibility to balance decline in indigenous industries. Hence tourism is also considered a way to sustain culture and livelihood, but also as a way to stay within frequently otherwise economically contested peripheral regions. This is also applicable for the Sami, the indigenous population of the Nordic countries. Departing from theories on peripheral tourism and entrepreneurship it is sometimes argued that indigenous tourism entrepreneurs are marginal men in their relation the community they live in. However, despite being a minority the Sami are also a modern people living in welfare states, which enable them to lead their lives also outside the indigenous community. Against this background this paper asks why Sami leave their traditional livelihood for tourism and moreover, what experiences they have and what threats they see for their new industry. The paper is based on a comprehensive phone survey among all Sami tourism entrepreneurs in Sweden during 2012. Results indicate that various reasons are mentioned for pursuing a career in tourism. Besides pure coincidence, economic reasons and a willingness to innovate and individual aspirations are seen as major reasons for starting a tourism business. External factors not least related to competing land use are perceived as major threats not only to the businesses but also the Sami culture in general.



[CS15-9] Geographies of heritage and cultural tourism (2)

    [ Wednesday 07 August 10:00-11:30 RoomF ]    Chair(s): Carolin Funck (Hiroshima Univ.)

1) Urban tourism in New Zealand

    Anne-Marie D'Hauteserre (University of Waikato)

    Although the more famous New Zealand attractions are found in its landscapes and its lifestyle or are linked to its ‘bi-culturalism’, the country seeks to develop the attractivity of its urban areas, though they have hardly been the focus of international visitors. Two main forces converge: national government incentives and grass-roots efforts. A variety of attractions have been developed over the years to encourage more investment in an activity that provides over 10% of the country’s GDP. Cities may want to share in this bounty. Cities attractive for visitors would in turn support New Zealand’s increasingly important tourism industry. The living conditions of people are forged in urban areas which can wield great power and wealth but which are also affected by globalisation forces. New Zealand seems to have missed the hard turn to touristification and its demands for continual re-development and thus avoided the aestheticisation of its urban areas at the service of profit. This study examines whether investment in urban tourist attractions is well-advised: financial success of the ventures has not always benefited the local (or even national) community. Investing in New Zealand’s true attractions and their sustainable future might give more positive results, for example, by cleaning its ‘pure’ environment. It could also more successfully marry traditional Maaori knowledge with modern thinking and technologies.


2) The Image of the City: Two Perspectives of the Assessment (case study of the Bratislava city centre)

    Jan Otahel (Institute of Geography, Slovak Academy of Sciences), Vladimir Ira, Zuzana Hlavata

    Perception of urban environment, analysis of the city’s image related to the behaviour of inhabitants and visitors. Visual perception and analysis of visual quality of historic monuments of the Bratislava city centre were analysed in the first approach. Digital terrain model, orthophotomaps and 3D polygons of roofs were used for calculating the optimal point of views to city monuments in GRASS and ESRI ArcGIS desktop v9.0 with superstructure of 3D Analyst. Entry data were adapted to a 3D landscape model with raster size of 1.5 m. Attractiveness of potential view points was assessed in the context of visibility and the viewshed of monuments pursuing the criteria of size (area) of a relevant viewed part and the distance from the particular monument. Second perspective has been used to verify the most attractive view points by perception of respondents. The aim of paper is also to assess the conformity of both approaches: objectivist way of visual quality analysis with results of subjectivistic perspective. These issues are especially interesting for visitors of the city and travellers in the context of organization of efficient sightseeing around the decisive monuments of the city.


3) The role of festival participation in urban tourism: a case study of tourism behaviour of parade participants in the Hiroshima Flower Fesitval

    Jae Seung Seo (Hiroshima University)

    Urban festivals form an important part of urban tourism, as they attract tourists and create a positive destination image. In Japan in 2009, 17.714 festivals took place throughout the country. Many include parades where local and visiting amateur groups show their dance and performance skills; these forms of participating tourism have increased in recent years. However, research on urban festivals has concentrated on their role in attracting spectators while the role of active participants has been neglected.
    This paper examines what role festival parade participants play in urban tourism in Japan through a case study of the Hiroshima Flower Festival. This festival with a tradition of 35 years attracts over one million visitors and features two types of parade. Research methods include the evaluation of participant lists and interviews with 18 dance groups. The semi-structured interviews cover organizational features like mode of transport or group organization, intrinsic factors like motivation and satisfaction and factors connected to urban tourism like the intention to visit other attractions.
    Results show that parade participants experience a high level of satisfaction and therefor visit the same festival frequently. They participate because they want to show their skills, enjoy dancing and interact with spectators. They frequently invite friends to come, thus working as multipliers. However, due to their tight schedule and exhausting performance, they rarely engage in sightseeing activities. Therefor they form a very active, engaged SIT-segment of urban tourism and contribute to a positive destination image, but their activities don’t extend beyond their special interest.


4) Nature or Nurture? Examine the impact of distance on business tourism in Hong Kong

    Kiano Ym Luk (The Hong Kong Polytechnic University), Bob Mckercher

    For years, geographers, anthropologists, criminologists, town planners as well as tourism researchers commonly use the term spatial interaction to denote these flows over various study areas, with the principles associated with distance decay serving as the foundation for much work (Arcury et al., 2005; Bao & McKercher, 2008; Brantingham & Brantingham, 1984; Hanink & White, 1999; Haynes & Fotheringham, 1984; Rengert et al., 1999). Distance decay asserts that demand varies inversely with the distance travelled or with the increased time or money costs (Bull 1991). Numerous tourism studies have demonstrated the impact of distance on both demand and the behavior of tourists, including affecting destination choice (Reece, 2003), spatial patterns (Malin, 2007), and a relation between distance and demographic profile of tourists (McKercher, 2001). Virtually all of this research has examined the impact of distance on vacation tourists (Bao & McKercher, 2008; Lo & Lam; 2005; Paul & Rimmawi, 1992), while other sectors have been ignored.
    
    The exploration of the possible impact of distance on business travel, in particular is understudied, even though business tourism plays a substantial role in tourism industry. This exploratory study examines the behavior pattern of business tourists in Hong Kong, by analyzing secondary data produced by the Hong Kong Tourism Board’s Visitor Profile Report (HKTB, 2011). The study therefore aims to contribute to the aforementioned purposes and to widen the literature on the impact of distance on visitors to Hong Kong. The implications of business tourism on Hong Kong are also discussed and presented.



[CS15-10] Urban tourism geographies (1)

    [ Wednesday 07 August 14:00-15:30 RoomF ]    Chair(s): Anne-Marie D'Hauteserre (Univ. of Waikato)

1) Tourism and production of cosmopolitan places in Giudecca island, Venice.

    Paola Minoia (University of Helsinki)

    This presentation is aimed to explore the role of tourism in reshaping places of residence, particularly into forms of cosmopolitan consumptions and identities. New mobility paradigms seem to merge, rather then juxtapose or even oppose, production and consumption patterns of tourists and residents, all influenced by similar gazing and performing places. These trends have been unveiled in Giudecca, a former industrial area with poor residences, which has been recently regenerated into a wealthy and well served residential area. Initial plans were aimed to support the local housing needs, but then other private economic interests have entered the island, for its proximity to the most touristed centre of Venice. These changes have transformed Giudecca according to new mobility patterns that mix tourism, second housing, and local residential production and consumption of the place. The analysis compare historical accounts, photos and popular songs from the XX century, with new interests expressed by citizens’ activist groups and cosmopolitan associations “to save Venice”, also through the media. Local regulations that liberalize tourist consumption of residential places are also considered. Participant observations reveal how the various groups in fact contribute in theming and staging private and public places of Giudecca, and also, how social consequences have been caused, in terms of displacement of poorer residents and traditional productions.


2) The Urban Tourist-Vampire

    Richard Ek (Lund University), Mekonnen Tesfahuney

    In this paper the urban tourist as a spatial and political figure is unfolded and discussed with support from both political theory and contemporary popular culture. As the practices of city marketing and branding indicate, the urban tourist is highly attractive. In some cases the urban tourist seems to be of even more importance than the citizen, as in the case of the evacuation of people in New Orleans during the Katrina hurricane. But what can be said about the politics and poetics of the urban tourist, conceptualized as a Weberian ideal type (abstraction through accentuation of some characteristics and ignorance of others)?
    
    From the perspective of political theory the tourist is a post-political figure. He or she is not a member of polis, not a democratic being, but a mobile, detached stranger without a political interest in the places and the societies he or she passes through. Without expectations of being socially or politically responsible, cities are places to consume for the tourist, either intellectually or in a hedonistic way. This figure is surprisingly similar to contemporary poetic representations of the vampire in popular mass culture. The vampire, a true mobile subject, is a more sophisticated experience-seeker than the ordinary urban tourist can ever be, a wealthy cosmopolitan, and, as a person that do not burden the public sector, an ideal figure in the neoliberal city. The question is then: through this argumentative approach, can the ideal figure of the tourist-vampire be of use in (urban) tourism research?


3) Language tourism in an English-speaking city: the Japanese case in Vancouver

    Daisuke Kojima (Nagasaki International University)

    This study explores the mechanism for language tourism in an English-speaking city by examining the Japanese case in Vancouver. Travel for the purpose of learning a language represents a growing segment of the international tourist market in Vancouver. Language tourism is an immersive experience that includes “living” in a foreign country and participating in leisure activities while learning English. Language tourists work towards their goal in stages: initially, they depend on travel agents to organize their learning programs and accommodation. Because, at this point, the agents are more experienced and this is the only or best way for language tourists to familiarize themselves with the local conditions. At a later stage, language tourists are able to independently arrange their learning programs and accommodation. Subsequently, they exchange information with each other in various ways such as the classified section of Japanese-language local papers, the bulletin board at language travel agents, or on the Internet. Thus, the constant flow of language tourists enables such a form of tourism. The Japanese case in Vancouver suggests that multi-layered human mobility plays a key role in language tourism in an English-speaking city.


4) Local Living Area Attracting Young People in Japan; Expanding Suburb and Interests in Their Own Local Area

    Aya Akiyama (Tamagawa University)

    Recently, many guidebooks for the living areas have been published in Japan, since Nerima-ku, Nerima Ward, published it in 2003. This guidebook was very popular there, so it was reprinted a few times until now. Nerima-ku have few unique tourism resources in this area. It is an outskirts of Tokyo. There are few unique resources in other areas publishing guidebooks like Nerima-ku. They purpose introducing the area to people living there, but not promoting it to outside of it. These areas are located far from centre of Tokyo. They had been developed as the suburbs, while economy had grown up rapidly in Japan. They have created new lifestyle, new culture there. However, young people especially do not have knowledge about their own local areas. They have little relations with local area, people, and so on.
    Young people cannot have seen end to this depression for long years in economic situation of Japan. They do not know prosperity in Japan. Some news of incidents give them shocks. They have had interests in their living area, instead of interests in oversea travel and areas far from their areas.
    Young people know how to recognise the zone with ""story"" as ""place."" They enjoy the area around downtown of Tokyo as destination using this way.
    This article discusses that their own local areas attract young people as destination, mentioning expanding suburb and their interests in their own local areas.



[CS15-11] Urban tourism geographies (2)

    [ Wednesday 07 August 16:00-17:30 RoomF ]    Chair(s): Anne-Marie D'Hauteserre (Univ. of Waikato)

1) Place-myths for tourists and the local responses: A case study of the Yoron Island in Japan

    Koji Kanda (Wakayama University Faculty of Tourism)

    This presentation examines the relations between the changing images of the Yoron Island in Japan and the responses from the local community in the context of tourism. Conflicts between hosts and guests are specifically examined, paying attention to place-myths for tourists.


2) Community Based Tourism in Sabah, Malaysia

    Alan A Lew (Northern Arizona University)

    Results of in-depth interviews with tourism professionals on the successes, failures, challenges and lessons learned in community based tourism in the state of Sabah, Malaysia, on the Island of Borneo. Success factors include committed individuals, human resource development, and adequate infrastructure and technology. Political and cultural dynamics can be barriers to community based tourism. Interior communities tend to be more successful than coastal communities, which are under greater globalization pressures. Examples will be presented.


3) Reversing Civilized/Savage: Tourism and Modern-Day Nation Building at the War Remnant’s Museum in Ho Chi Minh City, Vietnam

    Jamie Gillen (National University of Singapore)

    Using evidence from Vietnam’s most visited tourism site, the War Remnant’s Museum in Ho Chi Minh City, this paper explores the presentation of civilized/savage in the construction of nationhood. I use the museum to illustrate how the Communist Party of Vietnam “others” the West by subverting the common trope of humane West/exotic East and demonstrating the US’s capacity for and execution of violence and Vietnam’s innate peace and benevolence. This paper has three objectives. First, I show how languages and binaries of colonialism and imperialism generated by the West are not the sole province of the West. Instead, they are utilized by governments in the East like the Communist Party of Vietnam to legitimize their own governance schemes. Secondly, this paper illustrates how nationhood in a post-war context is generated through tourism, and in particular how a “foreign” political system like communism is communicated to lay audiences. Lastly, I illustrate how violence exercised against the colonized and victimized state is not solely memorialized but is used as an active agent for nation-building.



[CS15-12] Changing dynamics of tourism in Asia (1)

    [ Thursday 08 August 08:00-09:30 Room501 ]    Chair(s): Alan A Lew (Northern Arizona Univ.)

1) Changing Patterns in the Social Characteristics of Foreign Visitors to Unzen and the Competition among Summer Resorts in East Asia

    Motoshi Maruyama (Rikkyo University), Okhee Jung, Daisuke Sato

     Unzen, a hill station, was founded on Kyushu Island in the 1870s by Westerners of Nagasaki City. In the early 20th century, a number of foreign summer visitors stayed at Unzen; they played an important role in the inter-settlement trade in East Asia. This study investigates the changing patterns in the attributions of foreign visitors and the positioning of Unzen in the summer resorts of East Asia in light of Chinese social conditions and exchange fluctuations. The data on visitor characteristics, such as occupations, residential areas, and nationalities, were collected from register books of the Unzen Hotel, a representative international tourist hotel.
     During the 1920s to 1930s, the number of summer visitors to Unzen increased, influenced by yen rates and the risks of living in Shanghai in a time of civil war, riots, and the spread of cholera. With this increase, many public employees and engineers visited Unzen, and the class of visitors broadened to a certain extent. In addition, in competing with other summer resorts in East Asia, Unzen invited many foreign visitors in order to make it as the most famous summer resort in the western part of Japan. By raising its competitiveness as a hill station, bustling Unzen thus promoted the formation of neighboring satellite summer resorts.
    
    
    Key words: hill stations, register book, evacuation to Japan, exchange fluctuation, Unzen


2) The rise of smaller cities and its meaning in international tourism to Japan

    Koji Kitada (Kinki University)

    The number of foreign tourists visiting Japan has steadily increased in the recent decades. The country has much variety between districts in spite of its small area, and there is a close relaiton between the variety of tourist resources and preferences of foreign visitors accoding to their nationalities. For example, prefectures located in the Hokuriku and Hida district, which do not have large cities, have shown a rapid increase in foreign visitors in the recent years and become one of the major international tourist areas in Japan. The district is mainly supported by visitors from Taiwan and Europe seeking tradition of Japan in smaller cities and the beauty of nature. It is true that 75% of foreign tourists visiting Japan come from Asia and many of them prefer shopping in large cities. But it is also important to enhance historic and cultural value of tourist resources to heighten the attraction of Japan: variety between districts.


3) Charter operations in Japan post-deregulation

    Chuntao Wu (Sichuan Univeristy), Yoshitsugu Hayashi

    This study investigates the impacts of charter operations on international tourism to Japanese regional areas. Furthermore, this study analyzes the impacts of scheduled service deregulation on charter operations in Japan post-deregulation. For the purposes of this study, the changes in spatial patterns of charter entry airports and networks have been analyzed; and competitions among FSCs, LCCs and leisure carriers for charter operations have been discussed. The results illustrate that charter deregulation have led to an expansion of tourists to remote destinations. During the same period, charter service has developed its own market characterizes which are different from those of scheduled service in terms of seasonality, networks and carriers. The recent deregulations of scheduled service have stimulated outbound traffic from regional areas; but played hardly role in promoting inbound tourism. This study is important for both airport and destination authorities who aim to use the charter businesses to promote airport operations or international tourism.
    
    KEYWORDS: charters, LCCs, Japanese airports, international tourism, regional areas


4) Somewhat Empty Meeting Grounds: Travelers in Munnar, India

    Petri Hottola (University of Oulu)

    In the changing dynamics of Asian tourism, the evolution of independent travel to an increasingly conventional form of tourism is one of the recent developments. In a time-space budgeting study in Munnar, India, the travelers showed spatiotemporal behaviors common with tourism, and in contradiction to the ideals of independent travel.
    
    First, they did not really invest in genuine interaction with the locals, but preferred the service sector. Interaction with authentic people consisted 5% of their active hours, whereas 38% was spent in instrumental exchanges with service people. Fellow travelers got a 22% time-share, and 48% of time was spent in solitude. The numbers add to more than 100% because it is possible to simultaneously interact with more than one category of people.
    
    Second, they traveled from enclaves to enclaves, spending most of their time in metaspatial bubbles of absolute or relative visitor dominance. In Munnar, the travelers spent 53% of their active hours in public space on travel days, 26% in semiprivate spaces (e.g. restaurants, taxis), 20% in private spaces (e.g. hotel rooms) and one percent in nature. On stationary days, free for choice, they, however, spent 24% of their time in public, 33% in semiprivate and 33% in private spaces, and 10% in nature, away from people. The difference indicates a preference to avoid the local people and their culture, either because of a need to manage intercultural stress and/or as a consequence of a more touristic approach to travel.



[CS15-13] Tourism, risks, disasters and resilience

    [ Thursday 08 August 10:00-11:30 Room501 ]    Chair(s): Takayuki Arima (Tokyo Metropolitan Univ.)

1) Mourn, rebuild, remember, prepare: messages of the Great Hanshin-Awaji Earthquake (1995)

    Carolin Funck (Hiroshima University)

    The Great Hanshin-Awaji Earthquake (17.1.1995) destroyed large parts of Kobe City and surrounding areas, left more than 6000 persons dead and had far-reaching consequences for the urban and social fabric. Today, monuments, memorial facilities and tours attract tourists who want to learn what happened, how people recovered and how to prepare themselves for the next earthquake. At the same time, citizens of the area want to mourn, to remember and to teach their experiences.
    This paper analyses contents and actors in memorial tourism in and around Kobe. An analysis of texts, pictures, places and exhibition contents as well as interviews with organisations involved clarifies the multiple messages conveyed; methods of transmission were also examiend. As a result, it becomes clear that monuments and memorial facilities perform different functions: they mourn destruction or death, tell success and problems of the rebuilding process, help to remember what was important during and after the quake and prepare visitors for the dangers of living in an unstable geological zone. Different actors, for example city administration or citizen groups emphasize different functions and develop their own methods of how to teach and impress tourists. Place also plays an important role as neighbourhoods have coped differently with disaster and reconstruction. However, many forms of memorial tourism in Kobe rely on direct experiences so that in the long run, it will be necessary to develop a more professional system of memorial earthquake tourism, a task that has even wider implications after the Great Tohoku Disaster.


2) Experiences and narratives of disaster volunteers in Tohoku: Purpose in life, strategy, self-complacency?

    Susanne Klien (German Institute for Japanese Studies)

    In this ethnographic study I discuss voluntourists between 20 and 40 who have come to post-disaster northeast Japan from all over the country to engage in volunteer work. The empirical data obtained during fieldwork since April 2011 suggests that for the majority, engaging in volunteer activities has a profound impact on their values and lives, but many had already been seeking opportunities to change their lives before the disaster; volunteering has turned out as a welcome opportunity to rethink and reshape their lives.
    To date, despite the vast number of research into volunteering from multiple disciplinary perspectives (Hayakawa 2009), in-depth ethnographic studies of individual volunteering experiences are still rare (Stevens 1997, Osawa 2001, Nakano 2005). Contrary to the commonly held belief that volunteering is all about altruism and empathy, I argue that many volunteers in fact pursue their own interests while helping others. The aim of this paper is to document the experiences and transformations of selected younger voluntourists. My data shows that regardless of the multiple reasons of individuals, volunteering provides an arena of re-integration into and engagement with society rather than “retreat from society” (Stevens 1997). Furthermore, volunteering experiences reflect societal changes: Volunteering constitutes a milieu where the reshaping of individual identities occurs and the ongoing transition from structured lifetime employment to more self-determined alternative lifestyles (Mori 2011) is salient.


3) Tourism as an Agent in Community Post-Disaster Recovery

    Atsuko Hashimoto (Brock University), David John Telfer

    The 2011 Great East Japan Earthquake and tsunami and subsequent radiation release from the Fukushima Daiichi Nuclear Power Plant devastated the northeast region as well as struck a significant blow to the tourism industry. While rebuilding has begun, the process is slow and there are numerous challenges to overcome. The presentation will focus on the role of tourism in long-term recovery (Stage 5 of Faulkner’s (2001) Tourism Disaster Management Framework). This presentation examines the initiatives taken by various levels of government, the private sector and social networks to utilise tourism as an agent in community rebuilding. At this stage of the research, newspaper articles, news footage including social media will be examined to analyse the recovery of community members in terms of trauma and in their daily lives over the past one and half years. Utilisation of tourism to the devastated areas will be analysed for economic recovery, psychological recovery and resilience capacity of the community people.



[CS15-14] Changing dynamics of tourism in Asia (2)

    [ Thursday 08 August 14:00-15:30 Room501 ]    Chair(s): Alan A Lew (Northern Arizona Univ.)

1) Concerns about Travel Barriers amongst Backpacker Tourists at Beach Resorts in Less Developed Countries

    Hiroyuki Yakushiji (Ritsumeikan University)

    This research aims to explore the nature and degree of concerns about travel barriers amongst backpacker tourists at beach resorts in less developed countries. The beach resorts where backpacker tourists leave all cares and worries behind are actually the places where plenty of travel barriers are hidden. The barriers include poor travel experiences and following dissatisfactions, crime, disaster, and health hazards and so on.
    
    The research introduced questionnaire survey for 250 backpacker tourists at Koh Phi Phi, Thailand where attracted them with beaches, natures and night parties. Principal questions were the perceived degree of concerns of 32 travel barrier indicators (four point Likert Scale). The following statistical analyses were conducted: 1) principal component analysis to identify components of travel barriers, 2) two-step cluster analysis and following post-hoc analyses to explore traits of travel barriers in accordance with segmented backpacker tourists by their social and travel characteristics.
    
    The research highlighted some differences of concerns about travel barriers between who were categorized as so called “typical backpacker tourists” (the Beach Girls and the Party Boys) and emergent “flashpackers” (the Couples - No Kids). All types of them do not concern seriously about “experience and satisfaction” (e.g. poor travel experiences, and time constraints) and “disaster and crisis” (e.g. earthquake, tsunami and political turmoil). On the other hand, typical backpacker tourists concern more seriously about “safety and security” (e.g. sickness, injury and pickpocketing) than the “flashpackers”. The research contributed to understand diverse nature of travel barriers amongst backpacker tourists.


2) Tourism development in the Himalayan village of northwest Nepal Development or destruction?

    Izumi Morimoto (Meiji Gakuin University)

    Manang, a Himalayan village in northwestern Nepal, is located along the route of Annapurna circuit, which is one of the most famous trekking routes in Nepal. The village was one of the most isolated areas, had been shut off by monsoon in summer and snow in winter until late in the 1960s that bridges had been built over rivers. However, in order to compensate for shortage of the limited means of living, villagers have been engaged in trades in India and Southeast Asia, and so on. for many years. As trading business became successful, they started to emigrate from Manang to other cities. Thus the village had become depopulated, on the other hand trekkers started to come to Annapurna circuit since the 1980s, and the number of lodges and restaurants had increased along the route. Some young villagers, even those who grow up in Kathmandu, came back to Manang to start a tourism business. The tourism space has been newly created apart from their village, however it was not easy to give standard service to trekkers, because of lack of social infrastructure, for example electricity. The villagers needed to develop renewable energy for tourists to supply lighting and heating. Their living standard has been modernized and developed along with tourism development, at the same time they are concerned about destruction, environmental decline, and social transition of their community. This presentation aims to examine such dilemma between the economic and physical development, and the environmental and social destruction.


3) Some Trends of Rural Tourism in the Post Bubble Economy in Japan

    Munehiko Asamizu (Yamaguchi University), Fred Schumann, Abhik Chakraborty

    This paper analyzes some of the current trends in rural tourism in Japan, particularly focusing on the mechanisms of interaction between urban and rural areas - and the unique process of tourism resource development. In the post bubble economy period (since 1992), development in rural areas in Japan is changing. Instead of seeking an increase in the number of residents, increased exchanges between urban and rural people are being encouraged by the Japanese government and local authorities. The Green Tourism Law was initiated in 1994, and many types of rural tourism activities, such as farm stays, agricultural experiences and satoyama (traditional social ecological production landscapes centered on villages) tourism, have steadily gained popularity as alternative tourism forms. These activities are particularly attractive for residents of Tokyo, Osaka and other large metropolitan areas. As a result, Green Tourism has developed a solid niche market in Japan.



[CS16-1] Geoparks

    [ Wednesday 07 August 10:00-11:30 Room678 ]    Chair(s): Dongying Wei (Beijing Normal Univ.)

1) Development Trend of Geoparks and Discussion on Several Related Questions

    Dongying Wei (Beijing Normal University)

    In order to protect the geological heritage, the Division of Earth Sciences of UNESCO presented a new concept named UNESCO's "Geoparks Program" to the governing bodies of the organization and the program has been discussed since 1999 and came to its final conclusion in June 2001. The program achieved the full international recognition, and secured their effective political impact, especially from European Union, China and International Geographical Union(IGU) . China is one of the countries which established Geoparks at the earliest stage, and 182 national Geoparks have been established till now, and 24 of them are the members of
    Global Geopark Network (GGN), and the establishment of the Geoparks made a lot of contribution for the sustainable development of local society and economy. The article introduces the Global Geopark Network (GGN), European Geopark Network(EGN), Commission on Geoparks of International Geographical Union(IGU-CoG) and the status quo of Chinese Geoparks. Connotation of Geopark is explained and the Chinese translation of Geopark is discussed and new translation is suggested by some geographers. Geographers have made a lot of contribution for the development of Geoparks, especially the establishment of Commission on Geoparks of International Geographical Union. The geographers can make more contribution in the future for Geoparks in the following fields.
    1. Sustainable development of Geoparks;
    2. Environment interpretation and education in Geoparks;
    3. Relationship of protection and development for Geoparks;
    4. Management and related policy studies for Geoparks.


2) Geoconservation of Japanese geoparks

    Kuniyasu Mokudai (Pro Natura Foundation Japan)

    Geoconservation for geographical and geological phenomena is the most important concept associated with a geopark scheme. However, there is not enough disscussion on geopark activities in Japan. Now, some Japanese geoparks are executing conservation of geosites. Fossil and valuable rock such as obsidian are protected from collecting. However,fossil and rock collecting is popular and attractive activities in the geopark. It is difficult to coexistence of conservation and educational use. Hereafter, each japanese geoparks should activate conservation.One of the basis of conservation is monitoring of natural environment in geosite. There are few places monitored periodically and scientifically in Japanese geoparks.


3) Geographical analysis on the Hong Kong Geopark and its characteritics in the world geoparks

    Sumiko Kubo (Waseda University), Kaio Endo

    On the basis of establishment initiatives and impact on society in Hong Kong, I examined the possibilities and problems of the Hong Kong Geopark.Nature close to city in Hong Kong, has been protected by the Nature Conservation Act from the British colonial era. Based on the flow of nature conservation ordinance, Hong Kong Geopark was established for the purpose of people’s understanding of the protection of nature and education. Hong Kong Geopark initiatives under the plan were devised. For example, interpreting information map, geo-trails, multi-lingual guide, institutional R2G, Geopark Books, Geopark Hotel, gourmet Geopark, public relations and educational activities have been made. As its influence, improved educational activities and regional activation were observed. But there are some problems in Hong Kong Geopark. For example the traffic access problem to the geopark (for instance ferry services), there is no geopark museums (guide facilities) in city central, obstacle Nature Park Ordinance, and the weakness of the service softwares. From the survey results, I clarified the advantages and disadvantages of the Hong Kong Geopark. Furthermore, I examined the world geoparks to classify into regional types Europe type, China type, Japan type, and Hong Kong type were shown. Advantage of Hong Kong type is close to the city, the large number of tourists and neighboring population, nature conservation of prominent topographic and geological features by tradition, and strategic plannings. Hong Kong geopark achieved as an urban Geopark. Hong Kong type suggests new urban tourism.


4) Disaster caused by torrential rains in Aso geopark and initiatives to school education

    Miki Tokunaga (Aso Geopark Promotion Council), Akinobu Ishimatsu, Akira Katayama, Shinichiro Ikebe, Yuka Mori

    Aso is the geopark mainly themed on three elements; Aso caldera formed by a great eruption 90,000 years ago, central cones newly formed by subsequent volcanic activities, and unique culture and lifestyle developed in the area.
    
    Concentrated downpour happened in north part of Kyushu Island in Japan in July 2012, and more than 400 millimeters of four hour rainfall was observed around Aso geopark area. Due to this event, the river flowing in the caldera overflowed, and shallow landslides or surface avalanches happened along caldera walls as well as many parts of the mountainside covered with grassland. Finally, more than 20 people lost their lives.
    
    Although this disaster was caused by the torrential rain, it is also due to the land formed from volcanic ash which is the feature of volcanic region. Therefore, this also can be considered as one of the "volcanic disasters". After the disaster, Aso Geopark Promotion Council cooperating with Aso Volcano Museum has assisted learning activities themed on "blessings and disasters of nature" for schools in the region. We helped pupils to approach tasks of reviewing geomorphic characteristics at each school and to think about natural disasters that might occur around them.
    
    It is essential for us to hand down these facts to future generation as precisely as possible in order to make resilient area against natural disasters. Aso geopark, where people’s lives are deeply linked to volcano, has to continue to play an important role in the field of disaster prevention education.



[CS16-2] Geoparks

    [ Wednesday 07 August 14:00-15:30 Room678 ]    Chair(s): Dongying Wei (Beijing Normal Univ.)

1) Does an open-air lesson at the geopark increase students’ awareness for geoscience study?

    Norihito Kawamura (Akita University)

    Oga Peninsula-Ogata Geopark is located in Akita prefecture, Japan. The geology of the geopark consists mainly of clastic sediments volcanic and volcanoclastic rocks of the Cenozoic. At the outcrop, a lot of marine mollusk fossils are found so that it is good site for geoscience education even though elementary school students. Collecting samples at the geopark is allowed only the permitted person who engages in research activity.
     Do education activities without collecting any sample at the geosite change young students' mind?
     The author conducted some open-air lessons for elementary and secondary school to find any differences of students’ cognition of preservation of geosite. For empirical study, pre- and post-questionnaire researches were carried out relating to open-air lesson that the students did only observation of the outcrop at the geosite. Students’ responses in the questionnaire were collected from some 80 secondary school students. The results are as follows:
    ・Before the lessons the most of the students showed stronger volition of collecting samples than sediments or tephra.
    ・After the lesson number of students who showed strong volition decreased.
    Finally, the author finds that the students can change their mind as to preservation of geosites in response to the open-air lesson. Some of them, however, have desire to collect some samples at the geocite. Subject about geoscience education activities of in geopark is how can students learn science without collecting data by themselves.


2) The Regional Change after the Introduction of the Geopark Movement in the San’in Kaigan Geopark

    Atsuko Niina (Tottori University of Environmental Studies), Noritaka Matsubara

    The aim of this presentation is to clarify the regional change after the introduction of the geopark movement in the San’in Kaigan Geopark. Geotourism directly and indirectly impacts on the region beyond the municipal border.
    The San’in Kaigan Geopark has been a member of Global Geoparks Network since 2010, which shows “the geological features, the natural environment, people’s lives and the formation of the Sea of Japan"". The territory has three prefectures, including three cities and three towns, and spans across 110 km from north to south and 30 km from east to west. The San’in Kaigan National Park locates in the territory. The size of population is about 350,000. The San’in Kaigan geopark established a sister-geopark relationship with Lesvos Geopark in 2011.
    It was not easy for ordinary people to know, understand and enjoy the geological characteristics and history based on earth science in the territory of the San’in Kaigan Geopark. Indeed there were many signs telling the geological information, but some were old and difficult.
    The geography of the San’in Kaigan Geopark has changed gradually after the introduction of the geopark movement. Over 100 geoheritages were selected for preservation and conservation. The geological information has rewritten and enriched the earth story with natural and cultural heritages. Local communities and tourism industries have begun new local business. Some local communities sell new agricultural and marine products. Tourism industries provide new service. Well-trained interpreters play an important role in the geopark.


3) Sustainable Development of the Geo-tourism Course and its Regional Characteristics in the Geo-Park Chichibu, Japan

    Suguru Sakaguchi (Tokyo Metropolitan University)

    The activity of the Geo-park was started in Japan in 2008 and until January 2013, 25 areas were appointed as a Geo-park.
    One of the objectives of Geo-park is to promote local tourism activity.
    Model course is created for each Geo-park to as a guide for tourists in exploring the Geo-park.
    Includes interesting geo-site locations in the model course could be significant attraction for tourists.
    So far, there is less scientific study on how a model course is made.
    In this study, the development of model course using scientific approach is conducted. The Geo-park of Chichibu is chosen as an experimental site.
    According to the hearing investigation to the secretariat of the Geo-park of Chichibu, the model course was created by the staff of the secretariat. And the Geo-park secretariat is set up in Chichibu-city sightseeing section. That is why it was suggested that the model course for sightseeing is developed in round trip way.
    Two categories of model course are developed.
    For the first category, three courses were suggested specifically for geo-site location such as Arakawa River and Ogano-town.
    In the second category, the main focus of the route is to visit crystalline rock and Chichibu label place temples and the place where Kenji Miyazawa ever made a trip. The secretariat carried out the tour similar to the model course.
    Therefore, all these models could contribute in promoting geo-tourism in Chichibu.


4) Geoparks and Environment Education

    Giuliano Bellezza (IGU Vice President / University of Rome)

    A group of experts charged to renew curricula for the mean and high schools have been appointed, about 25 years ago, by the Italian Ministry of Education. I worked in this group, and in the following years I have been often charged in schools of central Italy to explain the new programs and teaching techniques.
    Once, I was invited to spend a couple of days in a lonely mountain place, in an empty hotel, near the end of the skiing season, 13 km away from the nearest village, where an experiment was being held. Some dozens students of a School in the Roman outskirts (age around 16 years) were spending there a week, dividing between sport and teaching. In the general scepticism of the colleagues of the School, at the end the results obtained by the 5 teachers involved were far above expectations: not because of my visit, of course, the teachers had really performed a wonderful job.
    In the following years, the area has been included in a National Park, and surely the experiment would have received some local help, though National Parks are more dedicated to environment conservation: the teaching experiment was deeply rooted in Geography, so more time was dedicated to the Human part than to the Natural, indeed.
    A few years later, in 1998,- a UNESCO programme was dedicated to the establishment of a Global Geoparks Network. I think that has been a really good new, as the Statute says that Geoparks are geographical areas where geological heritage is the focus of local protection, education and development, and a reference to Geotourism is done. This means that in a Geopark the described experience will receive the assistance of qualified persons and, moreover, the structures for Geotourism will include the possibility to be lodged at lower prices.
    I am now just beginning an action in Italy, to obtain joint initiatives of the Ministries of Education and of Environment: my hope is that in the future this weeks of assisted full immersion in the nature could be extended to all the members of the next generations. In conclusion, all the Commission members are invited to begin a similar action in their respective countries.



[CS16-3] Geoparks

    [ Wednesday 07 August 16:00-17:30 Room678 ]    Chair(s): Dongying Wei (Beijing Normal Univ.)

1) Ecotourism in National Parks of Russia: the worse the better

    Maria Trapeznikova (Institute of Environmental Geoscience of Russian Academy of Science)

    We assessed ecotourism according to the dynamics of a number of environmental issues, natural tourist routes, and the tourists themselves in the thirteen national parks appeared in the North of European Russia since the 1980s. We used personal observations, published and Internet data. The comparison of Valday and Kenozero Parks appeared to be the most intriguing. Both parks are characterized by extraordinary geology and well-preserved natural Taiga landscapes. Both areas have been well-developed since the Middle Ages and boast a rich, rural cultural landscape. Valday Park has an opportune location between two main Russian cities, Moscow and Petersburg, while Kenozero Park is rather difficult to access. Hence, Valday area was always a favorite of tourists, whereas until recently, before the Park was organized, there has been almost no tourism at Kenozero. Nevertheless, these parks take two extreme opposite positions in news references: Valday Park was mentioned in the news 40 times, while Kenozero Park received 848 mentions (Yandex.ru). Though about 60,000 tourists visit Valday Park per year, there are only eighteen hotels, 100 camps, and six environmental tourist routes. Kenozero Park is visited by fewer tourists, but all of them are interested in geological and environmental issues, including a children’s ecological summer camp. The park has visitors’ centers, museums, monuments, and new projects such as the ""KenArt-European cultural bridge"". Unlike Valday Park, Kenozero Park involves residents in its activities.


2) Participation of local people and contribution to GGN in terms of Geoparks in Japan.

    Kazuhiro Yuhora (Muroto Geopark Promotion Committee)

    The guideline of GGN emphasizes the importance of cooperation of local people for development of Geoparks. In Japan, most of geopark projects are lead by local government; therefore, local poeple have not been main factor in geopark projects so far. Geoparks in Japan has worked on the problem. Among the Geoparks, Muroto Global Geopark which gained its global status in September 2011, could give other geoparks a pioneering model. This presentation will talk about the model. Also, this presentation will discuss about 1) management of JGN, 2) ideal form of JGN, 3) a role of JGN in GGN. Those 3 topics were already discussed in 3rd JGN Conference held in Muroto Global Geopark in November 2011.


3) New Possibilities of Geopark, Geotourism, and Geography by using “Regional Diversity” Concept

    Daichi Kohmoto (School of Tourism, Kobe Shukugawa Gakuin University)

    Arguments on geoparks and geotourism have grown heated in recent years. However, few people can understand what “geo” means. This study considers how to share viewpoints of “geo” to build sustainable regional communities or society from a geographical perspective and real-world examples in geoparks. First, the presenter defines geotourism as a type of ecotourism mainly focusing on the Earth’s scientific resources. Second, the presenter argues that the concept of “regional diversity” proposed by the Japanese Geographical Union in 2005 is the core of Geography. This concept connects three existing concepts on the geosphere: biodiversity, cultural diversity, and geodiversity. Then, the presenter discusses that promoting geotourism with the concept of “regional diversity” is important for building sustainable communities. A geographical approach is inevitable for showing the relationship between our lives and “geo”. Humankind will have a better future by locating the geotourism as the main practice of “Earth Science for Society,” which was the slogan of the International Year of Planet Earth 2007-2009 (IYPE), and sustaining activities to develop ways of looking at “regional diversity”.



[CS17-1] Beyond economy and politics: human mobility and subjectivities (1)

    [ Thursday 08 August 08:00-09:30 RoomJ ]    Chair(s): Josefina Dominguez-Mujica (Univ. of Las Palmas de Gran Canaria)

1) The characteristic of highly educated migrants of Chinese-Korean in Korea

    Hyunuk Lee (Ewha Womas University)

    This research is about the characteristic of trans-national relationship of Chinese-Korean who have high human capital in Korea. Korea now has 1.4 million migrants from aborad and the half of them are Chinese- Korean. However with high growth rate of migrants Korea are now facing the high speed of social class division of them.
    As migrants have grown in very high speed since late 1990s Korean society have faced new social phenomenon in every place. Global economy have influenced many parts of social life in Korea however everyday life change and new social relationship with migrants have one of the strong impact in Korea.
    In this research the professional workers are mainly analyzed to find out their trans-national relationship with 25 professional workers who have at least master degree and work in a professional job. The social relationship of professional workers in everyday life may show very dynamic difference between their social class.
    As a result, the social relationship of them were first have shown more trans-local relationship than trans-national relationship. Their everyday life were simultaneously shared with their friends and old colleague in chinese local area also they keep their relationship in Seoul and Beijing.
    Second the social relationship in them was different between city like yanbian and other city or region. The yanbean area with the most large Chinese-Korean community in China have strong link between them and keep close relationship with local yanbian however the other region the migrants had larger social relationship with Han Chinese people and Chinese-Korean. Their language ability of Chinese and Korean were also different and the social class of parents (who are second generation of Chinese-Korean) had large influence to their social relationship.


2) Expatriate Sojourns or Transnational Subjectivities?: American and PRC Chinese Families in Singapore

    Brenda S.A. Yeoh (National University of Singapore), Shirlena Huang

    As a global city-state at the crossroads of multiple transnational pathways, Singapore is host to a wide spectrum of migrants and sojourners from many nations. Within the kaleidoscope, Americans feature as the archetypical transnational elites providing expatriate labour while PRC Chinese have become a more recent but already numerically dominant source of expatriate labour in the last decade. In response to the call to pay more attention to the geographically and historically specific nature of transnational elites, we take a comparative stance in examining the ways in which American and Chinese transnational elite families negotiate ethno-cultural subjectivities and national identities. Drawing on 60 in-depth interviews conducted with different members of American and Chinese immigrant families in Singapore, we challenge the conception, stemming in part from Aihwa Ong’s characterization of Chinese middle-class transnationals as flexible citizens, that Chinese transnationalism is peculiarly associated with notions of strategism, exploitation and intentional ‘absent presences’, producing subjects who eschew civic responsibilities, refuse any form of cultural assimilation, and exploit the social and environmental resources in their new homeland. By subjecting the narratives of American transnationals to comparative analysis, we distill, from both sets of narratives, strains of pragmatism, calculation and strategy while also discerning the influence of nationalist ideals, cultural values and tradition. More broadly, we show that what motivates transnational practice among elite immigrant families should be understand not so much through ethno-tinted lenses, but via a looking glass reflecting the interplay of human agency and structural conditions in shaping transnational subjectivities.


3) Significance of mapping foreign residents in Japan

    Yoshitaka Ishikawa (Kyoto University)

    Since Japan’s population began to decline in 2008, the reception and settlement of foreigners has attracted great attention. The population’s decline is one of the country’s most serious issues for the 21st century. In contemporary Japan, however, regional differences in spatial distribution have largely been neglected. Nevertheless, since most data on foreigners in public statistics are available as digital files, it is not difficult to map their distribution, suggesting that Japanese geographers can make an atlas of foreign residents to help address the problem of population decline. Consequently, we have published an atlas entitled “Mapping Foreign Residents in Japan.” Its main body contains six sections: “Spatial distribution and its changes,” “Sex, age and nationality,” “Residence status,” “Work,” “Life,” and “Residential concentration and migration.” Each section consists of a few subsections, and the work contains more than one hundred colorful maps on prefecture/municipality scales. These maps are drawn chiefly from such public statistics as the 2005 Population Census of Japan, including its micro data. The maps shown in the atlas provide many interesting findings that can be used to confirm the generality of previous results in existing literature, and they are expected to be a point of departure for new, previously unexplored research areas. In this presentation, various maps from the atlas are introduced as examples, and the significance of each is discussed.


4) Socioeconomic integration, transnationalism and psychological well-being among Brazilian immigrants in Japan

    Hirohisa Takenoshita (Sophia University), Emi Tamaki

    This paper focuses on the way in which socioeconomic integration, human and social capital and transnationalism shapes mental health among Brazilian immigrants in Japan. This study makes significant contributions to immigration literatures by looking at cases of immigrants in Japan because Japan has different institutional context including contexts of immigrant reception, labour market structures and welfare regimes. The segmented assimilation theory has attempted to explain divergences in patterns of assimilation into the host society. Context of reception, human and social capital, and ethnic community has played crucial roles in shaping socioeconomic and psychological well-being among immigrants in the US. Conversely, theories of transnationalism have demonstrated the importance of immigrants’ transnational activities and social networks formed beyond national borders, thereby allowing immigrants to adapt to the receiving and sending countries. These theoretical insights are inter-related so that these can explain the complexities and divergences of situations for immigrants. This study focuses on Japanese-Brazilian immigrants in Japan. The Japanese immigration policy allows ethnic return immigrants to move regularly between sending and receiving nations, thereby increasing their transnational activities among these immigrants. This study addressed the question of the way in which Brazilian immigrants improved their mental health in these institutional settings. This study used the data derived from the survey for Brazilian immigrants living in Hamamatsu city where many Brazilian immigrants have been concentrated. It was conducted from December in 2009 until January in 2010.


5) Trends in Return Migration from Megacities to Local Cities in China: A Case Study of Zhumadian’s Return Migrants

    Yungang Liu (Sun Yat-sen University/ School of Geography and Planning), Tingting Yan, Zhihua Xu

    The development gap between China’s inland local cities and eastern coastal megacities has been largely widened since China’s economic reform and opening up. Migration of workers is a main reason behind this. Thus inland local cities are concerned to encourage return migration and retain local talents. Through spot investigation, questionnaire survey and interviews, this study examines the trend of return migration in Zhumadian, a local city in Henan province which is the origin of many labor migrants to coastal cities such as Shenzhen. Two types of return migration are identified, i.e. U-turn (returning to a town near their hometown) and I-turn (returning to their hometown). Family reasons and expectation of better prospects on their hometown are the major pull factors of the return of migrant workers. Most of them choose to start a business related to their prior work experience. Also, in many cases, property purchase is a prelude to starting a business. Although large-scale return migration currently does not exist, rising return-migration flow is expected. However, return migrant entrepreneurs face large difficulties such as poor infrastructure, insufficient funding and information support, and unsatisfactory living condition in their hometown. Local governments therefore should capitalize on return migrants’ sense of belonging to their hometown and adopt a proactive approach to creating a more favorable investment environment, so that more return migrants will be attracted to set up businesses in their hometown. This can be an approach for inland local cities to improving their development prospects.



[CS17-2] Beyond economy and politics: human mobility and subjectivities (2)

    [ Thursday 08 August 10:00-11:30 RoomJ ]    Chair(s): Yoshitaka Ishikawa (Kyoto Univ.)

1) Young Spaniards and current emigration trends: opportunity or necessity?

    Josefina Dominguez-Mujica (University of Las Palmas de Gran Canaria), Ramon Diaz-Hernandez, Juan Parreno-Castellano

    During the last four decades, Spain has received a significant number of immigrants. Since the start of the economic crisis in 2007 though, an important percentage of the population, especially among those young adult and qualified, has chosen to leave the country seeking new opportunities in Northern Europe or in emerging countries.
    
    The study of this change in migratory trends becomes crucial as it is linked to other geographical processes and can shed a light on certain social transformations. On the one hand, we can observe the failure of the country to adapt to a new productive scheme and the consequent social exclusion of some citizens in the labour markets of Southern Europe. On the other hand, the new employment offering, thanks partly to the IT; and the new cross-border relationships, due to social and other networks in the global context.
    
    Some authors have interpreted this as a sign of autonomy of the young population in times of uncertainty. The protective role of their parents, which was very important in their education and in the family structures of Southern Europe, begins to change. But, why does some young people decide to emigrate and others to stay? Can this process be considered as an actual emigration, or is it just a temporary working experience abroad? How different is this mobility from the one in the past? The answers to these questions form the structure of this research. We have elaborated them through quantitative and qualitative techniques of study.


2) What is behind Remittances of Ukrainian Migrants in Czechia?

    Dusan Drbohlav (Charles University in Prague/Faculty of Science), Dagmar Dzurova

    The presentation is based on results of a three-year project done by the GEOMIGRACE team (affiliated with Department of Social Geography and Regional Development, Faculty of Science, Charles University in Prague; www.geomigrace.cz) and supported by the Czech Grant Agency. Besides many other research tools and perspectives which have been applied within this project a questionnaire survey targeting Ukrainian migrants who legally stayed and worked in a capital city of Prague and Central Bohemia for at least 6 months and, at the same time, remitted money, was carried out in 2012 (N=321). Just results springing from this questionnaire survey will be presented. We will concentrate on several topics, namely, remittances as such (size, forms, frequencies and their use), living style of Ukrainian migrants in Czechia and Ukraine (with special regard to economic aspects of their living) and migrants´ health. The presented facts will be juxtaposed to some important existing theories and concepts (e.g. “migration and development nexus”, transnationalism, cumulative causation theory) and more general “regularities” so far found when dealing with remittances.


3) Work and Lifestyle Mobilities of Bulgarian Migrants

    Gergina Dimitrova Pavlova (University of Sunderland)

    The level and nature of mobility and migration across Europe since 2004 represents a new phenomenon, and one that local and national policy-makers and academics are seeking to understand. The high levels of return migration and increasingly mobile employment patterns have prompted researchers to develop new conceptual approaches to addressing and understanding ‘mobility’ in the contemporary world. Moreover, due to the difficulty of monitoring and the perceived pressures it might cause upon local welfare services, many EU countries have discussed limiting the rights of workers from Bulgaria and Romania. In the UK, the result has been a restriction on their access to the UK labour market until 2014. This paper seeks to provide some insights into this phenomenon. It begins by examining the reasons behind the migration of Bulgarians to the UK both as workers and students. Secondly, it then focuses on the problems that Bulgarian nationals have had in terms of seeking work in the UK and reflects on the adverse media representations of Bulgarians in the UK. Thirdly, it pays attention to the emotional geographies of the Bulgarian students and migrants as they seek new relationships in the UK. Finally, the paper concludes by discussing the future opportunities for the Bulgarian community.


4) Life cycle, migratory choices, and urban structures: the case of the Rome metropolitan area

    Barbara Staniscia (Sapienza University of Rome), Armando Montanari

    One of the relevant aspects of the migration processes is linked to age differences. How migratory patterns are influenced by the life cycle of an individual is more and more important, above all in order to define appropriate policies.
    This paper investigates the migratory movements that occurred in the metropolitan area of Rome (Italy) in the last decade and how they differentiated according to the migrants’ ages. How the urban structure is linked to the preferences of the different age groups, how it satisfies their needs, and how it is determined by the individuals choices will be discussed.
    The Rome metropolitan area has proven to be attractive for all age classes (university students, young adults, families with children, empty nests, active retired persons); the location choices in within the region, nonetheless, are affected by the phase of life the migrants are living.


5) Human mobility and coastal regions in Latvia

    Zaiga Krisjane (University of Latvia), Lasma Zeberga, Maris Berzins, Elina Apsite-Berina, Maija Rozite, Daina Vinklere

    The aim of this study is to characterise the human mobility and migration patterns within the changes in the coastal regions. The mobility trends in Latvia can be represented in multiple case studies, for example Engure coastal region. This analysis mostly concentrates on the aspects of relocation to the coastal region which appears to be highly attractive.
    One of the thesis in this research determining the choice of residency focuses on different factors such as attractive environmental amenities, and proximity to the labour market. Population and settlement changes in Engure coastal region is studied taking into account administrative unit level.
    The case study is based on the field work using both quantitative and qualitative methods. Unique empirical data allows describing human distribution in the region, settlement forms and changes in different periods. Besides it allows characterising human mobility patterns, cycles of movements, aspect of seasonality, including importance of the second-home development.
    The results state that the coastal territory already is widely used as a summer house settlement and a part of the previous permanent living houses are used only during the summer season. It was also found that the economic situation improvement in Latvia in general becomes a pull factor and attracts more affluent migrants to the Engure region. They similarly to local residents are attracted because of the sea coast. Choosing this region as a permanent place of residence at the same time commuting to the workplaces in Riga or other larger cities is common.



[CS17-3] The challenge of human mobility: overcoming frontiers and difficulties in times of economic crisis (1)

    [ Thursday 08 August 14:00-15:30 RoomJ ]    Chair(s): Barbara Staniscia (Sapienza Univ. of Rome)

1) Ethnic segregation and organization of Filipinos in the Greater Sydney

    Ryogo Abe (Nagoya University)

    There has been an increase of the Asian population in Australia since it chanded the policy from White Australia to Multicultralism in 1970s. Most of new arrivals rushed into the Metropolitan areas including Sydney and Melbourne. As a result, the huge Asian-ethnic spaces have been formed around those areas.
     To analyze the formation process of these ethnic spaces in this presentation, first I explain the charactaristics of Asian-ethinc segregation in the Greater Sydney (made of more than 40 Local Goverenment Areas). What could be found is the relationship bewteen their arrival time and the ethnic segregation patterns.
     Second I explore how ehnic communities have been organized around there through focus on Filipinos in Blacktonwn (a city at Outer Suburb 30km far away from City of Sydney). Blacktown has the biggest Filipino population in the Greater Sydney and then has a lot of Filipino organizations as active. The fieldwork I had done there for 4 months in 2012 to 2013 clarifies similarity and difference among Filipino organizations as well as their organizing processes in one specific area of Filipino segregation.
     At last, I conclude the segregation and organization of Filipinos in the Greater Sydney has resulted from their own arrival time, the political situation in the Philippines and Multiculturalism in Australia as well as individual factors.


2) Linking migration and societal change - the case of EU mobility

    Birgit Glorius (Institut for European Studies, Chemnitz University of Technology)

    Patterns of human mobility throughout Europe have changed significantly in the last years. The integration of new member states in 2004 and 2007 as well as the onset of the economic crisis in 2007 created new migration patterns and behaviors. The EU integrations of 2004/2007 increased mobility, however with new directions and a change in the composition of migratory flows. While Great Britain and Ireland experienced the inflow of great numbers of young and well educated migrants from CEE countries, new migration flows to Italy and Spain were less stratified with regard to age or education. Both migration flows were strongly affected by the economic crisis. While parts of the CEE migrants returned, the south European target countries experience an outflow of their well educated youth.
    How can these processes be conceptualized? Do simple push-pull-models suffice to explain the moves? How are the migration flows shaped by new communication technologies and media campaigns? How are the observed processes connected with phenomena of demographic or societal change? How important is transnational cultural capital for successfully shaping ones migratory biography? Can we predict future migratory behavior by analyzing the recent flows?
    The paper aims on giving directions for answering those questions by connecting migration theory and theories of societal change.


3) The Development Challenges and MigrantCommunities: The Caseof Duokor, Cape Coast, Ghana

    Comfort Iyabo Ogunleye-Adetona (University of Cape Coast), K.K Agyemang, Izik Appiah

    In recent time the rate of migration has become alarming as more people move from one place into another in search of better livelihoods. However these movements do not necessarily lead to better human development outcome rather they end up development challenges like initial accommodation. Migrants according to International law however have a right to good life and should therefore not be neglected in development programmes of any nation.
    Migration is common in Ghana, with at least one migrant in more than 43% of all households (C. M. S, 2010). The Central Region of Ghana is not only having a migration status of 22%- in migrants and 40% return migrants , it is also rated as one of the poorest in the country. There is a need therefore to find a way of enhancing development in this region. Duokor a fishing and migrant community saddled between Cap Coast and Emina, Cape Coast Metropolis, Ghana was selected to examined the development challenges
    76 respondents were purposively and randomly selected for interview. Poverty, economic opportunities, family links and marriage were identified as factors that propelled them to migrate. The community members do not have accessibility to some basic human needs like good toilets, good drinking water, market center, poor housing. The communities feels neglected by the government and are not happy with governments attempt at relocating them. Governments should rather help develop the place by providing them with those basic amenities.


4) Financing Immigrant Small Businesses in the US and Canada

    Wei Li (arizona state university), Lucia Lo

    Financing is one of the most commonly cited obstacles immigrants face when starting up or maintaining their businesses. This is evident in research everywhere. Since the financing environment in which firms operate impacts their performance and that the environment affects smaller firms more than others, it is important to understand the financing impediments small firms face.
    
    This paper, therefore, seeks to converse with immigrant entrepreneurs, with an aim
    a. to explore the financial needs of their businesses, their expectations of banks, and the barriers they face; and
    b. to gauge their opinion on banks (mainstream versus ethnic), and their access to and dealings with them; and their assessment of the fairness and effectiveness of the financial services they receive or lack thereof.
    
    After a brief review of the relevant literature on immigrant entrepreneurship and financial institutions, this paper will report on an empirical study involving both experienced and potential immigrant entrepreneurs that was conducted in San Francisco and Vancouver, two primary immigrant gateways and financial sub-centers located respectively on the Pacific side of the US and Canada, before concluding with some recommendations to break down barriers to immigrant entrepreneurship. The primary focus of this paper is on immigrant entrepreneurs’ concerns about and needs for financial services. Given that there are different types of financial institutions, some more ethnic-based than others, a secondary objective here is to see if the concept of ‘ethnic assets’ (Dymski and Li 2004) provides a useful framework to assess banking service among immigrant clientele.



[CS17-4] The challenge of human mobility: overcoming frontiers and difficulties in times of economic crisis (2)

    [ Thursday 08 August 16:00-17:30 RoomJ ]    Chair(s): Zaiga Krisjane (Univ. of Latvia)

1) The financial restructuring of the Real Estate and the international residential tourism in Spain

    Juan Manuel Parreno-Castellano (University of Las Palmas de Gran Canaria), Ramon Diaz-Hernandez, Josefina Dominguez-Mujica

    From the 1990s to 2008 Spain experienced an unparalleled economic growth linked to the Real Estate bubble. Funding from financial institutions was easy to obtain, which multiplied the property developments and allowed the demand to be partially met. The financial recession that started in 2008 has affected this activity significantly, and a lot of these properties have ended up in the books of the banks, as neither developers nor buyers are able to face their liabilities. In order to solve this situation, the Government has introduced severe restructuring measures, which include the nationalization of the saving banks and the creation of SAREB, an entity that will manage houses hard to be sold.
    
    Analysts expect financial institutions and SAREB to put on sale an important number of properties soon, with prices well below what they were trading at few years ago. These houses, mostly located in the Mediterranean Coast and the archipelagos, will probably be acquired by foreign investment funds or individuals as a second residence. How will this affect the international market of second residences? How will this change the residential mobility within tourist areas? This paper aims at answering these questions through a geographical analysis of the Real Estate offer and of the residential tourism trends, in order to assess the impact of the restructuring process on the mobility of retired people in Spain.


2) Migration attempts of the European Roma people and their inner and outer frontiers that hinder their mobility in times of economic crisis

    Istvan Suli-Zakar (Debrecen University)

    The largest ethnic minority of the European Union is constituted by the approximately 10-12 million Roma population. Geographically they are primarily located in the South Eastern European EU Member States, and the solution of the Roma question constitutes a number one problem in the home affairs of these countries.
    The shift in the ratio within the population sharpened and magnified the differences between the dissimilar lifestyle and the philosophy of life respecting the two major social groups which led to sharpening tensions. Of course, the deeply desperate Roma population makes more and more attempts in order to be able to migrate to the richer regions of Western Europe and North America in the hope of an easier life. They, however, face more and more obstacles. After the opening of the borders, a considerable amount of the Roma population migrating to Western Europe from the accession countries (mainly from Romania and Bulgaria) was bluntly deported to their homelands (for example, by France, Italy, Canada, Sweden, Germany etc.).
    Based on our socio-geographical researches carried out in Hungary, Romania, Bulgaria, Ukraine and Slovakia, the social and economic integration of the Roma population in South Eastern Europe is mainly hindered by the low level of education, the high level of unemployment, criminality and the existing prejudices experienced in the mainstream society.


3) Overcoming Crisis: Groups and Trajectories of Latvian migrants

    Maris Berzins (University of Tartu), Zaiga Krisjane, Elina Apsite-Berina

    The study analyzes the effects of economic and financial crisis on the processes of migration from Latvia to the Western Europe. Recent studies reveal that large economic imbalances and unemployment during the crisis speed up for new wave of emigration from Latvia. In 2012, Latvia stood as one of the most successful countries to overcome the crisis. However, on the social side, the situation is not positive: the purchasing power of employees has been reduced, unemployment still remains persistent, and outward migration is growing despite economic recovery. In addition, the emigration under crisis became more diverse by choice of destination and population groups involved. This study highlights the characteristics of Latvian immigrants in top destination countries and aims to analyze differences amongst migrant groups arrived in the UK, Germany and Nordic countries. The analysis is based on internet survey conducted in 2010-2012. The survey was posted on a locally popular social network which is widely recognised communication channel among Latvians. The results of the study indicate that recent immigrants were mostly unemployed professionals, persons who have difficulties with mortgage payments, as well as former residents of metropolitan area. However our findings show also distinctive features of immigrant groups by selected destinations. All in all the observations confirm that the interest of outmigration because of the crisis was even higher than just after accession to the EU.


4) The changing employment situation of Iranian migrants in the Tokyo metropolitan area

    Yasutaka Kogawa (Kyoto University)

    The purpose of this presentation is to explore the changing employment situation of Iranian migrants in the Tokyo metropolitan area, Japan, during the past few decades. According to the statistics of registered foreigners, the total number of persons with Iranian nationality in the country has been decreasing since the 1990s, and was about 4,700 persons as of the end of 2011. Approximately 60% of them live in the four prefectures (Tokyo, Saitama, Chiba and Kanagawa) composing the Tokyo area. An interview survey of 33 respondents was conducted in summer/fall of 2012 to obtain the geographical data concerning their changing workplaces since their arrival to Japan as well as related data of social networks and family formation of the Iranian migrants. After the spatial dimensions of such changes are carefully investigated in terms of the distances before and after job changes and the geographical sectors of workplaces, they are explained in relation to the changes in social networks and family formation. The obtained findings can be summarized as follows. First, their relocation patterns of workplaces differ greatly depending on their social networks. Second, nodes of social networks have functioned to maintain/expand their daily life spaces. Third, the workplaces have tended to move from the inner parts to the suburban municipalities, suggesting a similarity to their residential changes in the metropolitan area.



[CS18-1] Geo-hazards and their impacts on human society (1)

    [ Wednesday 07 August 08:00-09:30 Room554A ]    Chair(s): Hiroshi Shimazu (Rissho Univ.), Jose Novoa (Univ. of La Serena)

1) Abandonment of farmlands after the 2011 Tohoku Earthquake tsunami disaster in the unprotected floodplain of the Lower Natori River, Japan

    Hiroshi Shimazu (Rissho University)

    The study of geo-hazard’s impacts on human society is a important geographic subject. In case of a mega disaster human societies suffer various types of damages at the same time. In addition such disasters affect human activities gradually after the event. In the latter case it is very important to observe their changes continuously. This study aims to observe the change of farmlands in the lower reaches of the River Natori where were attacked by the tsunami disaster of the 2011 Tohoku Earthquake. The unprotected floodplain along the river is traditionally used for farmlands. Although many of the farmers, who had the farmlands in unprotected floodplain, tried to cultivate vegetables after the disaster, three types of farmland abandonment processes occurred in this region. The first is cultivator’s loss. Several farmers who lived in the coastal villages were killed by the tsunami or had to migrate to inland because of their village’s loss. The second is severe damage of the farmlands. The farmland located near the river mouth were severely damaged by tsunami, thus it was difficult to begin cultivation again. The third is the bad geomorphological condition. Several floods occurred in 2011 and 2012, caused by heavy rain washed away salinity in the soil, thus in many farmlands vegetables could be grown as before the tsunami disaster. However, the farmlands in shallow hollows which were former channels were severely inundated and flood water ponded in them. These farmlands became unsuitable for grow vegetables.


2) Geographical classification considering disaster properties in Japan

    Mamoru Koarai (Geospatial Information Authority of Japan), Takayuki Nakano, Kyungrock Ye

    Many natural disasters, such as an earthquake, a volcanic eruption, slope collapse, a flood and snow damage, happens in Japan because it is located on active tectonic zone and has steep landform, vulnerable geology and severe climate. In order to promote the land use plan for conservation and development in Japan, it is important to classify the similar geographical characteristic regions from the perspective of disaster prevention. We think that it is appropriate to classify the whole Japanese country into about 500 regions based on disaster properties, although the whole English country is classified into about 150 regions from the perspective of landscape. In this presentation, the fundamental view of the geographical characteristics zoning is introduced.
    The same landform classification and the same geological structure are summarized in the same geographical division. Although it is more desirable for each administration community not to divided, when landform classification or geological structure differs from in the same administration community, a natural boundary should be given priority to over an administration community boundary. We think it is appropriate to classify by landforms, such as lowland, upland, basin, hill, mountain and volcano at first, and to classify by the difference in geology about hill, mountain and volcano area.
     In this presentation, we introduce the case of Kanto and south Tohoku District, northeast Japan.


3) Earthquake Damage and Issues on Housing Estates on Transformed Hills in Japan

    Yoshiyuki Murayama (Yamagata Univresity), Shin-Ichi Hirano, Satoru Masuda

    A large number of housing estates have been extensively developed on hills around cities since 1960s in Japan (Murayama and Umeyama, 2010). The estates were developed by transforming hills, namely cutting the ridges and filling the valleys. Certain types of damage repeatedly occur in Japan, since Miyagiken-oki Earthquake hit Sendai and its vicinity in 1978. There are few houses affected by earthquake in the cut area, but many and severe damages in the filled area and in cut-fill boundary area. The damages are caused by ground failures, subsiding or sliding fills or cracking or uneven settlement at cut-fill boundaries (Murayama and Kumaki, 2008).
     Act for Regulation of Preparing Housing Sites was amended in 2006 in order to prevent from such severe damage of the large scale filled area before the hazard strikes. However, the act has not enforced in practice at any transformed estates before the event, and the Great East Japan Earthquake in 2011 caused similar damage on the estates again. Furthermore, some housing plots on the cut-fill boundary, affected by Kobe Earthquake in 1995, have been re-developed with newly built four of five small houses, so called ‘mini-development’. Another legal regulation should be developed.


4) Panel survey of corporate activity on damage and recovery in Tohoku region after the Great East Japan Earthquake

    Satoru Masuda (Tohoku University)

    More than two and half years have passed since the occurrence of the Great East Japan Earthquake. An accurate assessment of the severe economic damage and recovery process has yet not been figured out. In order to inspect the disaster and to study subsequent lessons learned from the corporate activities in Tohoku region, Earthquake Restoration Research Center of the Graduate School of Economics and Management, Tohoku University designed and conducted a wide-scale mail-in survey in July, 2012 among companies whose headquarters were located in Iwate, Miyagi and Fukushima prefectures and Hachinohe city in Aomori prefecture.
    30,000 samples were drawn from the 56,101 population companies in the data file of Tokyo Shoko Research and 7,021 replies were obtained by mail or web site to make the response rate 23.4%. More than half of the companies (3,701) were suffered from earthquake and/or tsunami damage and average damage-asset ratio is 14% among them. This report shows the survey results and prospects for regional economic restoration. This research project is the beginning of the panel survey and will run for more than five years.



[CS18-2] Geo-hazards and their impacts on human society (2)

    [ Wednesday 07 August 10:00-11:30 Room554A ]    Chair(s): Jose Novoa (Univ. of La Serena), Hiroshi Shimazu (Rissho Univ.)

1) Forecasting Earthquake Hazards Along the Himalayan Frontal Faults in India

    Koji Okumura (Hiroshima University), Javed N Malik, Sahoo Santiswarup, Sambit P Naik, Afzal Khan, Teruyuki Kato

    The giant earthquakes from the India-Eurasia plate-boundary megathrust and the hanging-wall intra-plate earthquakes are significant threat to the great accumulation of popolation and industries. Recent economic growth has raised the vulnerability of the reagion much higher, but there is not enough information to prepare for earthquake hazards. It is due to the lack of historic and geologic information on past earthquakes and slip-rates. In order to improve the preparedness and to reduce risks from the earthquakes along the Himalayan front, we have been collecting paleoseismological information on the frontal faults. Previous trenching works often revealed single large-slip event but penaultimate event was seldom recognized due to the large slip and fast sedimentation. On the other hand, attempts on slip-rate estimation relied on fluvial terrace deformation as an indicator of the geologic structure. However, the fluvial response to hidrographic changes may affect the estimation along very active and high-energy river systems. In order to avoid those difficulties, we have selected the frontal faults are protected from high-energy fluvial activities at Hajipur (75.75 degree E) and Ramnagar (79.1 degree E). In 2012, the authors successfully exposed a low-angle thrust with more than 5 m slip and a probable penultimate event at Ramnagar. In addition to trenching, topographic mapping of the fan and channels are carried out using RTK-GPS, total station, and photogrammetric analyses of satellite images. The mapping will enable correct reconstruction of deformation history and the slip-rates.


2) Effects of changes of scale in the delimitation of areas of flood for tsunami: Caleta San Pedro, Coquimbo Bay (Chile)

    Jose Novoa (University of La Serena), Patricia Paz

    As part of the Diagnosis of the Risk Areas in Coastal Cities of Coquimbo Region (MINVU) and the project of Regional Planning for Risks Management of Coquimbo Region (MIDEPLAN, SERPLAC and the Agency of International Cooperation of Japan), presented the effects of changes in scale resolution in the delimitation of areas of flood for tsunami: Caleta San Pedro, Coquimbo Bay (Chile).
    
    Methodologically based on models of the spread of tsunami (model TUNAMI-N) and the historical background (1730, 1922 and 1943 events) that have affected the bay of Coquimbo, are established by tsunami flood elevation and the height of the layer of water flooding above the ground in 3D supported by topobatimetric charts. These results are compared to local scale (1/500) by searching for the record and subsequent interpretation of a dune system tsunami deposits.
    
    The results obtained allow to apreciate tsunami modeling techniques, have limitations when establishing its potential aplications in the design of structures of tsunami prevention and mitigation, demonstrating that they have to be supplemented with calibration and validation mechanisms made in field.


3) Sharing experiences of the catastrophe: the research practices of Nagoya University in Aceh

    Makoto Takahashi (Nagoya University), Shigeyoshi Tanaka

    On December 26, 2004, the super-giant tsunami, which was accompanied by the second biggest earthquake at least over the past century, occurred off Sumatra Island, Indonesia, and caused one of the most serious natural disasters in the human history. As members of Nagoya University's research team, we have conducted eight-year field surveys about the damage, emergency response, and reconstruction processes in/around Banda Aceh, the most severely affected area, from February 2005 onward. In this paper, we outline the achievements, key concepts being hazard scale, globalization of disaster, community's death to rebirth, lack of coordination mechanisms, changing local society and culture, and so on in part comparing to our studies in Tohoku. We discuss their implications both to Indonesia and to Japan, asking what is common to all sites or special in Aceh, in terms of multi-disciplinary perspectives, community approach, longer-term observation, and international collaboration at the grassroots level. Such a catastrophic disaster rarely happens in one region, but often in the whole world, bringing about overall devastation once it occurs. Eventually, we emphasize the necessity of the world-wide academic platform for sharing experiences, for which the geographers community should play the critical role.


4) Flood monitoring by using L-band SAR

    Shinichi Sobue (JAXA), Kei Oyoshi, Tomoyuki Nukui, Masanobu Shimada, Toru Fukuda

    Earth observation satellite is useful tool to monitor the status and damage of water related natural disaster. Especially, because it is necessary to monitor inundated information under cloudy and rainy condition, active radar observation is one of the most powerful tool. In 2011, there was terrible flood in Thailand. JAXA sent airplane with radar (Pi-SAR-L) system to help Thailand Government to manage 2011 flood disaster in Bangkok Area. This paper explained the result of Thai flood observation by Pi-SAR-L in 2011 and by ALOS in 2010 with introducing ALOS-2 PALSAR2.



[CS18-3] Geo-hazards and their impacts on human society (3)

    [ Wednesday 07 August 14:00-15:30 Room554A ]    Chair(s): Koji Okumura (Hiroshima Univ.), Jose Novoa (Univ. of La Serena)

1) Severe coastal erosion and its countermeasures at the Thuan An inlet of Tam Giang Lagoon, Central Viet Nam

    Yukihiro Hirai (Komazawa university), Ngu Huu Nguyen, Khoa Phuc Nguyen, Huong Thi Lan Nguyen, Quy Ngoc Phuong Le

    At the Thuan An inlet of Tam Giang Lagoon, severe coastal erosion has been continuing after the historic flood of 1999. Authorities have constructed jetties and afforested in the beach to protect the coast from the erosion. However, they couldn't stop the erosion completely, and most of the coast is still suffering from severe erosion. Therefore several hundred houses already moved and further about 60 houses are forced to relocate.
     The purpose of this study is to clarify the current status of coastal erosion and to evaluate measures to prevent coastal erosion being conducted. After that we propose a sustainable future countermeasures.
     We traced the changes of the coastline based on multiple topographic maps and satellite images. And we interviewed the commune office and residents about the countermeasures against the erosion, and made fieldwork.
     As a result, it became clear that the beach near the inlet has been already eroded 80~200m in the maximum width during 1968 and 1994 before the 1999's flood. Since 2007, three jetties 300m in each length were constructed, which caused the deposition of sand within the area about 500m from the jetty, but led to severe erosion of other part of the beach than before.
     It is difficult to prevent the coastal erosion by some kind of structure in this area. So we propose that the residents in the area to be anticipated floods or coastal erosion should be relocated beforehand systematically to the appropriate places, not as the emergency evacuation after a disaster.


2) River Training Works of Jamuna Bridge and the Jamuna River Morphology

    Minoru Kamoto (Public Works Research Institute (PWRI))

    Jamuna Multipurpose Bridge (JMB) is the only one bridge over the Jamuna River (the local name of the Bramaputra River) connects the Eastern and Western part of Bangladesh. JMB was constructed in the period 1994-1998.
    The Jamuna River is meandering and braiding stretch by stretch. To decide the bridge site was needed some ideas.
    The bridge was designed total span of 4.8 km only; on the contrary the Jamuna River width is generally 10-20 km wide. And how to manage the river at the bridge site was very crucial issue. The river training works (RTW) , an integral and essential part of the bridge, have as main purpose to ensure that.
    The design of RTW was done in the period 1987-1990 but was adjusted prior to and during the construction. The RTW were already completed by mid 1997 and since then served their purpose and have required limited maintenance.
    Through the discussion of RTW, we can understand the process of erosion and sedimentation of the river and have a perspective of river training method of whole stretch of the river. There are similar type of bridges and barrages in the world.
    This paper is to introduce the history of JMB planning related geological situation of Jamuna River and the effect of RTW at the JMB site and try to make perspective for future RTW and Jamuna River morphology, and expected idea for managing other barrages and bridges with river management.


3) Cosesimic subsidence during the Holocene detected in the delta sequence on the footwall of the Yoro fault system, central Japan

    Yuichi Niwa (International Research Institute of Disaster Science, Tohoku University), Toshihiko Sugai

    In coastal alluvial plain, where large population concentrates, land subsidence under the sea-level triggered by large earthquake causes catastrophic damage to human societies. Thus, in these areas, it is necessary to reduce seismic damage through long term evaluation for future earthquake based on past earthquake history including off-fault phenomena being preserved in geologic deposits such as coseismic subsidence.
     We detected coseismic subsidence in the western Nobi Plain caused during the past 6000 years by the movement on the Yoro fault system, which is estimated to have generated two historical earthquakes (AD1586 Tensho and AD745 Tempyo earthquakes), fringing the plain. We identified temporal facies changes which cannot be explained by delta progradation (e.g. upward-fining deposition and increasing electrical conductivity in delta front deposits) that occurred 600 to 200, 1300 to 900, 2700 to 2000, 4200 to 3800, and 5600 to 4700 years ago suggesting that episodes of sea-level rise interrupted progradation of the Kiso River delta. Considering the general trend of relative sea-level fall during the middle to late Holocene under the influence of eustasy and hydro-isostasy, the temporal correspondence of rises of relative sea level with activity on the Yoro fault including two historical earthquakes suggests they reflect coseismic subsidence due to Yoro fault activity. The timing of the coseismic subsidence events identified in this study also corresponds with that of previously reported faulting events at the Kuwana fault to the south of the Yoro fault.


4) North Anatolian fault as the best laboratory for recurring large earthquakes

    Koji Okumura (Hiroshima University)

    For better understanding the recurrence behavior of large earthquakes, it is very necessary to examine following five issues on the North Anatolian fault. (1) The completeness of historic catalogs are seldom questioned by paleoseismology though it is the only way to supplement incomplete historic records. Many paleosseismological works just confirm catalogs based on historic records. However, finding undocumented earthquakes in historic time is rather common if reliable geologic section is acquired. This is crutial to know if 20th century rupture sequence had occurred in the past or not. (2) The variability and repeatability of slip-per-event might be related to the direction of rupturing over irregularities of fault geometry and to slip budget and partitioning among multiple strands. (3) Repeatability of segmentation and rapture sequence is still to be examined carefully. There are stationary and variable segment boundaries based on structural significance or size of discontinuity affecting rupture propagation. (4) The cumulative offset and slip-rate in hundreds of years are rather well studied, however, the offset in 1999 and 1939 segments are poorly dissolved yet. (5) The cumulative offset and slip-rate in thousands of years have been studied into details at very few locations. Long-term slip-rate has been discussed mostly on very low resolution data for uncertain time periods. These estimates are useless for understanding fault behavior and earthquake recurrence. We need more intensive studies on high-resolution long-term slip-rate. The discrepancy between geodetic and geologic slip rates is another important issue to be further investigated.



[CS18-4] Atmosphere-related hazards and impacts on society

    [ Wednesday 07 August 08:00-09:30 Room554B ]    Chair(s): Andrey B Shmakin (Institute of Geography, Russian Academy of Sciences), Marek Degorski (Institute of Geography and Spatial Organization, Polish Academy of Sxiences)

1) Changes of weather extremes in the western half of Russia since mid-20th century

    Andrey B Shmakin (Institute of Geography, Russian Academy of Sciences), Valeria V Popova, Eugenia A Khrupolova, Anna A Shestakova, Leontiy A Ogurtsov, Alena A Sharapova

    Statistics of various characteristics of weather extremes (strong winds, heavy precipitation, blizzards, extreme air temperature) are examined over certain regions of the European part of Russia and the Western Siberia. Frequency and intensity of the extremes are obtained from daily and 3-hourly meteorological records at regular network stations (in total several hundred of them within the mentioned regions). All extreme characteristics are calculated on annual basis and averaged for 1951-1980 (base period) and 1981-2010 (contemporary warming period). The extreme air temperatures are increasing in all analyzed regions. In the North Caucasus (south of the European part of Russia), the number of heavy precipitation events is increasing even not taking into account the 2012 events with massive floods in the region. Strong winds generally become more rare, except for few locations. Changes of the meteorological extremes frequency are related to changes in certain mechanisms of large-scale atmospheric circulation. The study reveals that during the contemporary climate warming, one should be aware of higher extreme air temperatures, and in mountainous regions larger frequency of heavy precipitation.


2) High-resolution retrospective analysis of extreme waves and storm surges in the Caspian, Black, Azov and Baltic Seas

    Sergey A. Dobrolyubov (Lomonosov Moscow State University), Victor S. Arkhipkin, Klaus Peter Koltermann, Galina V. Surkova

    In order to study extreme storm waves in the Caspian, Black, Azov and Baltic seas we used the spectral model SWAN with different NCEP/NCAR reanalysis wind forcing for the 1948-2010. The model wave hindcasts were used to calculate interannual and seasonal variability of the storm frequency and duration. The Caspian and Azov seas decreased the storm activity, while in the Baltic Sea the number of storm cases increased and the Black Sea showed no significant trend. The Initial Distribution and Annual Maxima Series Methods were used to obtain probable waves of a century reoccurrence. The wave of more than 12 m were observed in the Caspian Sea and the Baltic Sea, more than 14 m in the Black Sea and over 5 m in the Azov Sea.
    The inundations in the Azov and Caspian seas were calculated with the storm surge model ADCIRC (Luettich, Westerink, 2008) with unstructured computational grid established within the SMS (Aquaveo Surface-water Modeling Solution), which are useful for the low-lying coastal areas. Wind fields were taken from the reanalysis of NCEP/NCAR, the hindcast period was 1948-2010, the changes of the annual mean level of the Caspian Sea were also taken into account. According to the simulation the highest surge height at the Caspian shoreline reached 2.5 m and 1.5 m at a distance of 30-40 km from the coast. The total area of flooding was about 6000 sq.km.
    The work was done in Natural Risk Assessment Laboratory, MSU under contract G.34.31.0007.


3) Climate change as a cause of hazard and risk for the spatial development

    Marek Degorski (Institute of Geography and Spatial Organization, Polish Academy of Sxiences)

    Imbalances in the environment caused by global warming, may be accompanied by large & sometimes catastrophic changes that directly or indirectly are included in the management of space. They can relate to so many aspects of our space, the ecosystems (change the function, ranges of species, reducing biodiversity, extinction of species), through farming and forestry (devastating droughts, fires, floods, changing the vegetation period, decrease in plant productivity, etc.), the operation of the industry (changes in technology and demand for other products), the development of settlements (populated areas more vulnerable to flooding, hurricanes, coastal erosion, sea level rise, mudflows and fires), to develop tourism. These changes involve any specific economic consequences. According to the study of S. Changnona in 2060, depending on the scenario changes in the annual precipitation and average annual air temperature, cost generated by the climate change in the U.S. national economy is estimated at 36 to 49 billion U.S. In Poland, no one has ventured to the economic analysis, but taking into account the losses incurred in the last two decades due to the catastrophic events caused by weather conditions this value can be estimated at about 10 to 20 billion PLN within the next 20-30 years. The aim of the presentation is to identify the risks and hazard posed by climate change on the functioning of the socio-economic system in Poland & show the adaptation to these changes, especially in terms of spatial planning.


4) Vegetation and meteorological conditions that led to historic Mongolian livestock mortality in 2010

    Kaoru Tachiiri (Japan Agency for Marine-Earth Science and Technology), Masato Shinoda, Yuki Morinaga, Takako Koike, Erdenetsetseg Baasandai, Hiroshi Komiyama

    In dry and cold regions such as Mongolia, people and livestock are subjected not only to drought in the summer but also to a natural disaster in the winter. Harsh winter conditions, called dzud in Mongolia, deliver the final blow to livestock weakened by the preceding drought. Dzud can prevent livestock from accessing pastures, which may result in a large number of livestock deaths. Although Mongolia has a monitoring system for drought and dzud, these disasters have even recently caused significant livestock loss. In particular, the 2010 dzud killed more than 10 million head of livestock, the greatest recorded number in one year. This study analyzed the spatial distributions of the livestock damage by the 2010 dzud, the pasture biomass, and the weather conditions. The spatial distribution of the livestock mortality in 2010 was in accordance with the drought (i.e., scarce pasture biomass) distribution in the summer of 2009. In addition, in the most affected areas, the air temperature in 2010 was around one standard deviation (SD) lower than the long-term average for January and two SDs lower than the average for April. From these findings, we conclude that, in the most affected region, the historic livestock damage in 2010 likely resulted from the combination of the 2009 drought and the 2010 cold wave. Moreover, at the conference, we will present the results of further analysis on other meteorological factors (e.g., wind speed, precipitation, and snow depth).



[CS18-6] Disaster prevention and early warning system (1)

    [ Thursday 08 August 08:00-09:30 Room554A ]    Chair(s): Kaoru Takara (Kyoto Univ. ), Shigeko Haruyama (Mie Univ.)

1) The Role of Communal Resources in Hazard Risk Management and Post-Disaster Recovery

    Andreas Neef (Kyoto University)

    It is commonly believed that communally managed resources play an important role in the prevention and management of natural disasters. Yet evidence on the various functions that such common resources exert in disaster preparedness and in post-disaster recovery remains scant. Drawing on case studies in Thailand, Vietnam and Fiji, this paper attempts to provide a comprehensive analysis and theoretical framing of the ambiguous role of the commons, such as mangrove forests, irrigation systems and upland watersheds, in hazard prevention efforts and in post-disaster response and recovery. It argues that the commons in disaster-prone areas are subject to differential and often conflicting interests by individual, communal and state actors and to hybrid governance regimes, which can render their role in enhancing or constraining disaster resilience incalculable and ambivalent, with the consequence of hard-to-predict outcomes. The paper further looks into the various transformations that the commons undergo in the aftermath of natural disasters and elucidates the roles they play in post-disaster response and recovery. The findings have important implications for theoretical conceptions of disaster risk and resilience as well as the design of disaster risk reduction efforts and post-disaster recovery programs.


2) School based community recovery in Toni District, Kamaishi, Japan

    Shohei Matsuura (Kyoto University), Rajib Shaw

    The East Japan Earthquake and Tsunami (EJET) had devastating effects on schools in Toni District, Kamaishi, destroying both Toni Elementary and Junior High schools. The event not only interrupted educational activities, but also weakened the school - community linkage due to migration of affected residents away from their homes and communities. Under these circumstances, the Ministry of Education, Culture, Sports, Science and Technology (MEXT) of Japan developed the concept, School Centered Community Building, and notified the board of education (BoE) of affected cities to promote recovery and community building though schools. The concept is based on the three main pillars, 1. Ensuring safety and security of school, 2. Provision to improve DRR and eco-friendly features and 3. Combining school with other public facilities or functions to make it a central public facility that will facilitate community interactions. Kamaishi is one of the cities in the affected region that have incorporated this concept in their recovery plans. With the above, this research has conducted series of surveys regarding situations in the pre- and post- EJET, relationship between schools and communities and disaster risk reduction (DRR) education and activities. Analysis based on these surveys clarified the challenges and the strength of Toni District that can be utilized to move forward in the recovery process. Subsequently, the research will suggest how Toni District can adopt the school based recovery concept in rebuilding and strengthening the school-community linkage to effectively implement recovery and community building plans based on the local context.


3) Addressing the Underlying Risk of Embankment Failure During Cyclonic Catastrophes & It’s Probable Mitigation Measures: Case Study from Indian Sundarbans

    Rajarshi Dasgupta (Graduate School of Global Environmental Studies, Kyoto University), Rajib Shaw

    Sundarbans is a cluster of low lying deltaic islands scattered in the confluence of the river Ganges & the Bay of Bengal disproportionately shared by India and Bangladesh. The Indian Sundarbans, once covered by dense mangrove forests, later more than half of it reclaimed for human settlement, is presently the home to approximately 4.5 million people who suffers severe threat from cyclonic & tidal catastrophes. Since the entire area is extremely low lying, earthen embankments are the key to continual survival of the socio-economically vulnerable coastal communities. However, following the cyclone ‘Aila’ in 2009, parts of these 3000 km long embankment network failed to resist heavy tidal inceptions as massive areas were flooded instantly leading to severe damage of life and property. In the post ‘Aila’ recovery period, most of the damaged embankments has been restored, however, there exists an underlying risk of embankment failure in future disasters. Majority of the associated risk may be characterized by the aging structures, lack of community awareness, poor maintenance and changing tidal patterns & influences of the rising sea. On the other hand, from the post ‘Aila’ recovery experience, it has been observed that coastal greenbelt would have played at important role to save the embankments from heavy tidal inceptions. On this backdrop, this paper addresses the underlying risk associated with embankment failure in the remote islands of Sundarbans and formulates a probable community driven mitigation & risk reduction strategy in form of coastal greenbelt development & co-operative embankment management.


4) Building Climate Disaster Resilience for Education Sector in Urban Areas: A Case Study of Da Nang City, Central Viet Nam

    Thi Thi My Tong (Kyoto University), Rajib Shaw

    Urban schools are frequently marked by high number of poverty, large immigrant
    populations and linguistic diversity, as well as racial and ethnic diversity. Besides, due to
    their more professionalized and centralized character, urban schools tend to reduce their
    power as valuable community resources, resulting to weak collaboration between schools
    and community, which contributes directly to the reduction of educational resilience to
    disaster. This study stresses on the renewal of the role of urban schools from resource to the
    center of disaster risk reduction efforts in community in Da Nang City. Da Nang is one of
    the most vulnerable areas to climate disasters in Central Viet Nam, which has the highest
    urbanization ratio among the provinces and municipalities with only eleven rural communes,
    the fewest of any provincial level unit in Viet Nam. By assessing the external relationships of
    school using the School Disaster Resilience Assessment, this study presents an insight to the
    interrelationships among educational stakeholders in disaster risk reduction. Findings from
    this study provide schools with a tool to foster the vital link between schools and community
    toward the reduction of disaster risks and enhancement of resilience for education system in
    urban areas.



[CS18-7] Disaster prevention and early warning system (2)

    [ Thursday 08 August 10:00-11:30 Room554A ]    Chair(s): Rajib Shaw (Kyoto Univ.), Kaoru Takara (Kyoto Univ. ), Shigeko Haruyama (Mie Univ.)

1) Spatial analysis and prediction of landslide hazards using spatial data mining

    Pai-Hui Hsu (National Taiwan University), Wen-Ray Su

    Due to the particular geographical location and geological condition, Taiwan suffers from many natural hazards which often cause series property damages and life losses. To reduce the damages and losses caused by the natural hazards, an effective real-time system for hazard prediction and prevention is necessary. In the past decades, a large amount of historical hazards data has been collected during the hazard periods. In addition, many different kinds of infrastructural geospatial data are also collected ordinarily by government departments and agencies. How to integrate these data and promote the efficiency for hazard prediction and prevention would be an important issue. In the past years, several methods based on the knowledge discovery and data mining (KDD) have been proposed to extract useful information from massive database in support of decision-making. However, traditional knowledge discovery techniques that ignore spatial correlation typically perform poorly in the presence of geospatial hazard data. The purpose of this study is to retrieve the unknown or unexpected information from massive geospatial data for spatial prediction of landslide hazards using spatial data mining technology. The spatial analysis models used in this paper include the spatial logistical regression, spatial neural networks and decision trees. The experimental results show that the accuracy of landslide locations using spatial data mining is higher than non-spatial methods, and spatial neural networks has the best results than the other methods. The results of spatial landslide prediction are then triggered by rainfall observations and forecasts for early warning.


2) Lesson Learnt from the Training Programs on Post Disaster Impact Assessment and Flood Risk Identification and Management in Sri Lanka

    Rajib Shaw (Kyoto University), Rekha K W G Nianthi

    ADRRN (Asian Disaster Reduction and Response Network) and Kyoto University initiated joint project “Building resilience to tsunami in the Indian Ocean” with support of UN International Strategy for Disaster Reduction (ISDR). In Sri Lanka components, two training programs [Flood Risk Identification and Management (FRIM) and Post Disaster Impact Assessment (PDIA)] were conducted and training modules were developed. Both training programs included theory and field survey components with random sampling in the villages to understand and identify the problems. The main objective of the PDIA research group was to assess the post disaster impacts of tsunami and to examine the perception of the affected people in the study villages. Study identified the various constrain of economic, socio-cultural and environmental issues especially in the post tsunami situation. The main objective of the FRIM study team was to identify the nature, causes and impacts of the flood event in the study villages. Study team concentrated the views and suggestions of the affected people and had identified several issues related to the flood risk management. Public awareness program on post flood response was identified as one of the priority needs at the community level. Poor maintenance of irrigation and drainage systems were also identified as one of the root causes. Most of the participants agreed that the both training programs are very useful and gained the theory knowledge and field based experiences but time duration is insufficient for field surveys, presentations and preparation of the field reports.
    
    Key words: ISDR, IEC, PDIA, FRIM, Tsunami


3) Intensity-duration rainfall thresholds for the initiation of shallow landslide in Taiwan

    Lee Ching-Fang (Sinotech Engineering Consultants, INC.), Lun-Wei Wei, Der-Wei Lau, Wei-Kai Huang, Huang-Kuei Chu, Chuen-Ming Huang, Hsi-Hung Lin, Chung-Chi Chi

    Owing to the highly annual precipitation and typhoon attack, the rainfall induced landslide is a most common geological hazard in Taiwan, causing severe casualties and damages. Although there are lots of engineering measures to prevent the slope from failure, it’s still difficult to evaluate the safety for all dangerous slopes. Determine an applicable rainfall threshold for landslides thus is a crucial issue for disaster prevention. This study divides Taiwan into 15 zones according to the geological settings and investigates more than 619 landslides with accurate occurrence time. Intensity-duration (I-D) graph was used to determine the rainfall threshold for different geological zone. Another 96 historical landslide cases were collected from literature for verifying the critical rainfall thresholds. The result shows that the prediction accuracy for each geological zone is suitable for developing a landslide warning system.


4) The Flood Forecasting Centre, Natural Hazard Partnership and the Hazard Centre; operational early warning and communication services in the UK

    Charlie Pilling (UK Met Office), David Price

    The Flood Forecasting Centre (FFC) is a partnership between the UK Met Office and the Environment Agency, established in 2009, to provide an operational early warning system for flood risk across England and Wales. It was set up following the summer 2007 floods in England and Wales, and the subsequent recommendations of the Pitt review, to provide longer lead times for flooding.
    
    Since 2011, the FFC has delivered its 24/7 forecasting service from the Operations Centre at the Met Office in Exeter, primarily for the emergency response community. During times of heightened flood risk, close communication between the FFC and the Environment Agency Regions allows mobilization and deployment of staff and flood defenses at longer lead times. The FFC provides forecasts for all sources of flooding, namely fluvial, coastal, surface water and groundwater.
    
    This paper presents the methodology used to assess flood risk along with elements of the early warning system employed and how the risk is communicated to emergency responders. Recent example, most notably from the 2012 floods, will be presented. Following the success of the FFC, the Met Office and partners have extended a similar methodology and service under the Natural Hazard Partnership. The operational Hazard Centre which provides an early warning system for these hazards is now based alongside the FFC in the Met Office. Recent developments and future plans will be presented.



[CS18-8] Risk assessment and risk communication (4)

    [ Thursday 08 August 14:00-15:30 Room554A ]    Chair(s): Marek Degorski (Institute of Geography and Spatial Organization, Polish Academy of Sxiences), Shigeko Haruyama (Mie Univ.)

1) Risk assessment of the Mekong delta in the land use change

    Shigeko Haruyama (Mie University)

    The flood variation trend of the lowe part of the Mekong river has been increasing and expanding. The local development for agriculture and urban expansion within land use control and urban sprowl was found in the lowest part of the Mekong Rievr delta. In the view of international conflict between Cambodia and Vietnam, the lowland of this dalta has been more strongly suffered by natural hazard, related with flood, storm surge and typhoon facing to sea level rise connectign with climate change in thie century. The flood assessment of the Mekong delta is important issue for both Vietnam and Cambodia for future local development and security of urban area becasue of different pattern of development and infrastructure constrcution in the absebce of order around urban- rural boundary. In this study, the author tryed to clarify the flood vulnerability on the Mekong river delta using remote sensing copnnecting with GIS. After 1996 mega flood in the delta, the inland delta in Cambodia has been more severe flood, such as, deeper inundation depth and longer inundation period, because of land use change and infrastructure construction in the lower part of Mekong delta in Vietnam. And the author could definite the local variation of flood vulnerability based on geomorphologic land classification map showing flood affected area.


2) Local Community Activities for Disaster Prevention and Mtigation -Lesson from East Japan Great Earthquake and Tsunami 2011-

    Yuji Taresawa (Mie University)

    This research took place in a lower basin of the Abukuma River of three city and towns, named Iwanuma, Watari, and Yamamoto, for understanding local voluntary disaster preventing activities before and in 3.11 Easst Japan Great Earthquake and Tsunami. In Japan, subjects of local disaster prevention have been shifting to smaller subdivisions of communities since 1995 Hanshin Great Earthquake and more than 200 voluntary disaster preventing teams have been organized in the study area as well, however, actual organization and activities of the teams vary widely and their achievements in 3.11 also differed from community to community. Prudent research on social structures, social capitals, organization of hazard preventing team, hazard preventing activities, and actual damage reducing achievements were introduced in early parts of this essay and then decisive factors of effective local hazard preventing are carefully discussed in the latter parts.


3) Geomorphological land classification map of the lower Shonai River for flood risk assessment

    Marju Ben Sayed (Mie University), Shigeko Haruyama

    The flooding is common feature on the lower alluvial plain because of formation of landform on the flood plain repeated floods and we can foretell the accurate flooding zone on the geomorphologic land classification map showing flood affected area. In the view of geomorphologic land classification map of the Shonaigawa river basin, we tried to find out the vulnerable assessment utilizing aerial photographs taken in 1974 with topo-maps by GSI. Regarding assessment accuracy on each micro-landform, we conducted several field investigations with measurement on the surface for classification using GIS. Comparing with flooding area and long inundation zone on the each fluvial landform of our study area, we evaluated the flood risks on the land use/land cover change in the recent 40 years. The lower river basin is mainly composed of natural levee, back marsh, valley plain, conspicuous meandering scroll with abandoned channels. The recent settlements on the lower and middle reach of the Shonaigawa river basin are continuously located along the roads regardless of flood risk due to inundation. Geomorphologic land classification map showing flood inundated area, which is more effective for flood monitoring and mitigation. It can be useful in flood damage evaluation and also assessment the future risk.


4) The Natural Hazards of Myanmar: The Case of Tropical Cyclone Nargis

    Kay Thwe Hlaing (Mie University), Shigeko Haruyama, Maung Maung Aye

    In the statement of the International Disaster Database which publishes the amount of losses during natural disasters across the world, nine cyclones are included in the list of ten disasters with the highest loss in Myanmar between 1900 and 2011. Myanmar which located in environmentally vulnerable Asia is experiencing more natural disasters at an alarming rate. The cyclone has been recorded as the worst disaster in the history of Myanmar due to its immense devastation that resulted in loss of lives and properties including livestock and farming and fishing gears. Destructive cyclones during this time interval included Marlar Cyclone (2006), Akash Cyclone (2007), Nargis (2008), Bigli Cyclone (2009), Giri Cyclone (2010) and 02B Cyclone (2011). Among them, Nargis was the seriously destructive disaster in Myanmar. The country is vulnerable, in particular of its coastal regions, to such low-frequency but high-impact natural hazards of cyclones and storm surges. Likewise, Myanmar needs to undertake a range of actions for reducing, mitigating and managing disaster risks in the future to avoid similar catastrophes. Through advanced planning and investment, both loss of life and the economic impact of disasters can be reduced to certain extent.
    Key Words: Natural hazards, Cyclone ‘Nargis’, vulnerability, disaster risk reduction



[CS18-9] Risk assessment and risk communication (5): Integrating climate change into urban resilience (1)

    [ Thursday 08 August 16:00-17:30 Room554A ]    Chair(s): Yoshiki Yamagata (National Institute for Environmental Studies), Shigeko Haruyama (Mie Univ.), Marek Degorski (Institute of Geography and Spatial Organization, Polish Academy of Sxiences)

1) Integrating climate and disaster risk managements into the urban resilience

    Yoshiki Yamagata (National Institute for Environmental Studies), Hajime Seya, Matsui Kanae, Kumiko Nakamichi, Yoshiki Kinehara, Tsuyoshi Inoue

    The Greater Tokyo Area, being the most populous and economically active metropolitan area in the world, is also regarded as one of the most complex, with its constituents highly connected to each other. The area has experienced numerous major disasters in the past, and the experience has led to advanced measures for disaster mitigation. However, with the possibility of cascading effects across multiple sectors, it is not easy to foresee the overall impact of combination of climate change and disaster risks. In order to address the complex cascading impacts of risks in the Greater Tokyo Area, we review relevant research information, especially focusing on complexity approach. We first review preventive measures against natural and man-made disasters (for example earthquakes, floods, high tides, infections, internet disruptions) including long return periods and extreme events. Then, for the discussion of cascading effects, we consider the complex risks with the interconnected physical and informational infrastructures. We argue their topological properties as a network and their interconnections, both geographical and functional, are critically important. Finally, based on the understanding of interconnectedness of the risks, we discuss about the urban resilience from the complexity science point of view.


2) Spatially explicit urban land-use model for managing climate risks

    Hajime Seya (National Institute for Environmental Studies), Yoshiki Yamagata, Kumiko Nakamichi

    Considering the human induced increase of Green House Gases in the atmosphere in the future, we need to prepare for the climate change impacts with the level of 3-5 degrees increase since the industrial revolution. In the process of urban planning, it is necessary to consider not only the climate change mitigation but also the adaptation measures in combination. The Tokyo metropolitan area, which is still by far the largest Mega-city in the world, is extremely vulnerable against climate risks (ex. flooding) because the large part of assets is concentrating near the bay area. Climate researches project the increase of flooding risks in Tokyo, due to climate change as well as Tsunami from the future big earthquake. We need to consider about the appropriate land-uses that are more resilient against the climate risks. In order to come up with an appropriate urban design in terms of climate risk management, we need a tool that allows us to conduct the city level adaptation planning assessments. For this purpose, we create a new spatially explicit urban land-use model to analyze the benefit and cost of various adaptation measures including land use regulation. The model is tested against various flooding risk scenarios including extreme one, and the relative effectiveness of adaptation measures city is discussed with the case study of the Yokohama city.


3) Prediction of past land use using a spatial filtering approach

    Takahiro Yoshida (University of Tsukuba / National Institute of Environmental Studies), Morito Tsutsumi, Yoshiki Yamagata, Hajime Seya, Daisuke Murakami

    Past land use (LU) maps provide useful information for the evaluation of LU policies or quantitative verification of the effects of urbanization on urban heat islands. However, because of the difficulties in the data preparation, no significant researches have been made for the modeling of past LU. The present study attempted to build a spatial statistical model which predicts past LU. As the data source of past LU, we use the Regional Planning Atlas of Geographical Survey Institute, Japan (from 1880s). Thus far many approaches for modelling LU have been proposed. One of the representative one is using a multinomial logit model, in which the likelihood of each LU category in each zone is explained by some attributes. Because zones close to each other tend to be categorized into the same LU classes, considering spatial dependence among zones is important when applying a multinomial logit model for modeling LU. Some studies have tried doing this using a spatial econometrics technique, but it requires computationally burden iterative calculation to get consistent estimates of parameters. On the contrary, the present study employs spatial filtering framework in which the parameters can be estimated using a standard maximum likelihood method. The obtained results suggest that compared to the conventional non-spatial multinomial logit model approach, the predictive power in terms of AIC is substantially improved by using the spatial filtering. This study is funded by the "Initiative for Strategic Adaptation to Climate Change" project of the Ministry of Education, Culture, Sports, Science and Technology, Japan.


4) Assessment of CO2 emissions under land-use scenarios considering climate mitigation and flood risk adaptation in the Tokyo Metropolitan Area

    Kumiko Nakamichi (National Institute for Environmental Studies (NIES)), Yoshiki Yamagata, Hajime Seya

    The serious efforts on realization of climate change mitigation and adaptation remain an urgent global issue to be solved. In this study, we focus on the adaptation to flood risk, especially considering land use change. As a way of flood disaster prevention, it should be effective that people retreat from flood-hazard areas. Along with this, if retreated people will live in city center and around train stations based on the concept of compact city, one of the mitigation measures, GHG emissions can be reduced. It means climate change mitigation and adaptation is compatible.

    The objective of this study is to project direct/indirect CO 2 emissions under land use scenarios considering compact city and flood risk prevention for the Tokyo Metropolitan Area, Japan in 2050 by using GIS, in order to evaluate both mitigation and adaptation measures. For creating the 2050 scenarios, this study used a spatially explicit land-use model at a local town level. As mitigation measures, we considers not only land use change like a compact city but also the large-scale introduction of electric vehicles (EVs) and photovoltaic (PV) panels on the roof of houses. Indirect emissions based on household’s expenditure are also estimated in addition to emissions considering direct energy consumption. The simulation results suggest that climate change mitigation and adaptation can generate a synergistic effect from the viewpoint of CO 2 emissions.



[CS18-10] Risk assessment and risk communication (6): Integrating climate change into urban resilience (2)

    [ Thursday 08 August 17:30-19:00 Room554A ]    Chair(s): Marek Degorski (Institute of Geography and Spatial Organization, Polish Academy of Sxiences), Yoshiki Yamagata (National Institute for Environmental Studies), Shigeko Haruyama (Mie Univ.)

1) A proposal of dynamic hazard map web application using real-time data by collected delay tolerant network in the disaster situation

    Kanae Matsui (Keio University), Yoshiki Yamagata

    Nowadays, real-time data can be collected by nomadic devices, e.g., smart phones and tablets which has Global Positioning System(GPS). Especially, people would like to know where they should go after a disaster occurred at real-time. A proposed web application has a function to can be checked both digital and static hazard map usually by users, while it also has a function to acquire hazard situation real-time information by delay tolerant network (DTN) and tell people customized information depending people’s position in time of emergency. DTN is a network protocol in not usual situation e.g., occurred a disaster, having too long distance between communicators. We propose a dynamic hazard map system using DTN and ICT technology to provide information like where is a shelter nearby, a load which people can walk or cars can drive. Real-time information would be mapped a static hazard map and map can be changed following the changing situations. Additionally, the application has a function to acquire people in the disaster provide information. The map can show the information people, who understand real situation more than people positioning in the other sides, provide. To keep providing safety information to people in the disaster, the database side processes real-time data and exclude disinformation. We aim to establish the application 1) to handle real-time data acquired by DTN, 2) to provide a customized dynamic hazard map information depending on people’s position, 3) to acquire real-time information provided by people in the disaster and mapped it to the hazard map.


2) Community-based Disaster Resilient Electricity Sharing System(DRESS): Simulation case study in Yokohama

    Yoshiki Yamagata (National Institute for Environmental Studies), Hajime Seya

    After the 2011 Tohoku earth quake in Japan, there is urgent social interest on the renewable energy based urban system that is resilience from a multiple perspectives including those from the disasters in addition to conventional environmental sustainability. The modeling of urban systems for achieving disaster resilience is an important challenges faced by environmental researchers and local planners in Japan. This paper propose a new framework, the disaster resilient electricity sharing system (DRESS), contribute to design cooperative use of Photo Voltaic (PV) based renewable electricity by charging it to Electric Vehicle (EV). Using our newly developed land use- transport-energy model, we conduct assessments of disaster resilience of such systems at the Mega-city and local community level against possible big risks such as earthquake, flooding and climate change in Yokohama city, Japan. A social clustering of urban districts is tested using spatial and temporal changes of carbon neutral electricity demand and supply variables for achieving the balance in electricity sharing communities. The supply-demand fluctuations are also simulated for several type of disturbances as a first step towards establishing measures for the risk assessment and communication.


3) Hedonic analysis of flooding risk in Tokyo using a spatial econometric model with endogenous explanatory variables

    Hajime Seya (National Institute for Environmental Studies), Shou Kuroda, Daisuke Murakami, Yoshiki Yamagata, Morito Tsutsumi

    Experiencing the Great East Japan Earthquake (GEJE) off the Pacific coast of Tohoku in 2011, which caused devastating damage to Japan, designing future resilient cities, with reduced disaster vulnerability, has become one of the urgent tasks for urban researchers and practitioners in Japan. To achieve this purpose, disaster risk of real estate must be evaluated as economic values. Hence this paper tests the effects of flooding risk on condominium prices using a spatial hedonic approach in which spatial autocorrelation among property values and attributes are explicitly considered. Spatial econometric models (SEMs) are well-known to reduce omitted variable biases, and recently have employed in many applied researches. However, the practical difficulties in applying spatial econometric models include the specification of the spatial weight matrix (SWM), which affects the final analysis results. The present paper first extends the automatic model specification approach termed Trans dimensional simulated annealing (TDSA) algorithm for the selection of both explanatory variable and SWM. Next, using the specified model, it empirically tests the implicit prices of flooding risk indexes using spatial econometric models with endogenous explanatory variables. The obtained results suggest that the effect of river flood index is significantly negative in the case with a conventional non-spatial model, whereas it is not significant at even 10 % level if SEM with endogenous explanatory variables is used. This result suggests the importance of considering omitted variable and the effectiveness of SEMs.


4) Spatial Flooding Hazard Indices using Sensor Networks: Requirement Analysis for Flooding Risk Management

    Kei Hiroi (Keio University/National Instutute of Environmental Studies), Hitoshi Yokoyama, Hideki Sunahara, Yoshiki Yamagata

    People in the flooding risk area need disaster information to reduce damages such as precipitation data and river levels. For the purpose, we need to further develop flooding hazard information networks (e.g., observation networks and information infrastructure). Observed data of weather sensor networks and radar networks are not necessarily corresponding to the actual damages. The discrepancy causes recognition difficulty of flooding risks. Additionally, river monitoring networks have not enough observation point of the river level. Therefore, insufficiencies of the hazard information prevent local residents from estimating the risks in a timely manner. They are unable to avert danger in flood disaster situations. In this research, we propose a disaster management networks system for recognizing more accurate flooding risk situation by generating and distributing spatial hazard indices for flood risks. The hazard indices estimate disaster damages according to locational rainfall and river level information. By trying to delineate common necessary information from surveys of heavy rains and flash floods, we discuss about the issue of current disaster information networks and future requirements for the new hazard indices.



[CS18-11] Risk assessment and risk communication (1)

    [ Wednesday 07 August 16:00-17:30 Room554A ]    Chair(s): Rajib Shaw (Kyoto Univ.), Shigeko Haruyama (Mie Univ.), Marek Degorski (Institute of Geography and Spatial Organization, Polish Academy of Sxiences)

1) Roles of Geographic Clarification on Disaster Risk Reduction Technology Databases

    Yukiko Takeuchi (Kyoto University)

    This study discuss about role of disaster risk reduction technology databases for tradable of geographical information. For disaster risk reduction, risk assessment and risk communication has important roles. However, without information database and education about risk difficult establish risk assessment and risk communication. Therefore, disaster risk information is important contents for disaster risk reduction.
    DRH (Disaster Reduction Hyperbase) is disaster risk reduction technology databases and it was established 2005. DRH constitute from three types technology of IOT (Implementation Oriented Technology), PT (Process Technology) and TIK (Transferable Indigenous Knowledge). Especially, TIK has many essence of geographical. Indigenous knowledge has been practiced in communities over time. Some indigenous knowledge has been orally transmitted, and some are documented by local organizations sporadically. People and communities have developed their coping mechanisms over time, which is reflected in indigenous knowledge. And indigenous knowledge effected local issue and environments. Therefore, indigenous knowledge has geographical essence than other risk information and technology.
    Generally, transfer of knowledge is by oral and /or writing inside community and family. For daily life, disaster is low frequency activity. Therefore, that information sometime became history and people forget that. Through develop and use of disaster risk reduction technology databases, which indigenous knowledge can transfer to other generation and other areas. But, for developing and using of those databases, education is important system.
    An aim of this study is that discuss about role of geographic clarification on disaster risk reduction technology databases, DRH.


2) Resilience through Religion: Faith-Based Organizations as Risk Communicators in Bandung, Indonesia

    Farah Mulyasari (Graduate School of Global Environmental Studies, Kyoto University), Rajib Shaw

    Disaster risk communication is a fundamental part of disaster management. Knowing whom the senders and receivers are, what the necessary risk information are, and how to appropriately convey risk information to trigger actions towards risk reduction still remains a challenge. This study addresses the role of Faith-Based Organizations (FBOs) of Bandung, Indonesia as risk communicators through a risk communication framework. A set of indicators in social, economic, and institutional resilience activities (SIERA), with a scope of 45 activities covering three different disaster periods was developed to characterize the delivery process of risk information by FBOs through their activities at the sub-district and the ward levels. The data was collected through a questionnaire survey method using the SIERA approach. FBOs’ leaders at wards were surveyed concerning their perceptions on these 45 scopes of SIERA, on going activities, and their risk information sources and dissemination processes. Correlation analysis was applied to determine the relationship between the variables such as periods of disaster, types of activities (social, institutional, economic), and attributing factors (location, population, and education institution) in finding variations of risk communication activity for communities. Five types of risk communication processes were identified. These indicate that the daily activities of FBO have a certain degree of risk communication. The results confirm that FBOs fulfill the role of risk communicators through their religious activities. Through this they are active agents of change in contributing to the risk communication process to enhance community resilience.


3) Risk assessment of water scarcity: Perspective from salinity, arsenic and drought impacts in southwestern part of Bangladesh

    Md. Anwarul Abedin (Graduate School of Global Environmental Studies, Kyoto University), Rajib Shaw

    In the recent years, safe water is one of the limiting factors that impede sustainable development. Many countries in the world already face severe water scarcity. But, in Bangladesh case, the southwestern part is tremendously experiencing the safe drinking water scarcity due to salinity intrusion along with groundwater arsenic contamination and drought. Hence, an exploratory study is carried out two districts of southwestern part in Bangladesh namely Khulna and Satkhira. The assessment of water scarcity is done through two different questionnaire applied at institutional level and household level, respectively. Firstly, it develops a holistic approach called “SIPE” that aims to determine safe water adaptability considering physicochemical, socio-economical, environmental and institutional aspects in the study area and secondly, it finds out the water scarcity impact on communities and their adaptation actions. The findings from the SIPE approach show the overall adaptability scores that range from 2.16 to 3.13 indicating low to medium levels of safe water adaptability among 16 sub-districts of those two districts. On the other hand, it reveals water scarcity impacts; adaptation measures and expectation of communities from the institutions. Based on these two assessments, this study tries to link all these issues and to develop safe water adaptability action plan that can be tailored through national level to community level.
    
    Keywords: Risk assessment, water scarcity, salinity-arsenic-drought, southwestern Bangladesh


4) Youth Participation in Disaster Risk Reduction in Makati, Philippines: A Social Network Analysis

    Glenn Fiel Fernandez (Kyoto University), Rajib Shaw

    A community’s ability to prepare for, respond to, and recover from disasters is to some extent dependent on the strength of its social networks. Greater understanding of the ways individuals and organizations are interconnected and how these components share information and resources is expected to result in more effective use of social networks to build community resilience against disasters. Social Network Analysis (SNA) is the identification and characterization of the relationships and attributes of members, key actors, and groups that compose social networks. To investigate how the Filipino youth are actually embedded in social networks involved in disaster risk reduction (DRR), data is gathered through questionnaire surveys and interviews among Sangguniang Kabataan (youth council) officials and members in the barangays (villages) of Makati City, Philippines. Graphical representations of individual network members (nodes) such as the youth councils, barangay councils, barangay DRR committees, city government agencies, various NGOs, business associations, religious organizations, and other school-based and community-based youth organizations, and their linkages and interactions (ties) are constructed for the different phases in the disaster cycle to document and understand the extent of youth participation in preparing for, responding to, and recovering from disasters. Using what is learned from SNA, necessary interventions can be developed to enhance youth participation in DRR. This present study tries to contribute in adding to the growing research on the practical application of SNA in the area of disaster risk reduction.



[CS18-12] Risk assessment and risk communication (2)

    [ Thursday 08 August 08:00-09:30 Room554B ]    Chair(s): Sue-Ching Jou (National Taiwan Univ.), Shigeko Haruyama (Mie Univ.), Marek Degorski (Institute of Geography and Spatial Organization, Polish Academy of Sxiences)

1) Conventional partnership for future Disaster Recovery: Urban for rural and rural for urban

    Nitin Kumar Srivastava (Graduate School of Global Environmental Studies/ Kyoto University), Rajib Shaw

    The circumstances under which the urban-rural linkages, in a region, advance, retard or remain neutral due to development process, also play an important role in providing opportunity for innovative ways for recovery and reconstruction, potentially with minimum intervention and wider benefits. Urban rural areas have symbiotic relationship. For example, disruptions to urban economies due to disasters may affect the demand for goods and services from peri-urban areas and reduce the flow of remittances to rural areas. On the other hand, disasters in peri-urban and rural areas may stimulate an increased influx into urban areas (including small urban centers), as rural people who were already experiencing livelihood stress chose to rebuild where they see better prospects for future. The paper analyzes the key components of livelihoods and local economies in Gujarat state of India, taking the case of chronic disaster of coastal salinity in Junagadh district. It throws light on the individual and community coping strategies to tackle the disaster and to identify the livelihood links between urban, peri-urban and rural areas. The methodology would involve identifying the ‘vulnerable occupations’ and enhancing the ‘occupational resilience’, thereby minimizing the impacts. The paper highlights the result that with varying scale of geographical areas, the urban rural linkages act differently against the disasters. The paper ultimately underlines that urban-rural linkage are important in the wake of increased vulnerability, thereby necessitate a shift from recent ‘isolated’ approach to traditional ‘integrated’ development approach of the whole region.


2) Spatial Methodologies for the Analysis of Vulnerability in Urban Areas - A Case Study for Terrorism in Tokyo, Japan

    Konstantin Greger (University of Tsukuba)

    The geographic analysis of crime risk, criminogenic factors and their spatial influence has gained legitimate interest in the past, most notably by the increased popularity in the Risk Terrain Modeling (RTM) methodology by Caplan & Kennedy. Our research is an attempt to apply this concept to the analysis of vulnerability in urban areas. In the course of this effort we developed a generic Spatial Urban Vulnerability Analysis (SUVA) framework. The aim is to analyze the distribution of vulnerability in space based on the attributes of the objects defining that space (such as people, buildings, and infrastructures).
    
    This paper is a case study of an application of the SUVA framework in a central area in Tokyo, Japan. First we outline the underlying vulnerability concept, which consists of two factors: susceptibility and disutility. Then we explain the general SUVA framework and analysis methodologies. In the next part we briefly introduce the study area, present the selected vulnerability factors for this case study, and explain their selection process. This is followed by a detailed description of the operationalization of the vulnerability factors using spatial and non-spatial methodologies. We move on to the object-based vulnerability maps and the calculation and visualization of the vulnerability factors' spatial influence. Lastly we combine the single factor maps to a comprehensive vulnerability map of the study area. We conclude the paper with an evaluation of possible target audiences and the overall usefulness of the presented methodology.


3) The 2011 Tohoku Tsunami: analyzing the evacuation of the survivors

    Angela Santos (Instituto de Geografia e Ordenamento do Territorio, Lisbon University), Queiros Margarida

    The 2011 Tohoku Tsunami caused about 20,000 fatalities, but many people were able to escape from the tsunami. The objectives of this study are to understand what the coastal communities did before the tsunami arrived, and how these lessons could be used to mitigate future tsunamis.
    The survivors’ accounts were compiled from NHK Sendai online and NHK Morioka online daily news. In this study 197 videos were analyzed broadcasted from May 2011 till July 2012. 2% of the witnesses evacuated due to the tsunami warning system. 5% were fire-fighters who are in charge of closing the coastal gates. 4% evacuated to higher ground due to the local wireless disaster prevention system. 35% evacuated to the designated refuge areas due to disaster prevention measures. 7% of the survivors evacuated safely because they remembered past tsunamis. About 21% of the witnesses took action by their own, like driving a car to pick up relatives. Some witnesses evacuated because family and neighbors told them to escape, corresponding to 8 % of the accounts. However, about 22% of the witnesses didn’t evacuate.
    This study shows that although many people didn’t evacuate, the knowledge about historical tsunamis, combined with the regular practice of drills is an important disaster prevention tool. In addition, the bonds between family and neighbors show to be effective in the evacuation. With these measures, even when an extreme situation occurs and no high tech information is available it is still possible to save many lives.


4) Surface and subterranean water interaction in catastrophic flood and mudflow for a river mountain basin: basic principles for risk assessment

    Sergey Martirosovich Arakelian (Stoletov Vladimir State University), Tatiana Anatolievna Trifonova, Mileta Martirosovna Arakelian

    The concept suggested is based on the following major principles.
     First, there is a close interconnection between surface and subterranean water in each particular area. Subterranean water involvement in the development of catastrophic phenomena, like a flood and/or mudflow, is a principal point; the atmospheric precipitations may not be a dominant factor although they play the role of a releasing mechanism.
     Second, the participation of subterranean water in the surface phenomena depends on the indivisible structure of the river water basin in a particular landscape including both surface river beds and the system of subterranean water horizons at various depths.
     Third, the rate of surface and subterranean water interconnection and their joint action depend on a specific state of cracks and crack properties, i.e. of mountain rocks, and of the locality geological structure as a whole which is a dynamic system and is subject to permanent changes.
     Fourth, the factors are mainly dependent on the non-uniformity of mountain rocks and on common physical-mechanical and dynamic processes of deformation and destruction of solids at both macro- and micro- levels.
     Fifth, the availability of cracks in the mountain rock determines not only a water stream namely but also a solid crushed mass both coming upwards to surface due to pressure difference and vibrations having both natural and anthropogenic reasons.
     We suggest a mathematical model of the mudflow arising and spreading out based on the conception of non-linear hydrodynamics of the wave processes development with forming of solitons for transported water/mud-rock masses.



[CS18-13] Risk assessment and risk communication (3)

    [ Thursday 08 August 10:00-11:30 Room554B ]    Chair(s): Sue-Ching Jou (National Taiwan Univ.), Shigeko Haruyama (Mie Univ.), Marek Degorski (Institute of Geography and Spatial Organization, Polish Academy of Sxiences)

1) Implementation of Methods of Mathematical Morphology and Remote Sensing for Studying Thermokarst Processes and Risk Assessment

    Veronika Nikolaevna Kapralova (Sergeev Institute of Environmental Geoscience Russian Academy of Sciences (IEG RAS))

    Thermokarst is one of geocryological processes especially sensitive to anthropogenic intervention and climatic changes.
    Many researches study thermokarst processes, but statistical methods are less studied, in particular we may tell it about analysis of quantitative aspects of thermokarst processes.
    Within the framework of this work an attempt has been made to solve 2 problems:
    - analyze regularity of structure and dynamics of the morphological structures associated with thermokarst;
    - risk assessment of impact by thermokarst processes on linear engineering structures.
    In our work we use a method of mathematical morphology of a landscape - a branch of landscape science, investigating quantitative laws of landscape mosaics and methods of the mathematical analysis of these mosaics.
    Theoretical basis of mathematical morphology of a landscape is formed by mathematical models of morphological structures - the quantitative dependences describing basic properties of morphological structures. Canonical initial mathematical models play a special role in mathematical morphology of a landscape. They deal with the patterns developed in uniform conditions at constancy of major factors of landscape differentiation and developed under unique process.
    The equations of the mathematical model of a morphological pattern for thermokarst lake plains were used for the data analysis and forecast constructions. They represent combination of the probabilistic mathematical relations reflecting the most essential geometrical features of the pattern.
    The researches have also big practical value because with the help of this model it is possible to give the forecast of risks for linear, areal, and point objects.


2) Comparison of interpretation of geohazards using airborne and space images for monitoring of line structures

    Timofey Orlov (Sergeev Institute of Environmental Geoscience RAS (IEG RAS))

    Introduction
    Linear constructions such as railways, roads, pipelines are built in different environments nowadays. Different exogenous geohazards like fluvial erosion, bogging, flooding, karst, thermokarst are among the main threats for functioning of linear constructions. Remote sensing are useful in environmental monitoring of linear constructions due to their significant length and inaccessibility. Nevertheless, advantages and limitations for different types of remote sensing are not examined properly for linear constructions under exogenous geohazards.
    The aim of this issue is to compare the advantages and limitations of airborne and space images for environmental monitoring of exogenous geohazards at linear constructions of permafrost zone.
    The study was conducted on new built part of linear construction in East Siberia at mountain taiga and tundra zones on the south border of permafrost area.
    Materials and methods
    There were used multispectral space images (0,5-2 m/pix), and scanner airborne images (0,2 m/pix).
     There were picked out nine representative sites with total length 45 km.
    Results
    Percentage of detected geohaza rd spots using space images is 36% (in comparison with airborne images), but for several types of geohazard spots percentage is equal 100%. At the same time total spread (along the linear construction) of geohazard spots detected on space images is 62%. Fluvial erosion and bogging have the lowest detection level on space images.
    Conclusion
    
    1. Using space images provides for 70% of geohazard spots, but main spots and geohazard spread is same as airborne;
    2. Using airborne image allows us to detect the bigger volume of geohazard spots.


3) Some Geomorphic Changes in Ayeyarwady River: Planform Channel Dynamic of Lower Ayeyarwady River near Seiktha Area

    Nay Win Oo (University of Yangon)

    Several observations including recent satellite and topographical data have helped in the understanding the Ayeyarwady river morphology. Major flood events have occurred on the lower Ayeyarwady River, a channel shift from the low flows and moderate floods. This study uses topographic maps, satellite images and Geographic Information System analysis to examine the planform channel response of the upper Ayeyarwady River near Seiktha Area to this recently altered hydrology. Results indicate that channel contraction has been the dominant planform process in recent decades, but periodic floods resulted in channel expansion or likely reduced the channel contraction measured between 1944 and 2010. This historical study provides insight into how floods affect the channel system that provides maintaining river system and minimizing flood damage of the Ayeyarwady River delta through intentional flood flows.

    Key words: River morphology, channel change, Ayeyarwady River delta, GIS


4) Tsunami numerical simulation at Fukushima Daiichi and Daini nuclear power plants due to the 2011 Tohoku Tsunami

    Angela Santos (Instituto de Geografia e Ordenamento do Territorio, Lisbon University), Nuno Fonseca

    Immediately after the earthquake the Fukushima Daiichi nuclear power plant (F1npp) stopped production. When the tsunami inundated the facility caused permanent damage on the plant, triggering a massive blackout on the Tohoku region and the nuclear accident. However, at the Fukushima Daini nuclear power plant (F2npp), which is located about 11 km south of F1npp, only the heat exchanger building level was inundated by the tsunami and therefore did not stop production.
    The objectives of this study are to carry out the tsunami numerical simulation in order to calculate the inundation depth (ID) and inundation areas (IA) at the F1npp and F2npp, and to understand the reasons for such a disaster at F1npp while the F2npp continued to operate.
    The tsunami source model was validated by travel times (recorded at JMA tide gauge stations and by the witnesses’ accounts on the affected areas), and by the results obtained from other authors.
    The numerical model results show the tsunami hit the Fukushima nuclear facilities at about 53 minutes after the earthquake. The ID at F1npp had a maximum of about 5 m, with direct impact of the tsunami waves, while the F2npp reactor buildings were not inundated. The IA reached an extension of about 650 m at F1npp, engulfing the reactor buildings, being one of the reasons for the nuclear accident. The IA at F2npp reached a maximum of about 900m on its surroundings; the reactor buildings were not directly affected by the tsunami waves but with the inflow currents.



[CS18-14] Disaster risk and conflict (1)

    [ Thursday 08 August 14:00-15:30 Room554B ]    Chair(s): Shizuka Hashimoto (Kyoto Univ.), Shigeko Haruyama (Mie Univ.), Doracie Zoleta-Nantes (Australian National Univ. )

1) Hydrological Assessment of the Bago River Basin using Remote Sensing and Geographic Information Systems

    Kay Thwe Hlaing (Mie University), Shigeko Haruyama, Maung Maung Aye

    The upper part of the Bago watershed has changed rapidly from closed forest to open forest land in the 1990s. In recent years, the inundations in rural area and urbanized areas of the Bago River Basin have been increasing. Therefore flood simulations are important in studying flood inundation process in flood prone areas including: plain areas, residential areas or urban areas etc. The purpose of this research is to provide on land cover types and land cover changes that have taken place in the last 10 years, to integrate visual interpretation with supervised classification using Remote Sensing (RS) and Geographic Information Systems (GIS) technologies, and to examine the capabilities of integrating remote sensing and GIS in studying the spatial distribution of different land cover changes. Basin area map, areal rainfall map, slope map, closed forest type map, flow accumulation value map and modified regional flood equation II for 1990 and 2000 which are written as sub program, are compiled with surface modeling in ArcGis 9.2 software to develop Hydrologic Model for the Bago River Basin. After the compilation of ArcGIS 9.2 software, the flooding areas are simulated in Bago watershed using Hydrologic Model. The simulations of flooding areas in Bago watershed are increased from 1990 to 2000. The high changes of flooded basins are the lower Paingkyun Chaung basin (20 km2), the Lagonpyin basin (20 km2) and the lower Bago basin(270 km2) from 1990 and 2000.
    Keywords: Land cover, rainfall, slope, flood control model, RS and GIS


2) Intermediary Organizations and Knowledge Transfer in the Integrated Watershed Management

    Sue-Ching Jou (National Taiwan University), Yu-Ping Wu

    Conflict management is a key to enhance stakeholder partnerships in integrated watershed management. However, asymmetric information and knowledge among stakeholders tends to hinder effective communication and negotiation to achieve collaborative governance in watershed management. This paper aims to explore the role of intermediary organizations in mediating local knowledge and expert knowledge on flood risk control at the local level, by using Wan River flood prevention projects as case study. Though the case study area is a rural village located adjacent to the Taipei Metropolitan Area, stakeholders involved in its flood control projects are not confined in local scale and the issues involved are not limited in flood prevention either. Two types of intermediary organizations, both are outsiders, play important role in transforming the communication mode between the public sector and the private sector into a participatory one. They also try to bridge the gap between the local knowledge and expert knowledge in watershed management and local development. These experiences and processes are worthy of further conceptualization for discussing the knowledge transfer and mediation among multiple stakeholders in integrated watershed management.


3) Risk Map for Coastal Erosion in the Red River Delta, Vietnam

    Mizue Murooka (Abashiri Fisheries Research Institute), Yasuhiro Kuwahara, Shigeko Haruyama, Ayako Funabiki

    Introduction

    In recent years, the southern region of the Red River Delta, Northern Vietnam has increased in population density. Intensive cultivation has brought about remarkable land use change. Coastal erosion in the Red River Delta damages the villages and the crops. In this study, risk map of the coastal erosion was made for sustainable land use.
    
    


    
    Method

     To investigate the coastline change for 5 years when coastal erosion accelerated remarkably, 8 sheets of JERS-1/SAR images taken from 1994 to 1998 were collected. The authors suggested the method of Coastal Dynamics Index (CDI), which measured the distance in km from the coastline of 1994. Additionally, the authors measured the bank locality and height and the height of land and got a land use map in the provincial government offices in the field research. The risk map now could be built by integrating those 4 major factors: CDIs, bank locality, and height of land, land use. Based on the above 4 items, 74 meshes in 500m squares were defined using the cluster analysis of UPGMA (Unweighted Pair-Group Method using Arithmetic averages).
    
    


    
    Result

    The final risk map shows the coastal areas such as Giao Thuy, Hai Hau, and Hoang Hoa are the most dangerous places - they have the highest probability to encounter the land loss problem in the near future. The risks of deposition area are also higher than inland area because they are easily affected by the coastal erosion as well as coastal erosion area.



[CS18-15] Disaster risk and conflict (2)

    [ Thursday 08 August 16:00-17:30 Room554B ]    Chair(s): Shigeko Haruyama (Mie Univ.), Doracie Zoleta-Nantes (Australian National Univ. )

1) Flood Risk Assessment of Kumozu Fluvial Plain in Mie Prefecture, Japan

    Mayumi Matsumoto (Mie university graduate school of Bioresources), Shigeko Haruyama

    Generally speaking, geomorphological land classification map is showing flood affected zone and enabled to foretell vulnerable zone of each inundation level. Indicating the relief features of fluvial plain, sedimentation structure of each landform has been formed by historical floods and the micro- topography and state of sand and gravel accumulation should tell us the long history of floods. In this study, we prepared geomorphological land classification map and several historic land-use maps for evaluating the flood risk assessment in the middle and lower basin of the Kumozu River. Analyzing geomorphological evolution on this fluvial plain, land form classification map is showing the following landforms; mountainous area, four river terraces formed in Pleistocene, alluvial fans along the main and branch, natural levees with back swamps, valley plain, delta with sand dune and artificial landfill area. Sand dune, sand bar and former river courses are common. Comparing with land use change on the land form series, the delta with sand dune has been changed for urban fringes and development of urban use. We can evaluate the high risk area of the inundation area of the flood over estimation of flood return periods on flood prevention. Regarding to retarding zone along the river, comprehensive flood control method should be important and open levee system would be more adopted for mitigation of flooding in this fluvial plain. The other, we made the evaluation for vulnerable zoning on each landform.


2) Tsunami preparedness of coastal municipalities of Japan faced with the risk of the megathrust earthquakes of the Nankai trough

    Shizuka Hashimoto (Kyoto University), Kento Suzuki, Satoshi Hoshino, Yasuaki Kuki

    The Central Disaster Management Council of Japan under the Cabinet Office predicted in 2003 that Tokai, Tonankai and Nankai earthquakes could occur simultaneously along the megathrust of the Nankai trough. The Cabinet Office issued a revised forecast on this triple earthquake in August, 2012, which reported that 11 prefectures could be struck by a tsunami of 10 meters or higher and an earthquake with a seismic intensity 7, leading to the death and missing of 323 thousand people, of which 230 thousand or 71% of the total is the victim of tsunami in the worst case scenario. There is a growing concern about the preparation for tsunami in those areas. In this study, we investigated the tsunami preparedness of coastal municipalities of Japan, paying special attention to those with the risk of the megathrust earthquakes of the Nankai trough. The questionnaire survey was conducted between October and November 2012 targeting government officials of all the 359 municipalities estimated to experience a tsunami of 3 meters in the revised forecast, of which 186 municipalities responded. The measures taken by the majority of respondents since March 11, 2011 included expansion of disaster drill and education, revision of regional disaster prevention plan, expansion of mutual assistance agreement, formulation/revision of tsunami hazard map, introduction of disaster radio system. However, the majority of respondents pointed out that they were also faced with manpower shortage and lack of budget. Further results based on the classification of respondent municipalities will be delivered in the presentation.



[CS18-16] Climate-related risk and hazard in the 21st century (1) (Joint session with the Commission on Climatology)

    [ Wednesday 07 August 10:00-11:30 Room554B ]    Chair(s): Jun Matsumoto (Tokyo Metropolitan Univ.), Shigeko Haruyama (Mie Univ.)

1) Impact of river floods on human activity

    Sergey Govorushko (Pacific Geographical Institute)

    Yearly number of river floods reaches approximately 10,000. About 1 billion people reside on periodically flooded territories, while the land area affected by floods is about 3 million square kilometres on the Earth. The following causes of floods have been identified: (1) melting of snow; (2) abundant rainfall; (3) joint action of melting of snow and rainfall; (4) breaches of rock-dammed lakes; (5) failure of dams; (6) ablation due to different reasons (sudden warming, volcanic eruptions, etc.); (7) wind-induced setups in river mouths; (8) spring ice jams; (9) autumn ice jams.
    Flood damage is determined by the following parameters: (1) flooding depth (the higher the water level, the greater the number of damaged structures, property); (2) flow velocity, which affects the carrying and eroding capacities of the watercourse; (3) thickness of loose deposits remaining beyond the limits of the riverbed after the water recedes (expenses for their removal can form a considerable part of losses related to floods); and (4) water rise rate (the slower the rise in water levels, the greater the possibilities for protection of property and populations).
    River floods affect most economic entities and kinds of human activity. Among the most vulnerable are (1) industrial and civil engineering; (2) crop production; (3) livestock farming; (4) transport; (5) bridges; (6) aquaculture; (7) fisheries; and (8) forestry. Annual average losses from river floods are between US$20 and 25 billion, while the annual average mortality reaches 10,000 people.


2) Application of climate change projection for promoting a local agriculture and water management

    Motoki Nishimori (National Insittute for Agro-Environmental Sciences), Shinjiro Kanae, Makito Mori, Motomasa Sakata, Masahiro Murakami

    Economic structure of Kochi Prefecture which is located in the southwestern part of Japan may be drastically shifted by climate change effects and their adaptation measures. The reasons are those that the economy strongly depend on the primary industries and are influenced by climate conditions such as the frequency changes of typhoon and heavy rain. Therefore, we have planned the research project that integrally implements dynamical and statistical downscalings and developments of simulation technologies for climate change adaptations. They are also essential for planning strategic estimations and policies for climate change of Kochi Pref. that has complicated topography and various land use.
    First, precipitation output of dynamical climate models are statistically downscaled in the major catchments of dam basins, and the downscaled data are input into the run-off simulation model there. Then, the storage capacities of the dam reservoirs were projected by reproducing operation of the dams. For agriculture, an innovative environmental simulator for plastic gardening greenhouse to investigate the influences of yield and quality of local special crops are assembled. A technology to estimate rice yield and protein content affecting the taste of rice, especially for Koshihikari (a most popular early-ripening variety in Japan) is also established. These technologies are regarded as a useful tool to offer adaptation strategies for choosing covering materials of the greenhouse and optimum locations and suggesting water temperature control and fertilizer applications. In this way, we use our own climate change scenarios to adaptive simulation technologies for agriculture and water managements.


3) Post-disaster Recovery Needs of Households Affected by the 2012 Floods in Zamfara State, Nigeria

    John Gambo Laah (Ahmadu Bello University), Edwin Osawe Iguisi

    Deaths and destructions as a result of flooding have become common phenomena in the world especially in developing countries. Nigeria has been experiencing urban floods almost on annual basis in virtually all the thirty six states and the Federal Capital Territory (FCT), Abuja. However, the unprecedented 2012 floods exposed the unpreparedness of the Nigerian state to cope with natural disasters and called to question the effectiveness of the traditional remediation methods and the national flood control infrastructure. The 2012 Nigeria’s floods led to the loss of human lives and disruptions in the economic pursuits of millions of Nigerians. This paper aims at analyzing the needs of households recovering from floods disaster. A structure questionnaire was administered to 378 persons in nine (9) flood resettlement camps/centres spread over six (6) Local Government Areas (LGAs) of Zamfara State. The results highlighted the traditional coping strategies of the flood victims. The data revealed that majority of the people affected by the 2012 floods were rural dwellers. The major post-disaster recovery needs of the people were food and water. Respondents agreed that floods have become more intense and regular because of climate change phenomenon and the abandonment of traditional remediation practices. The paper recommends that government at all levels need to create the enabling environment to ensure the improvement on modern and traditional flood control infrastructure. Also, there is need for an urgent shift from the relief-dependent attitudes of the people towards a medium and long term disaster risk reduction management and planning.



[CS18-17] Climate-related risk and hazard in the 21st century (2) (Joint session with the Commission on Climatology)

    [ Wednesday 07 August 14:00-15:30 Room554B ]    Chair(s): Marek Degorski (Institute of Geography and Spatial Organization, Polish Academy of Sxiences), Jun Matsumoto (Tokyo Metropolitan Univ.), Shigeko Haruyama (Mie Univ.)

1) Climate change and hazards in Central Asia: Risk patterns in Khorezm region of Uzbekistan and implications for Disaster Risk Reduction in rural areas

    Mariya Ivanova Aleksandrova (Ca Foscary University, Venice)

    Hazard risk is shaped by environmental, socioeconomic and governance features throughout the geographical space. Thus, deep understanding of the regional and sub-regional determinants of exposure and vulnerability is critical for risk mapping. The Central Asia region is considered as highly exposed to various natural hazards, such as earthquakes, droughts and floods. Furthermore, the observed and expected climate changes warn for increasing frequency and severity of hydro-meteorological extreme events. At the same time the post-Soviet transition process in the region is challenging socioeconomic and political environment for disaster risk governance. Yet, the existing literature is limited in addressing issues such as disaster impacts, resilience, and preparedness in the Central Asian context.
    With the aim at contributing to the regional research on disaster risk, the study presents insights from the patterns of risk of extremes in Khorezm region of Uzbekistan. The research focuses on the rural livelihoods in the area, which are highly dependent on irrigation-based agriculture (over 90%) and significantly sensitive to water scarcity. Only for the period 2000-2012 the extreme droughts, characterized with water availability in the range of 40-60% of the long-term average, occurred four times and caused severe socioeconomic impacts. In order to enhance action towards rural resilience, the study presents droughts frequency analysis and profiles the rural exposure to extreme droughts. Furthermore, it outlines the determinants of the local hazard risk through the lens of Disaster Risk Reduction framework. The study further links the local risk patterns with the Central Asia regional challenges of the 21st century.


2) Assessment of Climate Change Associated Disasters, Adaptations and Apportunities in Gashua Geographical Area

    Muhammad Alhaji (Kano University of Science and Technology Wudil kano state), Ibrahim Badamasi Lambu

    ABSTRACT
    The paper focused on assessment on climate change associated disasters, adaptations and resources for future opportunities based on human perceptions. The data was collected via field observation and structured interviews at the onset of the rainy season of 2011. The result revealed that, drought, wind storm, heat wave, hamattan dust, tree biodiversity reduction, flood and out-break of some heat related meningitis are among the major disasters aggravating the social well-beings of the populace. Among the reasons perceived for the disasters were massive deforestation, overgrazing due to communal resource feeling, nearness to desert, poverty, and societal immorality .Field observation revealed that, the inhabitants have adapted to the environmental challenges by practicing irrigation, fishing, rearing livestock, seasonal regional and local migration to southern Nigeria, reverting to traditional architectures, planting exotic tree species, civil service and intensive prayers for Divine intervention in their various religious gatherings. The study recommends among others, Agro- forestry intensification practice using drought- resistant tree species and massive participatory rural- integrated projects towards improvement of social amenities, economic diversification through collaboration of NGOS, CBOS and local authorities, for the ample dry land resources-based opportunities witnessed in the study area.
    Key words: Perception, Hamattan, NGOS, CBOS, Devine, Participatory.


3) A proposal for a methodological approach to the assessment of vulnerability

    Florent Renard (Universite Jean Moulin Lyon 3 - CNRS UMR 5600), Pierre-Marie Chapon

    Risk management has long been focused on the control of hazards. However, it is now moving towards an attempt to reduce vulnerability and improve resilience. This requires as a first step to acquire an accurate knowledge of the stakes of the city and to evaluate their vulnerability. This work, which can be applied to all cities in the world, proposes a mapping methodology for vulnerability assessment and zoning, thanks to a GIS, and is applied here on the metropolitan area of greater Lyon (650 km2, 1.3 M inhabitants), in South-East France. This study is based on a method of decision support, the analytic hierarchy process (AHP), to establish sensitivity factors and to prioritize the significance of the issues, in order to deduce vulnerability functions by using expert judgments. Thus, vulnerability is seen here as the conjunction of the sensitivity of the stakes facing hazards, that can be geo-hazards like flooding or earthquake for example, and their strategic importance in the functioning of the city. Stakes are divided into three categories: human, material and environmental. Then, these stakes are sub-divided more precisely, according to a hierarchical index. Finally, sensitivity factors are applied to the stakes in order to get the sharpest information possible. This mapping finds its application with overlapping layers of hazards, and can be a powerful tool in risk communication.


4) Vulnerability-informed Adaptation? The Role of Vulnerability Assessments in the Development of Adaptation Strategies

    Fiona Patricia Miller (Macquarie University), Kathryn Bowen, Dany Va, Quynh Anh Nguyen, Sinh Bach Tan, Huong Dang Lan

    Vulnerability assessments (VA) are an important element of the knowledge base for climate change adaptation planning and decision making, both as a product and a process. This paper provides an overview of different approaches to VA and is based on a systematic review of VAs undertaken in Cambodia and Vietnam as part of a wider study of climate change adaptation in the health and water sectors. This review sought to evaluate the quality of VAs to identify the extent to which they make specific recommendations for adaptation. A generalised typology summarising the results of the review is presented indicating that many of the VAs reviewed adopt a quite structured, explicit and mixed-methods approach. Most studies tended to identify vulnerable groups, coping mechanisms, and a range of causes of vulnerability to climate change. However, based on the review, current VA practice is shown to vary greatly in terms of the level of stakeholder engagement and participation. Many studies are also found to be undertaken at quite macro scales. With the increased allocation of adaptation resources more local studies will be required for strategic planning and to identify local vulnerabilities, capacities and strategies. The paper concludes that engaging with vulnerable people themselves as part of the VA itself needs to be given elevated importance by researchers and practitioners both to support vulnerability-informed adaptation strategies and to ensure effective adaptation actions.



[CS18-18] Vulnerability and resilience (Joint session with Commisson on Land Use and Land Cover Change)

    [ Wednesday 07 August 16:00-17:30 Room554B ]    Chair(s): Teiji Watanabe (Hokkaido Univ.), Yukio Himiyama (Hokkaido Univ. of Education), Shigeko Haruyama (Mie Univ.)

1) The Tohoku Region Pacific Coast Earthquake/Tsunami of 2011 and Land Use

    Yukio Himiyama (Hokkaido University of Education)

    The gigantic earthquake and tsunami of March 11 2011 hitting the Tohoku Region Pacific Coast have left immense damages on the coastal area. The paper discusses why and how the various damages were caused and how they could have been avoided or reduced, with special attention to preparedness, geographic awareness, and land use.


2) Demographic, Forest and Nutritional Transitions: Impacts and Vulnerabilities

    David Lopez-Carr (University of California, Santa Barbara)

    Demographic, Forest, and Nutrition transitions are occurring at an unprecedented pace and are increasingly interconnected. How do changing local, regional, and global transitions affect each other? How does the migration transition of rural-urban migration dominating migration flows in the developing world relate to forest and nutrition transitions? This talk probes these and related questions with examples from quantitative and qualitative research from the global, regional (Latin America), and local (Guatemala and Ecuador) scales.


3) Human Interference and Land use Change in the Peripheries of Wetlands in Assam, India: A Case Study in Deepar and Dhir Beels

    Pradip Sharma (Cotton College), Dhanjit Deka

    Assam, the only plain state amidst six hill states of Northeast India is endowed with large number of wetlands, which accounts 9.74 per cent of total geographical area of the state. The distribution, shape, size, depth, flora-fauna etc. of the wetlands are largely depend on the geo-ecological condition of the region and human activities in the peripheral areas. The wetlands of the state could be classified into five broad categories; linear, compact, irregular, discrete and ox-bow wetlands, which speak many things about the origin, distribution and land use condition of the wetlands.
    In this research a comparative study on two wetlands of similar pattern has been done, which are Dhir and Deepar, located almost at the same latitudinal extension and experience same climatic condition. To pinpoint the land use change related issues GIS and remote sensing techniques have been used. The Deepor beel, which is situated close to the congested urban area and close proximity to industrial units, has lost many of the natural characteristics and degrading very fast. On the other hand, the condition of Dhir beel is much better for less human interference in and around the wetland. It is expected that the outcome of the study will bring out solution to preserve many other wetlands and to improve the land use strategy in the peripheral areas.


4) Migration flow analysis of bog systems for the task of arrangement of data-collecting network of environmental monitoring

    Timofey Orlov (SERGEEV INSTITUTE OF ENVIRONMENTAL GEOSCIENCE RAS (IEG RAS))

    Introduction
    The development of the environmental system includes principles and approaches for locating monitoring stations.
    Locating of monitoring stations can be based on combination several approaches: uniform landscapes; continuous changing of landscape due to geochemical migration within borders; human-caused influence on landscape.
    The aim of this issue is show perspective of "migration" approach for planning environmental system in wetland zone of north taiga region of European Russia (Belomoro-Kuloyskoye plato).
    Methods
    Space images (0,64 m/pix) and topographic data (1:10000) interpretation allows main water migration flows to be detected. Wetlands (principally bogs) are main migration channels of this territory. Geochemical sampling was done along bogs migration flows. Heavy metals from moss and humus horizon were sampled.
    Results
    Several types of bogs were defined. These types were distinguished according to morphological pattern of bogs, intensity of migration flows and geochemical composition.
    1. Narrow and deep (high depth of peat) bogs. Convergence of migration flows, high level of accumulation of heavy metals;
    2. Wide and shallow bogs. Divergence of migration flows, low level of accumulation of heavy metals;
    3. Wide bogs complicated with narrow channels. Divergence of migration flows, high level of heavy metal loss;
    4. Rather wide bog-receiver (but narrower then bog-source). Convergence of migration flows, accumulation of heavy metals
    These zones were defined on the special part of investigated region. These zones need additional investigation for region scale.
    Conclusion
    This issue showed significant importance of functional wetlands zoning in monitoring station locating in wetlands area of north taiga region.


5) Rock fragments, flocks of sheep and goats, and sustainability in semi-arid rangelands

    Pariente Sarah (Bar Ilan University)

    Understanding the roles of rock fragments (RF) in the eco-geomorphic system is of great importance because of their influence on overland flow generation, soil erosion, and soil properties.
    The present aims were: (a) to investigate the effects of RF, of divers sizes and in various positions, on soil temperature, and moisture, organic matter, and calcium carbonate contents; (b) to study the effects of hillslope aspect on the above properties of soil underneath RF; and (c) to assess the ecological benefits of RF.
    On north- and south-facing hillslopes in the northern Negev region of Israel, soil was sampled from beneath RF of divers sizes - 4-6, 8-10, and 13-16 cm - that were positioned on the soil surface or partially embedded in it - hereafter designated as ""on top"" and ""embedded"", respectively. For each soil sample the above properties were determined. Soil temperatures were measured once per month.
    Under the large and medium RF soil moisture contents were significantly higher than those under the small ones; and embedded RF promoted higher moisture and organic matter contents than those on top.
    Rock fragment size and position had significantly greater effects on the south-facing than on the north-facing hillslopes, with regard to increasing the spatial variability of soil properties.
    In light of the capability of flocks of sheep and goats to move RF of similar sizes to those in the present study, it can be concluded that in the long run the entire hillslope will experience the soil conditions found under rock fragments.



[CS19-1] Health and the environment

    [ Wednesday 07 August 10:00-11:30 Room673 ]    Chair(s): Wuyi Wang (Chinese Academy ofSciences)

1) Environmental Pollution and Public Health in Moscow Region (Russia)

    Natalia Shartova (Lomonosov Moscow State University), Svetlana M. Malkhazova, Dmitry Orlov

    The paper presents general approaches and brief results of the long-term investigations of the Moscow region territory. For a long time the Moscow region experiences considerable technogenic pressure as a large industrial center and a transportation hub. The region is characterized by high population numbers and population density, involving a significant amount of migrants.
    Complex assessment of public health and the state of environment makes it possible to reveal specific medical geographical features of the territory, analyze natural and socio-economic factors affecting public health at present and produce the series of maps representing the current medical-demographic conditions.
    To assess environmental situation in city methods of soil and snow cover research and techniques for identification of the most harmful groups of pollutants have been elaborated. The methods include those which help to identify spatial patterns and reveal dynamics of anthropogenic anomalies in snow cover and soils. Soil-geochemical sampling carried out in some district of Moscow has shown the growth of area with high levels of heavy metal and polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon contamination in soils.
    For the purpose of mitigation of pollution effect in megacity methodology of estimation of air quality is developed. This estimation is based on integration of several characteristics: meteorological parameters having influence on human health, basic atmospheric pollutants actual for territory and human diseases, caused by environmental contamination.


2) Environment contamination with heavy metals and their impact on human health

    Tatiana Trifonova (Lomonosov State University), Natalia Mishchenko, Alexei Krasnoshchekov, Ivan Klimov

    Environmental distribution of heavy metals in connection with their harmful impact on human body is a vital ecological problem. Special place belongs to heavy metals influence the most receptive to anthropogenic factors children population age group.
    The research objective is to study heavy metals content in hair of children, living in various towns of Vladimir region (Vladimir, Kovrov, Kolchugino), characterized by different types and rate of anthropogenic load, and to reveal interrelation of the received data and environmental factors.
    The content of six heavy metals (lead, chromium, nickel, arsenic, copper and iron) has been defined. Centile scales for microelement children status evaluation have been compiled to assess metals concentration in hair samples judging by the deviation rates. It has been stated that children heir contains low concentration of nickel, arsenic and iron. High and very high lead content has been revealed among 13 percent of the examined children, copper - among 7 percent and chromium - among 16 percent. It has been demonstrated that children not receiving preventive treatment have higher content of heavy metals in their hair.
    Basic sources (air, water, plants) of heavy metals received by human body have been assessed. Besides we have estimated soil contamination with heavy metals in Vladimir. Dependence of soil contamination on relief peculiarities and urban industrial areas location has been revealed. Environment contamination rate with heavy metals is required for taking preventing measures especially for the children who are more perceptive for environment contamination.



[CS19-2] Health and access to care

    [ Wednesday 07 August 14:00-15:30 Room673 ]    Chair(s): Svetlana M. Malkhazova (Moscow State Univ.)

1) Health care utilization experiences of urban fishermen in Cape Coast, Ghana

    Addae Boateng Adu-Gyamfi (University of Cape Coast)

    Urban areas the world over, have become platforms for economic growth as well as centres of diversity and transformation. In spite of these opportunities, urban areas are facing rapid population growth, rising poverty levels and often inadequate public institutions. Many urban managers are facing difficulties in their attempt to provide infrastructure, housing, educational, health care facilities and job opportunities for residents. Urbanization in developing countries is resulting in growing urban poverty, insanitary conditions and poor health with most residents living in slums and squatter settlements, without adequate access to clean water and health care; creating conditions which exclude people from social services including health care access and utilization. The study therefore examined the health care utilization experiences of urban fishermen in Cape Coast Metropolis, Ghana. Employing qualitative research methodology, 30 respondents were selected for in-depth interviews to generate primary data for the study. The study found that the majority of urban fishermen in the Cape Coast metropolis have pressing health needs but do not utilize available health care facilities and services due to the nature of their job, poverty, waiting time at health care facilities and perceived cost of health care. It was also established that respondents resort to self medication through purchasing of drugs from drug peddlers without prescription to solve their medical needs. It is recommended that mobile clinics must be organized by the municipal health authorities for the fisher folks in the metropolis.


2) Occupational Health Hazards of Tea Garden Workers of Bordubi Tea Estate in Assam, India

    Parijat Borgohain (Cotton College)

    Occupational health hazards refer to the potential risks to health and safety of workers in their workplaces. Tea garden workers are susceptible to a number of hazards in their workplaces due to physical, biological, mechanical, chemical and psychosocial factors. However, the occurrence of occupational health hazards among them varies depending on gender, immunity and nature of job. It is in this backdrop, an attempt is made in this paper to examine the occupational health hazards faced by the tea garden workers of Bordubi Tea Estate in Assam. Factors like income, education, hygiene and sanitation, general awareness and perception about the different occupational health hazards have been taken into account. The study has revealed that tea garden workers are educationally lagging behind, health facilities are inadequate and safety measures are lacking. This has resulted in a number of work-related accidents and the workers are found to suffer from a number of health problems.
     The study is based on both primary and secondary data. Primary data has been collected through a field survey of the workers and by interacting with the management of the estate. A medical practitioner’s service was availed of while conducting the primary survey. In addition, secondary information has been collected from sources such as books, journals and the Internet. Further, to understand the pattern of occupational health hazards, statistical techniques have been used.
    Keywords: accidents, hygiene, medical facilities, occupational health hazards.


3) Branding Hong Kong by its Green Resources: Local and Visitor Perceptions

    Chung-Shing Chan (The Chinese University of Hong Kong), Lawal M. Marafa

    In a globalized world, cities have increasingly competed to attract tourists, investors and professionals from other regions. Cities have begun to study how to promote, market and even brand their competitive advantages and make them sustainable.
    
    Place branding is multi-disciplinary nature that can be viewed from different perspectives like products and services, images, and corporate brands. Originated from marketing discipline, place branding can be studied as a phenomenon for geography because of more complex elements, structuring of spaces and relationships among stakeholders involved in places like cities.
    
    Although some cities have identified abundant green resources such as parks and green spaces as advantages in city promotion and marketing, there appears a dearth of knowledge and theoretical development in studying these environmental factors as themes for branding. Hong Kong, officially branded as the ‘Asia’s World City’, indeed possesses rich resources such as protected areas, parks and green spaces, trees and landscapes scattered around the territory.
    
    This presentation aims at: (i) introducing a city branding framework based on green resources, (ii) exploring a distinctive set of brand components of green resources in Hong Kong; and (iii) comparing the perceptions of brand elements of green resources in Hong Kong by the responses from two groups of city consumers, including local residents and tourists. The research contributes to fill the knowledge gap by linking city branding and green resources, and analyzing the perceptions of these resources by major city consumers.



[CS19-3] Global change and global health

    [ Wednesday 07 August 16:00-17:30 Room673 ]    Chair(s): Tomoki Nakaya (Ritsumeikan Univ.)

1) Mixed Blessings: An Investigation of Diet and Health among Latino Migrants

    Daniel Ervin (University of California, Santa Barbara)

    This presentation will discuss aspects of my dissertation research. In this project I investigate dietary changes among Mexican migrants to the United States and rural to urban migrants in Mexico. This is part of the larger concept of the ‘nutrition transition’: the global change towards a diet of processed food high in fats and sugars. This diet is a major factor in chronic diseases such as diabetes, hypertension, high cholesterol, and obesity. I study this phenomenon using a combination of questionnaires, physical measurements of BMI and blood pressure, and mass spectrometry carbon isotope analysis. This research is intended to shed new light on chronic nutrition-related conditions for migrants in the US and Mexico. I approach the established concepts of acculturation, the nutrition transition and the Latino paradox with two fresh ideas: an emphasis on geography, and the use of a novel method.


2) Population Dynamics in the World’s Protected Areas

    Alex Ivan Zvoleff (San Diego State University), David Lopez-Carr

    Given continuing global declines in biodiversity, despite increasing investments in conservation, it is important to prioritize spending to ensure the greatest return. Although progress has been made, significant health challenges continue in the developing world, with high child and maternal mortality, and poor access to family-planning services. Research has shown that investments in maternal health and family planning can simultaneously achieve both conservation and development goals. Linking conservation and development planning allows interventions to focus on the policy sectors where spending is likely to have the greatest impact.
    
    To examine the potential of these investments, we analyze a unique dataset merging population data from the Demographic and Health Surveys (DHS) with a global database of protected areas (PAs): the World Database on Protected Areas (WDPA). Using sub-national DHS data from 431 regions in 59 countries, we use multi-level regression models to compare key demographic indicators in regions containing PAs with other regions. We find that women residing in regions containing PAs are significantly more likely to be employed in agriculture (p=.002), to have greater total and wanted fertility rates (p=.023 and p=.001, respectively), and to have trouble accessing healthcare (p=.032). Given these findings, an integrated population, health, and environment (PHE) approach to conservation could have great potential for simultaneously achieving both development and conservation goals. Conservation and sustainable development are intertwined - long-term conservation goals cannot be achieved without investments in critical infrastructure, and in improving health outcomes.



[CS20-1] Languages, materiality and the construction of geographical modernities(1)

    [ Tuesday 06 August 08:00-09:30 Room665 ]    Chair(s): Jacobo Garcia-Alvarez (Carlos III Univ. of Madrid)

1) Les Avatars De La Notion D'Adaptation Dans La Seconde Moitie Du Siecle Dernier

    Vincent Berdoulay (Univ Pau / CNRS), Olivier Soubeyran

    LA QUESTION DE L’ADAPTATION AUX CHANGEMENTS ENVIRONNEMENTAUX GLOBAUX PESE ACTUELLEMENT BEAUCOUP SUR LES RELATIONS INTERNATIONALES ET AUSSI SUR LES APPROCHES DE L’AMENAGEMENT. CELA INVITE L’HISTOIRE DE LA GEOGRAPHIE A SE PENCHER SUR SA CONTRIBUTION PASSEE ET POTENTIELLE A LA STRUCTURATION DES DEBATS ET DES PRATIQUES. APRES AVOIR RAPPELE BRIEVEMENT COMMENT LA PENSEE GEOGRAPHIQUE UNIVERSITAIRE S’EST SAISIE DE LA QUESTION DE L’ADAPTATION DANS UN CONTEXTE EVOLUTIONNISTE, LA COMMUNICATION SE CONCENTRERA SUR LES AVATARS DE LA NOTION DANS SA THEORISATION EN GEOGRAPHIE ET AMENAGEMENT PENDANT LA SECONDE MOITIE DU SIECLE DERNIER, AVEC UNE ATTENTION PARTICULIERE POUR MAX. SORRE, PIERRE GOUROU, CARL SAUER ET LES THESES INSPIREES DE L’ECOLOGIE CULTURELLE ET DE L’ETUDE DES RISQUES.
    CES AVATARS VONT DU REJET DE LA NOTION CHEZ CERTAINS GEOGRAPHES A UNE VOLONTE D’EN TIRER PARTI. DEUX GRANDS ENJEUX THEORIQUES DE CES DIFFERENTES POSITIONS SONT EXPLICITES. D’UNE PART, IL S’AGIT D’UNE OPPOSITION ENTRE UNE APPROCHE DE TYPE CYBERNETIQUE ET UNE VOLONTE DE PRESERVER L’OUVERTURE DU SYSTEME. D’AUTRE PART, LE POIDS DES DIFFERENTES CONCEPTIONS DE LA MODERNITE ET DE LEURS CONSEQUENCES SUR L’AMENAGEMENT EST SOULIGNE. ON MONTRE AINSI COMMENT S’EST PRODUITE UNE CIRCULATION DES CONNAISSANCES ENTRE LA GEOGRAPHIE ACADEMIQUE ET L’AMENAGEMENT A PROPOS DE L’ADAPTATION AUX CHANGEMENTS ENVIRONNEMENTAUX GLOBAUX.


2) "Transformation of Nature" concept by geographers and agricultural-water development in Soviet Central Asia

    Tetsuro Chida (Hokkaido University)

    “Transformation of Nature” is a key concept for understanding the Soviet “socialistic” principle of the human-nature relationship. Soviet geographers elaborated it after World War II, when Joseph Stalin proclaimed the start of “Stalin’s Plan for Transformation of Nature,” that human-being could maximally utilize natural “productive forces” for its own sake, which became possible only under socialism. As soon as Stalin’s death, the projects in the Stalin’s Plan were abandoned. However, from 1956 on at the dawn of scientific and technical revolutions, Soviet geographers of the Academy of Sciences in Moscow had gradually restored the concept of “Transformation of Nature” with significant modification. Innokenti Gerasimov, the Director of the Institute, headed this movement. In short, it should be done as a result of intensive scientific studies and technical substantiation, and with serious consideration of the feedback from the environment, subjected to transformation. This modified version of the concept worked well in the water development in the Ili-Balkhash basin. Kapchagai Water Reservoir was constructed, but the further irrigation construction was limited on the downstream sites of the Ili River. The full-scaled development of rice cultivation with irrigation should have led the death of Lake Balkhash, which had been discouraged, since the project engineers did not scientifically verified the negative feedback from nature after the realization of these projects. That is, the “Transformation of Nature” concept itself disturbed the real nature transformation projects. This paradox pretty well shows the loss of legitimacy of the socialistic modernization in U.S.S.R.


3) Interpreting Water Space in the History of Taiwan - From Textual Towards Cartographic

    Chia-Jung Wu (Department of Geography), Jinn-Guey Lay

    When it comes to historical geography, researchers tend to lay the methodological focus on extracting information from various historical data relating to a specific space. However, relative little attention has been made about the political and social contexts by which a unique form of spatial data was constructed. This study takes the issue of interpreting irrigation water space in early Taiwan as an example. We identify two major types of materials referring to irrigation water space, that is, Irrigation Contract and Irrigation Cadaster, evolved respectively during the Ching (1683-1894) and the Japanese Colonial Period (1895-1945). Whereas the former material was textual-based, the latter was cartography-integrated. By comparing their similarities and differences in defining what an irrigation space was about, we find that such a shift from textual towards cartographic documentation reflected upon different political perspectives to deal with local tradition of water management. Without the understanding above-mentioned, the content of a historical irrigation map can be hardly interpreted, such as its meaning of a water administrative area, even the maps can be physically positioned by GIS. Hence, we suggest that more linkages between the political/social contexts and its produced geographic knowledge be built.
    
    Keywords: Irrigation Space, Irrigation Contract, Irrigation Cadaster



[CS20-2] Languages, materiality and the construction of geographical modernities(2)

    [ Tuesday 06 August 10:00-11:30 Room665 ]    Chair(s): Toshiyuki Shimazu (Wakayama Univ.)

1) Between home and homeland: Movements to improve people’s ways of living and "Kyodo" (homeland) education in early twentieth-century Japan

    Tamami Fukuda (Osaka Prefecture University)

    In 1920, the Union for the Improvement of Living was established in the Social Welfare Bureau in Japan. The organization sought to improve people’s manner of living, including their social skills, dress, diet, and housing. Although the movement was official, it was never limited to the official framework. With the rapid development of consumer culture in the cities and the media centered on newly published magazines, it became a wider social movement involving a number of people, especially women. It sought not only to rationalize and modernize domestic life but also to promote the modern family home, as pointed out by several critics. Here, the establishment of home is seen as a domestic space in Japan. However, recent geographical studies of the home have made clear that the discussion of home was not limited to a domestic space. "Home" is considered to explore multidimensional scales. How was the “home” as a domestic space, which, in those days, was planned to improve and rationalize domestic life, associated with a larger spatial scale? This study focuses on Gentaro Tanahashi, who, as a bureaucrat, was committed to the movement for the improvement of living. He was a unique person who was involved with both the movement for the improvement of living and the development of local museums and education. Through the examination of his thoughts and practices concerning the "home" at the levels of both a domestic space and a "kyodo ", this study analyzes the concept of home in modern Japan.


2) Okinawan folk geographies in modernity: some aspects of articulation

    Naoki Oshiro (Meiji University)

    In the age of modernity, many matters of vernacular folk geography had changed in various ways. Especially, funeral rites or cemeterial modes had been strongly affected by the impact of modernity. In this report, I would like to investigate some examples in Okinawa region where was former the kingdom of Ryukyu and had considerably different culture from mainland Japan. Topics I will take up are as follows:
    1) The way how “feng-shui” thought, previously higher knowledge from China, had been joined with vernacular folk-geographic knowledge in the modern era, and also how this aspect of affairs had turn the conventional folk-geographic knowledge. On these points, I would like to draw examples on grave sites in rural area.
     2) According with introducing hygienic concept, very the product of modernity, conventional “genre de vie” had been affected seriously from physical aspect like posture training to psychic aspect like nationalism. On this point, I would like to take up examples of transformation of funeral rituals and cemesterial modes.


3) “Social Mix” and Muslim Migrants: Inclusion and Exclusion in the Neighborhood of the Goutte d’Or of Paris

    Miyo Aramata (Keisen University)

    In recent French urban policy, the notion of “social mix” has engendered considerable discussion. It indicates not only the ideal coexistence of people with different social backgrounds but also intends the creation of that situation. The matter concerns not the mixing of the rich and the poor but rather of migrants of diverse cultural backgrounds.
    In France, many social conflicts have occurred in areas with concentrations of Muslim migrants. In the neighborhood of the Goutte d’Or of Paris, believers who could not enter mosques because of a lack of space prayed on the adjacent streets. From the 1990s, this situation had been questioned by the media, and the area had been an object of racial provocations.
    Recently, the local administration has established an institution of Islamic cultures in the neighborhood and tried to encourage religious understanding. The events of this organization’s events are always appreciated by non-Muslims and have help to change the negative thinking about Islam. However, the administration, in an agreement with local mosques, has prohibited praying on streets. These policies have a basic objective: the division of cultural from religious matters, which is tied to the separation of religion and the state. However, we have to consider the demands of the increasing middle class of this area that supports “social mix.”
    This paper reveals the selective inclusion of the migrants’ cultures and the consequences of a policy that make the specific character of an urban space invisible.



[CS20-3] Languages, materiality and the construction of geographical modernities(3)

    [ Tuesday 06 August 14:00-15:30 Room665 ]    Chair(s): Tamami Fukuda (Osaka Prefecture Univ.)

1) Installing Geography in the Open Air: The Emergence of the Statues of Geographers in Late Nineteenth-Century Belgium

    Toshiyuki Shimazu (Wakayama University)

    Recent scholarship in human geography witnesses an emerging concern with the diverse interconnectedness between art in general and geographical thought and practice. However, so far little attention has been paid to the roles and functions undertaken by art within the historical development of geography. In fact, plastic arts including paintings and statues have long been employed as a language conveying various geographical messages as well as social and cultural values. Plastic arts materialize and visualize those ideas and practices which have been called "geography." This materiality and visuality in turn may play an important role in communicating the significance of geography to the broader society. This paper investigates the interrelationships between the history of geography and plastic arts by focusing on the installation of statues representing geographers or geography itself in late nineteenth-century Belgium. The first international geographical congress held in Antwerp triggered the erection of a bronze statue of Gerard Mercator in his birthplace of Rupelmonde in 1871. In Brussels, sculptor August Rodin made a stone statue of cupid measuring the globe with a compass from 1875 to 1876. It was placed on the exterior fence of the Palais des Academies and occasionally called "Amour geographe." Moreover, the Petit Sablon Square, inaugurated in 1890, had ten marble statues of heroes in the sixteenth-century Netherlands including Gerard Mercator and Abraham Ortelius. These statues exemplify the complicated relationships between geography on the one hand, and imperialism, nationalism and regionalism, on the other.


2) The return of big cameras: women, camera and modernity

    Jun-Hua Lin (National Dong Hwa University)

    This paper mainly focuses on the interactions between materiality and people. Photography, which has been developed since the mid 19th century, has been seen as a unique form of art which combines science and aesthetics. And “photo” is considered as a perfect representation of publicity and sociality because it is seen as a material which “fully” records and “faithfully” displays the exploration and conquest of the world. It is the reason why photography is usually seen as a masculine activity, and “camera” as a masculine thing. However, the condition related to camera and to photography has gradually been changed; more and more women are keen to taking photos. Following the approach to considering photography as a culturally constructed “way of seeing”, and to seeing “photography” as a social practice whose meanings are constructed through cultural codes and conventions, I not only treat “camera” as an equipment to record/represent geographical knowledge, or a concrete evidence to corroborate the historical events, but also deem this material as a key to manipulate social conditions. By researching female’s practices of photography, the paper first elaborates on the material power, and sees “photography/camera” as a scheme to empower women. Secondly, it also attempts to demonstrate the dynamic and (re)constructing gender relationships penetrating through the materiality. Thirdly, by researching women’s experiences of using big cameras, the research also elaborates on the active and changing role played by female in this social practice which is brought about by the trend of returning big/heavy camera.


3) Eating Rice: Body Politics in Modern Japanese City

    Akio Onjo (Kyushu Unversity)

    This paper examines the body politics around the materiality of rice in Tokyo, modern Japan. Rice was and is a staple food of the Japanese. But Japanese government had to import rice from South-East Asia and so on from 1890s. In 1912, underclass, labor class and lower-middle class were suffered from the skyrocketing of rice price and local authority supplied the imported rice to the people for free. But the people didn’t enjoy eating the rice, because they felt its ‘bad taste or quality’ (A strain of imported rice differs from Japanese one). I think this episode has an importance of considering the transformation of modern Japanese society from the two points of view. On the one hand, Many Japanese had fermented an underestimate and discriminatory consciousness and attitude against Asian region through this experience of food. This ‘nationalism from body practice’ seems to become the scaffolding of expansion and invasion of Imperial Japan. On the other hand, Some bureaucrats and researchers recognized the significance of state intervention in the reproduction of laboring body. These new gazes made the stabilization and control of the everyday life of ordinary people as ‘the political’. Rice problems were the moment of ‘governmentality’ of body practices at micro scale and development of modern state apparatus and urban social policy (public market, social housing and so on) at national scale.



[CS20-4] Languages, materiality and the construction of geographical modernities(4)

    [ Wednesday 07 August 08:00-09:30 Room665 ]    Chair(s): Vincent Berdoulay (Univ Pau / CNRS)

1) Un Episode Meconnu De Cooperation Cartographique Franco-Espagnole : Le Bureau Topographique De Madrid (1823-1841)

    Jacobo García-Álvarez (Carlos III University of Madrid), Jean-Yves Puyo

    L’expedition des 100 000 fils de Saint-Louis (1822), a savoir l’envoi par la France d’un important corps militaire destine a appuyer Ferdinand VII (souverain espagnol tres conservateur, alors en conflit ouvert avec le gouvernement liberal etabli en 1820), materialisa la renaissance francaise, quelques sept annees apres la defaite definitive de Napoleon Ier. Cet episode militaire demeurant massivement ignore des ouvrages francais, il n’est pas surprenant qu’une des consequences de cette nouvelle alliance - alors paraissant contre-nature entre deux adversaires recents - ait ete totalement oubliee : il s’agit de la creation d’un bureau topographique base a Madrid (1823-1841), dote durant ses premieres annees de 11 ingenieurs-geographes militaires francais.
    Notre communication s’attachera donc a redecouvrir cet episode a ce jour meconnu, a partir de l’analyse des archives militaires tant francaises qu’espagnoles : quels sont les nouveaux travaux topographiques produits par ces ingenieurs ? Que sait-on de la nature exacte de la collaboration entre les cartographes militaires des deux pays, tout au long de cette periode trouble de l’histoire espagnole (Premiere Guerre carliste) ? Enfin, releve-t-on un enrichissement mutuel relatif a la question des savoir-faire cartographiques (maitrise des releves geodesiques, realisations des reconnaissances militaires, etc.) ? Enfin, sur un plan plus general, cette recherche apportera sa pierre a la connaissance de toute la richesse de l’histoire de la cartographie europeenne, problematique au coeur de nombreux travaux de recherche actuels.


2) Geographical Knowledge and Territorial Representations in the Demarcation of the Spanish-Portuguese Boundary, 1855-1906

    Jacobo García-Álvarez (Carlos III University of Madrid)

    Although the territorial definition of the Spanish-Portuguese boundary dates back mainly to the High Middle Ages, its exact, complete and definitive demarcation was not legally established until the Boundary Treaties signed in 1864 and 1926. The major tasks involving the preparation and the execution of those Treaties were carried out by International Joint Boundary Commissions, which were created in 1855 and made up by diplomats and military representatives of both countries. The role of those military representatives (who were mostly engineers and members of the Army General Staff) was clearly focused on the technical tasks of the process, which included geographical description and cartographic survey of the border areas, as well as the demarcation of the boundary line.
    This paper aims to summarize and reflect on the geographic and cartographic contributions of the Spanish-Portuguese International Boundary Commissions in the Galicia-North of Portugal sector. The paper will focus on the following aspects: the role assigned to geographical knowledge, maps and map-making in the demarcation of the boundary; the geographical education, skills and interests of the Boundary Commissions military members; and the conceptions and perceptions of the territory and the borderland reflected in the maps and geographical survey reports made by those boundary commissioners. The paper will draw largely on the written and cartographic materials used and produced by the aforementioned Commissions between 1855 and 1906, most of which are preserved in the Archives of the Ministry of Foreign Affairs and the Army Map Services of both countries.


3) Geographical Discourses in Spain (1867-1936). On Alliances and Borders Betwen Spain and Portugal

    Jose A Rodriguez (Universidad Autonoma de Madrid)

    In the Geographical discourses of the Sociedad Geografica de Madrid ( Real Sociedad Geografica from 1901) we can find a bundle of complex circumstances and different ideas, even antagoniste, living together: national identity - supranationalisme; borders protected - geographical alliances… Many of these tensions are manifested in the relations between Spain and Portugal, where border demarcation processes coexist with political union proposals. In geographical knowledge converge, undoubtedly more strongly than in other approaches, a set of proposals that show this tension: from the ""iberismo"" (political union of Portugal and Spain), to the hispanoamericanismo (pooling of interests among Spanish-speaking American republics), with proposals of alliance between the countries of southern Europe to counteract the growing power of the Northen countries.



[CS20-5] Languages, materiality and the construction of geographical modernities(5)

    [ Wednesday 07 August 10:00-11:30 Room665 ]    Chair(s): Jean-Yves Puyo (Univ. of Pau and Pays de l'Adour )

1) The Academic Impact and Disciplinary Position of Human Geography: A Computational Scientometric Perspective

    Hong-Lei Zhang (Nanjing University), Jie Zhang, Jinhe Zhang, Zehua Liu, Shi-En Zhong

    Citation is often used as an important indicator of the quality of academic publications. This article seeks to broaden the debate on disciplinary position by analyzing the matrix of co-citation. In this research, academic impact and major content of human geography was studied through co-citation analysis of its 35 representative journals (impact factor>1.0) from 1992 to 2012. A large-scale scholarly dataset of co-citation data is retrieved from Web of Science using Cited Reference Search, which could get the complete co-citation matrix, and calculate the co-citation ratio of the matrix and make clustering analysis. Using large-scale computational sociometric analysis on about 37, 772 citations we found that the integration of the citation network has increased over time. Temporal changes in disciplinary inter-linkages using information flow impact degree (IFID) show the information flows from human geography to environmental sciences ecology, urban studies, business economics and sociology have become stronger during 1992-2012. We also calculate the mapping knowledge domain of human geography and its relevant disciplines based on the co-citation matrix. Moreover, by using cluster analysis and co-citation network analysis, five sub-clusters (general geography journals, economic geography journals, social and culture geography journals, environmental and ecological geography journals and geographic information science journals) are calculated as the results of main content analysis of human geography journals. We also discuss the implications of these findings for the current and future state of human geography.


2) Transformational Leadership, Geographic Science, and Paradigm Change in American Geography

    Michael S. Devivo (Grand Rapids Community College)

    ""Pleasantly zoned on the beach, Golledge was extracted from reverie by someone kicking sand on him and barking the traditional Australian greeting of `Ow are ya, mate?' Turning his head to the left, the sunbather spotted a pair of white freckled legs, pants rolled up to the knees. Looking upwards, Golledge recognized the smiling face of David Simonett, who immediately asked, `Have you made up your mind yet? When are you coming to Santa Barbara?'”
    
    
    The above account by Baumgart (2004) epitomizes only one element of the transformational leadership qualities that characterized the new chair chosen to direct what would soon become one of the leading geography departments in the United States. Simonett had a vision of creating a solid doctoral program in an institution that awarded only the baccalaureate in geography when he arrived in 1975. A master’s program was developed in 1977, and a Ph.D. in 1980. The first doctorate was awarded in 1982, and in 1988, the geography department became part of the consortium that won the National Science Foundation grant for the establishment of the National Center for Geographic Information and Analysis (NCGIA). A new paradigm in geographic thought had emerged.
    
    
    Akin to an earlier time in the discipline’s history when the study of regions prevailed, now technology, largely in the form of GIS, became integral to geography curricula at nearly all levels. This paper examines the role of David Simonett, a transformational leader who sparked the shift that has since spread across the discipline.


3) Frontier Studies and the Disciplinary Formation of Modern Chinese Geography in Republican China, 1911-1949

    Zhihong Chen (Guilford College)

    In recent years, China scholars have begun to map out the entangled relationship between the development of geographical thoughts and changing political contexts in Chinese history. Most of this scholarship, however, focuses on premodern China, especially the Qing Dynasty (1644-1911). My paper examines the political and scholarly activities of a group of prominent geographers during Republican China (1911-1949), such as Zhu Kezhen (1890-1974), Zhang Qiyun (1900-1985), and Hu Huanyong (1901-1998) who represented the first generation of modern, professionally trained Chinese geographers. Through examining their works, this paper aims to show the close relationship between the frontier crisis that China was experiencing and the disciplinary formation of modern Chinese geography. It argues that although Western geographical knowledge had been spreading in China since the late Qing, the need and the urgent call for a “new geography” among geographers in China did not emerge until the Nanjing decade (1927-1937), when the sense of a frontier crisis escalated in the context of foreign encroachments and surging Chinese nationalism. Chinese intellectuals’ efforts to overcome the frontier crisis led to a significant shift of major methodology in geography from textual research to actual fieldwork or on-site investigation. The adoption of this new methodology distinguished the new scientific geography from the old dynastic geography in the past. Cooperation between geographers and the state also led to the establishment of important geographical departments and study societies, providing institutional foundations for modern Chinese geography.


4) Comparison of traditional geographical thoughts between China and Japan

    Motohide Akiyama (Shiga University)

    In East Asia we have very long history of development of geographical thought. In China since ancient times geography was one of the basic scientific and philosophical fields of academy. The traditional method of classification of books classified all kinds of books in 4 groups, Jing, Shi, Zi, and Ji, Confucian sutra, History, Philosophy and Science, and Literature. Geography belonged to History, which included not only history and geography but also social sciences. Some famous classics of traditional geography belonged to Philosophy or Literature. Since ancient times along with the development of society and culture we can find many kinds of geographical thoughts and works of geography. Especially the development of local geography (or local gazetteer) is remarkable in the history of Chinese geography.
    As the types of development of geography of China we can distinguish between academic geography and folk geography, scientific one and humanistic one, historical one and contemporary one. As the typical academic geography there were many geographies in the formal history, which began from Hanshu Dilizhi, or as the typical folk geography we can present many books about Fengshui(geomancy).
    Japanese geography, on the other hand, received great influence from China since ancient times, but it have advanced toward another goal. There were no severe classification of knowledge as China, and development of folk geography was remarkable than academic one. Especially in early modern times of Japan we can find new trends of geographical thoughts which accepted thoughts from Western geography.



[CS20-6] Languages, materiality and the construction of geographical modernities(6)

    [ Wednesday 07 August 14:00-15:30 Room665 ]    Chair(s): Naoki Oshiro (Meiji Univ.)

1) The achievement and prospect in the Japanese history of cartography

    Koji Hasegawa (Kobe University)

    After the modernization in Meiji period the systematic study on the Japanese old maps began. At first the researchs were mostly collectors and dilettante.
     In 1930s scientific research began by Motoharu FUJITA and he overviewed the history of Japanese maps concentrated in Gyoki-type maps. Some inhereted this trend of research.
     The epoch-making book in the field is ""Hisotry of Maps"" published by Takeo ODA in 1973. This book brought old maps into Japanese wide society and a lot of books appeared after this.
     In 1980s under the influence of new paradigm proposed by B. Harley, Japanese young researchers on the history of cartography investigated the medieval manorial maps in Japan, especially concentrating Katsuragawa pictorial map and achieved brilliant success.
     After 1990s GIS method introduced in this field and analytic research has progressed though, the total meaning of each maps has been forgotton.
     Now we have to consider the rich contents of a map and also try to re-discover the cosmology of the people in each time and space.


2) Modernization Efforts of Japan Meiji Restoration Government and Rapid Colored Topographic Mapping of Kanto Plain Area in 1880s

    Shosuke Hosoi (Cartographic Information Office)

    In Japan , Meiji Restoration government was established in 1868 and it began to modernize the country in all fields. .The government invited French Military Mission to modernize its army. This mission stayed in Japan from 1872 to 1880. French engineer officers taught topography with other engineering technology.

    In 1877, Seinan Civil War broke out in Kyushu island, southwestern Japan.

    Central government army had a severe fight due to lack of detailed maps.Realizing military necessity to cover the whole country with topographic maps in short time, the chief of the Survey Division of the Army proposed to the Chief of the General Staff to adopt a temporary plan of Rapid Topographic Mapping of the Whole Country without triangulation.

    Approved in 1879, Rapid Topographic Maps at 1:20 000 were surveyed and drawn in color, composed of 921 sheets with landscape sketches and profiles on the map sides in Kanto Plain area in 1880s, following “Military Survey Regulation” .which was drafted in consultation with some French textbook, presumably A. Lehagre’ s “Cours de Topogaphie” which includes a model of Rapid Topographic Map similar to the ones in Japan.

    The above-mentioned mapping became a good start to lead to regular topographic mapping with triangulation network of the whole country which was completed in the early 20th century.


3) The 76-Year History of Watanabe Kyogu. Co., Ltd. (Globe maker of Japan)

    Miwako Watanabe (Watanabe Kyogu Co., Ltd.)

    Watanabe Kyogu started to produce terrestrial globes in 1937 since Tsukiji Honganji Temple of Shin Buddhism made a request to the founder Unsei Watanabe, as similar developments were happening in the churches and universities throughout Europe.
    
     Unsei, who was licensed to be a priest, lived next to Tsukiji Honganji Temple with his family. This was also the place where the chief abbot of West Honganji Temple, Kozui Otani, was recognized by the members of the British Royal Geographical Society as the first Asian explorer.
     It was a great difficult time for geographical investigation after the World War 2. Unsei Watanabe, together with Akira Watanabe and Toshio Okayama had study sessions around 1950, regarding the development of globes in Honganji.
    
     Unsei Watanabe developed not only a terrestrial globe, but also teaching materials for astronomy. He was awarded the Fifth Class Order of the Sacred Treasure in 1971.
    
     As for the rest, there was the development of the National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration (NOAA) satellite terrestrial globe in 1990s, which was a university-industry collaboration with the Tokai University Research & Information Center. All maps have now been totally digitized.
     Please come by our booth. There are many kinds of high quality terrestrial globes, including a night terrestrial globe (a fascinating way to see global economic development), a moon globe using KAGUYA satellite data, a Mars globe, a celestial globe, an environmental terrestrial globe, a universal design terrestrial globe for the color-blind, as well as a replica of the 300-year-old Netherlands Valk Globe.


4) Karl Haushofer’s Theories and German-Japanese Relations

    Christian Wilhelm Spang (Daito Bunka University)

    Karl Haushofer is considered by many as one of the driving forces behind Hitler’s “Lebensraum” concept. He is also known for his friendship with Rudolf Hess, the Nazi-party’s deputy leader. Yet, Haushofer’s far-reaching publications on East Asia and Japan as well as his close contacts with various influential Japanese academics, diplomats, politicians and military officers have so far not been the target of in-depth research.
    Therefore, this paper, based on my forthcoming book “Karl Haushofer und Japan. Die Rezpetion seiner geopolitischen Theorien in Japan und Deutschland” (Munich: Iudicium, 2013), will deal with the following aspects:
    First, an overview of Haushofer’s military and academic career will be given.
    Second, Haushofer’s stay in late Meiji-Japan will be scrutinized.
    Third, Haushofer’s geopolitical theory will be explained.
    Fourth, the scope and significance of his contacts will be examined.
    In 1908, Haushofer was sent to Japan as Royal Bavarian military observer. He met some of the genro, shook hands with the Meiji-tenno and made friends with a number of Japanese officers who later became influential members of the Japanese oligarchy. In 1919 he left the army as Major General and began a teaching career in Geography and Geopolitics at Munich University (LMU). He quickly (re)established close relations with many Japanese, among them visiting academics, military officers and the staff of the Japanese embassy in Berlin. Many Japanese considered his works amongst the best-informed contemporary writings by any Westerner. Furthermore, his friendship with Hess turned Haushofer into an ideal go-between behind the diplomatic scene.



[CS20-7] History of geography, geographical thought, practice, and gender (1) (Joint session with the Commission on Gender and Geography)

    [ Tuesday 06 August 16:00-17:30 Room665 ]    Chair(s): Tamami Fukuda (Osaka Prefecture Univ.)

1) Journalism and feminism in colonial Morocco: historical and geographical interpretations of Spanish Women’s travel narratives (1900-1936).

    Rosa Cerarols (University Pompeu Fabra of Barcelona), Maria Dolors Garcia Ramon

    The “cultural turn” in geography has allowed us to analyze the intersections between literature, travel and geography. At the same time, postcolonial and feminism revisions of the imperial period shows that the relation between the West and the East was one of power based on a very androcentric positioning. Travel narratives are not merely descriptions of geographical itineraries but a complex topography of alterity that was neither neutral nor innocent. Spain’s foreign policy reoriented its overseas colonial strategies from the middle of the 19th century and focused on Morocco. Therefore the “interest” for this region increased dramatically and many travellers wrote their experiences there. Within the study period we have accounted about sixty men travellers and only few women. We have chosen for our presentation three of them (Carmen de Burgos, Teresa de Escoriaza and Aurora Bertrana) because their outstanding personalities and pioneering roles in the Spanish society of their time. Carmen went there at the beginning of the study period in 1909 during one of the so called Melilla wars. In 1921, when the most violent confrontation took place, Teresa de Escoriaza was there. Aurora travelled in 1936, just before the outbreak of the Spanish Civil War. Their compromised geographies clearly illuminated Spanish travel writings with a gender perspective.


2) Washington Women: Practicing Geography in the United States Government

    Janice J Monk (University of Arizona)

    Histories of geography, especially those of the 20th century in the United States, have tended to focus on geographic thought & academia rather than practice in other spheres. One consequence has been lack of attention to the work of women, although they were substantially engaged in arenas such as institutions where teachers were educated & in federal government agencies. These contexts commonly included higher proportions of women than of men geographers, while the latter dominated in research universities. I explore the careers of women in U.S. government agencies between 1914 & the late 1970s. One challenge is identifying sources of data, since these women are less often the prime scholarly publications than are men geographers. I discuss the archives I have been able to tap, especially records of the Society of Woman Geographers, of the Association of American Geographers, & of selected institutions where women earned their degrees. I draw on interviews I conducted in the late 1980s-early 1990s with women who had worked in government for several decades. Themes include the how they came to government work, aspects of the intersections of their personal and professional lives, & ways in which economic & political contexts shaped their opportunities, experiences, & the nature of their contributions in agencies such as the Bureau of the Census, the Department of State, the Library of Congress, the Social Conservation Service, the Office of Naval Research, & those dealing withl intelligence.


3) Women, Geography and Education: Andre Leo, Ellen Churchill Semple, Zonia Baber

    Marcella Schmidt Di Friedberg (University of Milano-Bicocca)

    The purpose of this contribution is to explore open-air education and field teaching in schools in the late nineteenth and early twentieth centuries. The three authors, a writer and two geographers, come from different social backgrounds and have different political views, but they all depicted models of women’s achievements and provide a critique of educational practices in schools. Andre Leo (Leodile Bera, 1824-1900) was a French novelist, journalist and feminist, active in the Commune of Paris, and in the International Workers Association; she advocated the secularization of public schools, co-education, and new libertarian methods of teaching, on the model of her good friends Elisee and Elie Reclus. Andre Leo explains her ideas mainly in her novels, where education is seen as a tool for social and political emancipation. Ellen Churchill Semple (1863-1932) and Mary Arizona (Zonia) Baber (1862-1956) are both geographers: a leading figure of the discipline the first, much discussed for her environmental interpretations; the second, virtually unknown by contemporary geographers, was an activist in feminism, anti-imperialism, nature preservation, and above all, anti-racism and the promotion of peace. Semple criticize the geographical teaching of her timeand above all practice of direct field observation. In 1899 she went on a 350-mile horse trek in eastern Kentucky to study the region and the lives of its people. Baber promoted the progressive pedagogies of the early twentieth century and led field trips with her students. Three women, three voices, different contexts and views, the same concern for education’s reform.


4) Interrogating whiteness in the shaping of Anglo-American feminist geography.

    Linda J. Peake (York University)

    The first publications in Anglo-American feminist geography appeared in 1973, a direct consequence of the emergence of second wave feminism and of radical geography. The origins of radical geography in the Anglo-American world are commonly understood to be associated with 1969, marked by the first issue of Antipode and the first session on radical geography at an Association of American Geographers conference. From this pivotal moment, the story of the rise of Marxist analyses, of radical interventions such as the Union of Socialist Geographers and of other critical analyses is well rehearsed. Arguably, however, the seeds that were sown prior to 1969 held the promise of a fundamentally different trajectory for radical geography. It was in 1964 that efforts were first directed at addressing the institutional apartheid of the discipline, efforts that appear to have been so effectively trampled underfoot in the early march forward of radical geography that whiteness in the disciplinary field has become normalized, such that fifty years later, whiteness haunts us still. In this paper I address how this legacy of whiteness has shaped the analytical and institutional contours of feminist geography in the twentieth century.



[CS20-8] History of geography, geographical thought, practice, and gender (2) (Joint session with the Commission on Gender and Geography)

    [ Tuesday 06 August 17:30-19:00 Room665 ]    Chair(s): Janice J Monk (Univ. of Arizona)

1) The space and places of masculinities: debates and issues for geographers

    Louis Dupont (University Paris-Sorbonne)

    The study of masculinity is recent in the social sciences. It is even more recent in geography. This paper seeks to discuss its historical, epistemological and political links to what is called the “geography of gender, sexes and sexualities”. The scientific positioning of such of geography is rather simple: space and places make sense in the modern setting because there are gendered and sexualized bodies that move and interact into it. The study of masculinity in geography raises many debates and issues that affect how we conceive and practice geography. The first one is the production of geographic knowledge in itself: is geography a masculinist science? Fieldworks, especially in physical geography with its focus on “nature”, and cultural areas of study, for human geography, are here good indicators of gender relation in geography. Second is the question of power. Gender studies tend to focus on the gender relations and more specifically on the often demonstrated dominated position of woman. How is power being constructed and control in the body-place interaction? The classroom, and classroom dynamics, might be here a good place to examine. We will also try to show its reproduction in reference to the very specific but telling place that is the “family dinner” during holidays such as Christmas. Such examples show a diversity of masculinities, all defined or connected, to the hegemonic masculinity, the social force that engenders norms that reproduce power relations. Here, gender relations intersect with cultural and social positions in the public space.


2) A Sense of the Local with Gender Sensitivity: Reflection on Place and Fudo (milieu) in Japan

    Keichi Kumagai (Ochanomizu University)

    The idea of place has been a common concern in human geography including feminist geographers since the 1970s, while the one of ""fudo"" (milieu) has been a peculiar focus for Japanese philosophy and geography. The word ""fudo"" originated in Chinese became popular in Japan by the work of Tetsuro Watsuji (1935), which was recently reconstructed by Augustin Berque (1988), a French geographer and Japanologist. According to Berque, ""fudo"", a trajet / trajectivitet between culture and nature, should transcend the dichotomy (objective/ subjective; reason/ sensibility) and revitalize human geography. In this paper, the author highlights the idea of “fudo” and place by illustrating two Japanese serious historical suffering; Minamata disease since the 1950s and Tsunami disaster in 2011. And he would present how gender perspective should amplify these ideas.


3) Dwelling and Gender-focusing on The Weaving Princess Training Programme in Japan

    Momoyo Kushima (University of Exeter)

    In this research I will aim to explore to what extent the concept of dwelling is transformed through the lens of gender. ‘Dwelling’ is the perspective to understand landscape and place as a mixture of nature and culture. It has been drawn into by geographers who are interested in providing a space/place perspective on relational hybridities. On the other hand, some feminist researchers have developed discussion about the relations between women and natural resources. This work addresses not only differential relations with the environments between men and women but also the importance of examining gender in the differences between men’s and women’s experiences and knowledge in relation to their environment. Taking these arguments into consideration, it is worthwhile to examine the relations between humans and nature and the concept of dwelling focusing on gender.
    To consider this issue, this research will focus on ‘The weaving Princess Training Programme’ in Showamura in Fukushima prefecture in north-eastern Japan. This programme is open to only women and the trainees learn farm work and weaving skills which use natural fibres from Karamushi-plant. As a result, young migrant women and Karamushi are bound together in place and contribute to maintain unique landscape. The research aims to consider following three questions; (1) how dwelling is (re)produced based on gender in The Weaving Princess Training Programme, (2) how this programme results in creating unique landscape in this village, and (3) what kinds of problems are caused by gendered dwelling.


4) Travel, cross-cultural knowledge, and female horticultural education: Japanese gardens in early twentieth century Britain

    Setsu Tachibana (Kobe Yamate University)

    This paper explores forming process of cross-cultural knowledge by travel and horticultural education through a focus on three different female horticulturalists’ ways of managing land by gardening. Three women of whom I focused on this paper were firstly, Ethel Webb (1862-1915) at Newstead Abbey, Nottinghamshire; secondly, Ella Christie(1861-1949)at Cowden Castle, Clackmannanshire, both from a wealthy mine-owning family, coincidentally travelling to Japan resulted in creating Japanese gardens in their private estates; and thirdly, Japanese horticulturalist, Taki Handa (1871-1956), who studied abroad at Studley College, Warwickshire, in 1906-1908, helped designing Japanese garden at Cowden Castle. Creating Japanese gardens, especially private estate, was particularly fashionable in early twentieth century Britain. Both Webb and Christie were defined as a number of wealthy Edwardian women who practised and promoted advanced garden design and horticultural knowledge; no less than global travel, it was a display of female independence. Moreover, by contrasting ways, a pioneering Japanese horticulturalist, Taki Handa, after returning to Japan, got married with Seiichi Nakanome, a medical doctor with six children, continued teaching botany, horticulture and English at Doshisha Women’s College in Kyoto, Japan. Later her life, Taki ran orchard at Nakanome’s family estate at Mizusawa, Iwate prefecture around 1920s. It also considers what Taki has learned from Studley College and how made use of this cross-cultural knowledge running orchard. It is examined that Taki’s horticultural experiences at home were ways of improving Japanese rural family life.



[CS21-1] Post-colonial planning

    [ Wednesday 07 August 08:00-09:30 Room675 ]    Chair(s): Louise Johnson (Deakin Univ.)

1) The controlled contours of knowledge and northern engagement: A case study of Aboriginal participation in environmental governance of uranium mining

    Bethany Haalboom (Victoria University of Wellington)

    While the number of non-regulatory environmental governance arrangements to manage the environmental impacts of mining have been growing in Canada, there as yet remains very limited research critically examining Aboriginal peoples’ experiences in these emerging institutions. This is especially notable with respect to the sharing of techno-scientific information, often employed as a central mechanism for enabling Aboriginal peoples’ participation and engendering their trust in environmental governance and planning. Using a two year qualitative case study of the Northern Saskatchewan Environmental Quality Committee overseeing uranium mining, this research explored how scientific knowledge in the form of risk assessments are framed by government and industry representatives in ways that aim to render development planning as controllable, predictable, and justifiable; the governance institution thereby serves as a neo-colonial space for achieving development objectives whose costs are borne by Aboriginal peoples. Aboriginal participants, however, presented their own knowledges and interpretations of risk that underscored uncertainties and assumptions erased within scientific risk assessments, and which linked to broader social injustices pervading development processes in Saskatchewan’s North.


2) Creating Space for Indigenous Landscape Values in Contemporary Values-led Planning

    Darryl Low Choy (Griffith University), Jenny Wadsworth, Darren Burns

    Many contemporary land use and natural resource management planning initiatives have embraced a values-led planning approach. At the same time, there have been increasing calls to recognise and respect culturally diverse values in public policy. Although indigenous consultation in many land use planning and natural resource management initiatives has been undertaken throughout Australia, indigenous input (with a few exceptions) is seldom visible in the project outputs. In most planning studies at local and regional scales, there has been a significant hiatus in incorporating indigenous landscape values.
    
    This paper presents research findings from a whole-of-region collaborative planning exercise. It identifies indigenous landscape values of relevance in the rapidly urbanising planning region of South East Queensland. The research has identified a range of landscape forms in which indigenous values are captured including key landscape elements such as traditional boundaries, pathways, women's and men's places, ceremonial areas, battlefields, mission sites, habitation sites and spiritual landscapes. Whilst regional scale planning cannot articulate all these values, a framework approach can be used to facilitate the cascading implementation of these values into local scale plans. This approach recognises the commonality of values across the region whilst respecting local differences and community priorities.
    
    The authors recognise that there are some unique challenges in incorporating Indigenous landscape values into conventional land use planning processes and suggest methods and techniques to address this need.
    


3) Seven Generation Planning: Indigenous Culture, Identyty and Place-making

    Theodore S Jojola (University of New Mexico), Laura L Harjo

    Deploying indigenous knowledge within community planning can play a role in maintaining sustainable places. Culture and identity is central to place-making and should be integrated into the planning process.
    
    Conceptualizing indigenous knowledge within planning can involve using a community's traditional knowledge. It involves storytelling, social and gender roles and responsibilities, sacred spaces, and specialized ecological knowledge. These are often not considered in planning practice although they are integral to constructing a worldview of Indigenous place.
    
    Indigenous design and planning is predicated on developing a process that is value-based. It employs looking at how a community’s past and present are necessary for staging development into the future. This process is called the seven-generations model and it is seen as necessary for bringing coherence to how places evolve.
    
    Using a seven-generations model requires understanding the history and context of a place. Inter-generational knowledge and transfer between the youth, parents and elders is a necessary element of the participatory processes involved in planning and development.
    
    This paper will examine examples of how place-making is being applied in contemporary Indigenous communities. These examples will be drawn from work being currently done by the Indigenous Design and Planning Institute (iD+Pi), University of New Mexico. Created in the Fall of 2011, iD+Pi is an interdisciplinary effort that brings faculty, students and professionals together to assist tribes in their design and planning projects.



[CS21-2] Indigeneity, Rights and Resources

    [ Wednesday 07 August 10:00-11:30 Room675 ]    Chair(s): Brad Coombes (The Univ. of Auckland)

1) Self-governance in indigenous fisheries: compromised authorities or space for self-determination?

    Brad Coombes (The University of Auckland)

    There has been considerable debate about whether approaches to local self-governance for indigenous peoples provides for their self-determined development or rather draws them into state polities and systems of control. This presentation examines two types of indigenous self-governance in customary fisheries management in the north of New Zealand: indigenous communities' self assertions of authority which seemingly bypass all forms of state authorisation and state award of self-governance rights. Ultimately, both attempts to manage independently are compromised by the actions and authorities of non-local fishing interests, as well as other exogenous and endogenous flows of authority, interest and natural processes. Accordingly, the reality of relational sovereignty is discussed, as are the associated shifts in conceptualising indigenous sovereignty which will be required to better conceptualise and lobby against that reality.


2) Emerging geographies of conservation and Indigenous land in Australia

    Heather Moorcroft (University of Wollongong), Michael Adams

    International examples of engagements between Indigenous peoples and the private conservation sector come mainly from developing countries and suggest divisions over priorities; global agendas undermining local agendas, and social agendas competing with conservation agendas. As with many settler societies, Australia is at a critical time in conservation and Indigenous peoples’ rights. Alternative and innovative approaches to conservation are promoted. The role and influence of private conservation is increasing. Indigenous peoples’ rights to land are recognised and Indigenous involvement in conservation is growing. Yet, despite Australia being considered a leader in these arenas, particularly the latter, there has been little analysis of the relationship between the private conservation sector and Indigenous Australians. This paper will describe how the spatial manifestations of private conservation and Indigenous land in Australia are creating new geographies between these once separate trajectories. Emerging geographies centre on issues of land tenure, planning, management and use. There are geographies of absence and contestation, as well as ones of multi-tenure and overlap between private conservation and Indigenous land. The paper will identify a number of research needs into these geographies, including: investigating the impact of scale and territory on governance; examining how the recognition of space between private conservation and Indigenous Australians influences outcomes such as constructive engagements; and questioning the social responsibilities of private conservation towards Indigenous Australians in accessing and utilising public funds.


3) Dayak swiddeners and the palm oil industry: forty years of change, accommodation and struggle in Sanggau, West Kalimantan, Indonesia

    Lesley M Potter (Australian National University Crawford School of Public Policy)

    This paper summarises a larger study of agricultural, cultural and environmental change among ‘Bidayah’ Dayak farmers in Sanggau district, West Kalimantan. Their traditional swidden system had been documented from the 1880s, but by the 1970s, the base line for this analysis, the system was perceived by outside observers as being close to its ecological limits, though land rich and tightly held. The introduction of government-run oil palm plantations in 1979 began a long period of accommodation and struggle, as fallow lands were slowly resumed. In the 1990s private estate developments began to flourish and oil palm intruded further into farmers’ lives. Detailed village/plantation studies were carried out by the author and assistants in 1997and 2001-2, with shorter visits in 2007 and 2012. Several other researchers contributed, making the district an ideal laboratory for analysing change. Dayak oil palm smallholders have had to surrender land to the plantation, though many continued to grow rice in both dry and wet swiddens wherever possible. Plagues of rats attracted to the palm fruit devastated rice yields, while the other components of the traditional system, groves of rubber and tembawang or fruit gardens, were differentially affected, often depending on the negotiating skills of adat (cultural) leaders. Changes in government legislation from 2007, accompanying price rises for crude palm oil as a feedstock for biodiesel, have recently eroded smallholder conditions as the industry has expanded rapidly. Nevertheless beyond the plantations and in village gardens swiddens continue to persist, especially in more remote locations of Sanggau.



[CS21-3] Indigenizing Development for Community Needs

    [ Wednesday 07 August 14:00-15:30 Room675 ]    Chair(s): Evelyn Peters (The Univ. of Winnipeg)

1) Social conditions in rural Aboriginal communities in NSW: Context, Continuity and Contingency, 1964-2012

    David Robert John Crew (Macquarie University), Richard Lionel Howitt, Janice Monk

    Securing just and sustainable economic and community development outcomes for Indigenous people in rural areas of southeast Australia has been an elusive policy goal for national and state governments. Much of the political rhetoric and academic focus in Indigenous affairs has been directed at issues in remote areas of northern Australia, and issues affecting Indigenous communities in rural areas are much less prominent and influential, with state and NGO agencies generally relying on national or state scale analyses or single issue approaches to frame programs, policies and responses at the scale of local communities. This paper offers a progress review of research drawing on analysis of archival data, commencing with field data collected by one of the researchers in 1964. Statistical data confirms the extent to which different places have produced different trajectories of change and different stories of success, opportunity and failure for Aboriginal communities. The research is also using mixed methods to explore changing patterns of local-scale economic, social and environmental change and the ways that local Aboriginal communities have experienced change over this relatively long time scale, which encompasses major policy shifts as well as significant structural change at national and state scales. The paper offers an overview of the changing policy context and local conditions in four rural communities and a short case study of one community that demonstrates the value of the longitudinal frame for community-based research.


2) Not for Profits working with Indigenous communities in Australia

    Claire Colyer (Macquarie University), Richard Lionel Howitt

    Australian state policies of the past two decades applied free market structures to the delivery of welfare services and given rise to a new era of competitive tendering and contracting. This has transformed the welfare sector and the delivery of welfare services and support to Indigenous Australians. Policies of the conservative Howard government (1996-2007) promoted government control of the sector and the rise and pre-eminence of large, ‘preferred’ not for profit organisations (NFPs). Post-Howard, continued expansion of government funding has further transformed the sector to the extent that many NFPs have become increasingly or entirely dependent on government funding as their major source of income. This paper draws on research with a major NFP, examining its engagements with Indigenous staff and communities. It explores the paradoxical challenges of ‘mainstreaming’ services to Indigenous people while advocating partnerships that foster Indigenous ‘development’. The changing landscape of Indigenous policy in Australia that allowed mainstream NFPs to compete for funding previously reserved for Indigenous programs and organisations has profound consequences. Many NFPs have moved into providing Indigenous services using state funds, and implementing state policies. The paper discusses the implications of this shift and the consequences of NFPs displacing smaller, locally based Indigenous organisations in the community development space. While many of these NFPs claim to use community development and capacity building approaches, in practice their work is more likely to be driven by government agendas and the availability of funding for specific services.


3) The Tradition Revived in a Community Development Process by Taiwan’s Indigenous People - From the Viewpoint of the Subjectivity Establishment -

    Takako Sasaki (Kyoto University Graduate School of Agriculture), Satoshi Hoshino, Shizuka Hashimoto, Natsuki Shimizu

    How can residents establish their primary roles in a process of community development (CD)? Researchers state that a key is transforming institution and knowledge from outside the community to fit their life style. Taking CD in the Sumangus village, one of the indigenous communities in Taiwan known for a successful CD practice, as a case study area, we tried to clarify how residents took the initiative in the process and to consider the sustainability of their CD activities.
     Taiwan’s indigenous people have lost their tradition in the experience of a minority. Thus, it is often difficult for them to reconstruct the tradition although they have attempted to revive it through CD efforts. We traced the Sumangus’s CD process and investigated how Sumangus’ residents took the initiative in the process based on field work.
     The Sumangus’ CD process could be divided into three stages: first, they aimed to earn money just like general indigenous community; second, they set a rule applying the governmental law of CD to manage the village; finally, they strategically reorganized forgotten common law into the village management system as transforming institution which the Government and specialists brought in the village.
     However, such process was mainly guided by community leaders. Therefore, Smangus has the potential vulnerability on CD’s sustainability, because ordinary residents did not necessarily understand how the tradition was transformed. Moreover, some residents negatively regarded the system as the conventional tradition. Leaders need to explore a way to expand the new concepts of tradition among the residents.


4) Quality, English, and Minority Languages at Ethnic Public Schools in Xi’an, China

    Yang Yang (University of Colorado at Boulder)

    Bilingual education, involving both Mandarin Chinese and ethnic languages, has been a ubiquitous model of teaching ethnic minority students in the public schooling system of the People’s Republic of China. Along side with this model, English language courses and the notion of improving the comprehensive qualities (suzhi) of students have also been incorporated into the agenda of public education since the 1980s. By looking at the interplays between suzhi education, English language curriculum, and minority language teaching, this paper asks how English language courses as critical components in implementing suzhi education in ethnic schools transform strategies to govern ethnic minorities. Specifically, based on the experience of the urban Hui Muslims in Xi’an, this paper claims that English is utilized as a qualitative tool to materialize ethnic-based stratification in language courses at school. For the Chinese government, the model of teaching English is considered a “scientific” template for ethnic language courses to enhance the effectiveness of teaching and learning, and the quality of ethnic languages per se as “civilized” and modern ones. These strategies depoliticize the Han-centric governance of ethnic minorities through utilizing a foreign language to disguise ethnic-based linguistic hierarchy in public education.



[CS21-4] Indigenous Knowledges and Responses to Risk

    [ Wednesday 07 August 16:00-17:30 Room675 ]    Chair(s): Simon J Lambert (Lincoln Univ.)

1) Can Indigenous Knowledge reduce risk, facilitate recovery, and increase resilience?

    Daniel C H Hikuroa (University of Auckland)

    The frailty of human life has been tragically demonstrated by numerous natural hazards leading to massive disasters in the last decade; tsunamis in Indonesia (2004) Samoa, (2009) and Japan (2011); earthquakes in Haiti (2010), Chile (2010) and Christchurch (2010, 2011). In the likelihood that the geologic processes that caused such natural hazards will continue into the foreseeable future, we need to focus our attention upon reducing risk and increasing resilience. Traditional wisdom in the form of indigenous knowledge (IK) is increasingly being recognised as an alternative domain of understanding that is relevant to present-day societal challenges such as natural hazards and disasters. In New Zealand a growing chorus of Maaori stakeholders are expresing the need to share their perspectives and understanding of natural hazards. IK is increasingly being recognized as both an important database of multi-hazard information and also hazard management and disaster recovery strategies - all of which contribute to increased resilience. A valuable aspect IK brings to our collective understanding of hazards is its temporal component. In New Zealand IK has been generated since Maaori first arrived ~1000 years ago, many centuries before written records of hazards began. In other countries the IK record is even longer, e.g. ~35,000 years for Japan. Furthermore, siting of infrastructure and different value systems placed on such infrastructure offer fresh perspectives to hazard management and disaster recovery. In this presentation I will demonstrate how integrating traditional wisdom with modern knowledge can reduce risk, facilitate recovery and contribute to a resilient Earth future.


2) The Impact of Agency Fire Fighting on the Retention and Revival of Indigenous Fire Knowledge

    Christine Eriksen (University of Wollongong), Don L Hankins

    This paper explores the potential impact of training and employment with wildfire management agencies on the retention of Indigenous fire knowledge. It focuses on the comparative knowledge and experiences of Indigenous Elders, cultural practitioners, and land stewards in connection with "modern" political constructs of fire in Australia and the USA. The paper emphasises the close link between cross-cultural acceptance, integration of Indigenous and agency fire cultures, and the ways in which different types of knowledge are shared or withheld. While agency fire fighting provides an opportunity for Indigenous people to connect and care for country, it simultaneously allows for the breaking of the traditional rules surrounding what knowledge is shared with whom in the context of Indigenous cultural burning. By highlighting how privilege intersects with ethnicity, class, gender and age, the paper demonstrates how greater cross-cultural acceptance could aid ongoing debates on how to manage and live with wildfire today.


3) Lessons from Cyclone Yasi: the role of North Queensland’s Indigenous Ranger Network

    Jenny K Wadsworth (Urban Research Program, Griffith University), Silvia Serrao-Neumann, Darryl Low-Choy

    Cyclone Yasi hit the coastal North Queensland township of Cardwell on 3rd February 2011. This category 4 cyclone and intense rainfall that followed caused extensive damage to the town’s infrastructure, local businesses and residential dwellings. Immediate response from local and state authorities was impeded as road access to the town was disrupted by widespread floods.
    
    So far, this a fairly typical story when talking about disasters caused by natural hazards.
    What makes this case study unique however, is the role that the strong network of Indigenous Ranger Programs across North Queensland played in the immediate disaster response. Philip Rist of the Girringun Aboriginal Corporation (based in Cardwell) stated that:
    ""Indigenous Rangers from Cooktown, Mareeba and Burketown rushed to Cardwell to be a part of the specific Indigenous relief program. These guys where completely self-motivated, independent and self-reliant with their own food, water, camping facilities, fuel, chainsaws, vehicles and other resources at the ready.""
    
    In this presentation, the authors suggest that the effective mobilisation of this network is a testament not only to the strong relationships within and between Indigenous communities in North Queensland, but also to the value of the Ranger Programs in delivering skills and resources that are critical to the immediate response and recovery of communities facing natural hazards and disaster.



[CS21-5] Indigenous Communities' Recovery from Disaster

    [ Thursday 08 August 08:00-09:30 Room675 ]    Chair(s): Simon J Lambert (Lincoln Univ.)

1) Indigenous geography of urban disaster: Maori responses to the Christchurch earthquakes

    Simon J Lambert (Lincoln University)

    Papers in the IGU Kyoto session on ‘Indigenous Geography of Disaster’ are all exemplars of the conference theme in highlighting environmental insights from Indigenous Knowledge (IK) and their relevance for contemporary disaster management. IK has been identified in communal institutions and social capital in times of disruption; fire management in increasingly dry landscapes; housing in earthquake prone regions; and stock control in droughts. This knowledge can empower Indigenous and non-Indigenous communities in response to both rapid onset events and long-term environmental change.
    
    Threats to the retention and development of IK are well known, at least within Indigenous society, with programmes evolving to support what knowledge remains. But a defining feature of many Indigenous societies in the late C20th/early C21st is their rapid urbanisation, exposing their communities to new and emerging risks while diluting or at least distancing aspects of IK that have traditionally operated to avoid, remedy or mitigate disasters.
    
    This paper presents qualitative and quantitative data on the experiences of Maori (the Indigenous People of New Zealand) following the devastating earthquakes that struck the city of Christchurch in 2010-11. The context of modern disasters in New Zealand see many Maori living away from tribal homelands, occupying poorer housing, employed in vulnerable sectors and marginalised from local and national political power. But traditional practices around the extended family and social capital see both Maori and non-Maori benefitting from Maori cultural institutions that provide guidance into future disaster strategies.


2) Post-disaster Reconstruction and Institutional Context: Typhoon Morakot and the Wutai Rukai

    Minna Hsu (Macquarie University), Frank Thomalla, Richard Howitt, Fiona Miller

    In August 2009, Typhoon Morakot caused serious damage to central and southern Taiwan. The Indigenous Rukai-populated Wutai Township in Pingtung County, with an area of 278 square kilometers and elevation higher than 1000 meters, was one of the areas particularly affected. Entire communities were relocated from the mountains of Wutai to new settlements at elevations of 200 meters or less. The central government established the Morakot Post-Disaster Reconstruction Council in response, with many external organisations becoming involved in the rebuilding process. Initial post-disaster recovery regarding the displaced communities was largely addressed in terms of physical needs, meaning that issues such as housing were attended to at the expense of other less tangible factors, such as the cultural impact of relocation.
    
    When Indigenous populations are displaced they face changes to their community structures as well as the intensification of challenges to their cultural resilience. This paper examines processes of participation in the post-Morakot reconstruction of the Wutai Rukai communities, and NGO and state agency engagement with the communities regarding planning and implementation of resettlement and community development. The institutional context and procedural vulnerability as a source of risk are identified and explored.
    
    The data for this paper is from research conducted in partial fulfilment of the requirements for a PhD degree from Macquarie University in Sydney, Australia.


3) The Complementarity of Traditional Wisdom and Modern Knowledge in Disaster Recovery

    Te Kipa Kepa Brian Morgan (University of Auckland), Robyn D Manuel, Dan Hikuroa, Tumanako Fa`Aui, Raewyn Bennett, Pia Bennett

    The Great East Japan Earthquake/Tsunami and the Christchurch Earthquake, while inevitable and unpredictable to an extent, were also exacerbated by modern anthropocentric behaviours complicit in the scale, and enduring attributes of some of the impacts experienced. As modern ‘global’ priorities become increasingly prevalent in modern society, the resilience of ecosystems and those that depend upon them for well-being become increasingly marginalised and threatened with extinction. The real threat may be the increasingly monetised priorities and cost-benefit driven decision making of the modern world.
    The grounding of the Rena on Otaiiti, had significant environmental impacts that were experienced in anthropocentric terms as impacts upon social, economic, and cultural well being of many indigenous people. The Recovery Plan goal is to ‘restore the mauri of the affected environment to its pre-Rena state’. Mauri is the life supporting capacity of an ecosystem or its parts. The goal of mauri restoration is significant in that it positions environmental recovery in conceptual terms aligned to the aspirations of the indigenous peoples of the affected area. The reference to mauri facilitates the recognition of important meta-physical considerations not otherwise included in conventional decision making. The Mauri Model Decision Making Framework is being used to investigate this challenge and discuss the sustainability implications of the disaster mitigation strategies being promulgated.
    Mauri can be measured qualitatively or quantitatively. The conceptual basis of Mauri resonates with that of Ki (気, 氣, or 气.) in Japan. Thus the sharing of this research may be a step towards enhanced global understanding.



[CS21-6] Indigeneity and Disaster Reconstruction in Taiwan

    [ Thursday 08 August 10:00-11:30 Room675 ]    Chair(s): Simon J Lambert (Lincoln Univ.)

1) A Study of Hazard Perception and Life Adjustments- A Case Study of House Reconstruction in Kucapungane Village after Typhoon Morakot

    Yi-Wen Chen (National Kaohsiung Normal University), Yung-Sen Chen

    Facing the disasters triggered from extreme events, the issues of reconstruction and recovery are top priorities, and the key to dealing with disasters are human’s hazard perception and life adjustments. In August, 2009, typhoon Morakot severely hit Taiwan, which brought torrential rains causing devastating flooding in many districts.
    
    The study explores the hazard experiences and life adjustments of Kucapungane residents after typhoon Morakot. The major purpose of the study is to find out Kucapungane residents’ hazard perception and life adjustments through house reconstruction, and examine the correlation between typhoon Morakot and the reconstruction lifestyle.
    
    The study reviews related literatures to understand Kucapungane residents’ recognition of disaster. Based on hazard perception and adjustment theories as study framework, the study investigates Kucapungane residents’ attitude toward the disaster situations, related preventions and adjustments through in-depth interview.
    
    The study shows that respondents’ recognition and alertness different from age; Kucapungane residents’ recognition of hazard declines over time; Regarding impacts of typhoon Morakot, there are nothing special external life adjustments, Kucapungane residents choose moving and adapting new life in Rinari; the changes of Kucapungane residents’ living habitation are not merely the influence of typhoon disaster.
    
    
    Keyword: Hazard Perception, Adjustment, Typhoon Morakot, Kucapungane


2) Ethno-physiography and Disaster Management: A Case Study in The Austronesian language Speaking Indigenous Community, Taiwan

    Da Wei Kuan (National Cheng-Chi University)

    Ethno-physiography is an inter-disciplinary approach studying how different cultures perceive and conceptualize landscape. Taking the Austronesia language speaking indigenous community in Taiwan as an example, this paper reveals the importance of indigenous knowledge and the application of ethno-physiographical study in contemporary disaster management. This paper is based on extensive ethnographic research in the mountain area of northern Taiwan, in where the tension between the livelihood of indigenous Tayal people and the governmental land-use regulation for disaster mitigation is increasing under climate change. Adopting the methods of participatory mapping, in-depth interview and linguistic analysis, this paper explores the categorization of landscape in Tayal language and the human-ecological meanings behind it. In the end, this paper shows such categorization can provide more suitable and efficient principles for the designing of local land-use regulation that is helpful for indigenous self-governance, and also makes suggestions to the dialogue between modern science and indigenous knowledge.


3) Study of the Paiwan Peoples’ Adaptation to the Ecological Environment

    Tung Hsiung Kuo (National Kaohsiung Normal University, Kaohsiung), Shu-Mei Shu-Mei Chen Chen

    The issue of climate change is a global concern in recent years. Taiwan has also experienced major climate catastrophes in the past hundred years. Therefore, in the pursuit of economic and socio-cultural development and more advanced technology, we must seriously consider the relationship between minkind and the land, and between mankind and the natural environment.
    
    In this study, with the Paiwan Peoples in Taiwan as the research object, the cultural background of the Paiwan Peoples’ traditional ecological environment will be sorted out through literature analysis first. Via in-depth interviews with the Paiwan seniors, the experiences of the Paiwan Peoples’ adaptation to the ecological environment in the course of practicing traditional way of life and how they pass down the knowledge and heritage will be varified. At the same time, the authors are personally involved in the observation and practice, conducting practical action to experience the traditional ecological knowledge of how to adapt to the nature. The aim of this research is first to understand the significance of the traditional Paiwan cultural space and landscape inlaid in the natural environment under the circumstance of environmental change. The authors will then try to construct the Paiwan Peoples’ knowledge system on traditional ecological environment and culture, as a model for today's civilized society.
    
    
    
    
    Keywords : Culture of the Paiwan Peoples, Traditional Knowledge, Ecological Environment, World Heritage



[CS21-7] Weaving Indigenous and Sustainability Science to Diversity our Methods

    [ Thursday 08 August 14:00-15:30 Room675 ]    Chair(s): Jay T Johnson (Univ. of Kansas)

1) Negotiating the Indigenous and Sustainability Sciences Divide

    Jay T Johnson (University of Kansas)

    Despite being geared toward the common goal of developing strategies to sustain resilient landscapes, Indigenous and Sustainability Sciences have not until recently been in dialogue. Bringing them into dialogue was the promise of a recent workshop in the United States funded by the National Science Foundation entitled, WIS2DOM (Weaving Indigenous and Sustainability Sciences: Diversifying our Methods). The purpose of that workshop was to answer some key questions related to bridging Indigenous and sustainability sciences, namely, what are the strengths and weaknesses of these two paradigms of science in sustaining resilient landscapes? How can these two paradigms collaborate and what protocols will aid in that collaboration? This paper will present the findings of this workshop and address how an on-going dialogue between traditional wisdom and modern knowledge might address the key questions of our Earth’s future.


2) Indigenous Cartographic Representation of Sustainable Landscapes

    Renee P Louis (University of Kansas)

    Sustainability means different things to different people. From an Indigenous point of view, it is a necessary part of interacting with the places where we live, work and play. From a Hawaiian point of view, sustainability is saturated with the sacred. The physical environment cannot be separated from the metaphysical reality that surrounds us. Furthermore, Hawaiian perceptions of physical processes are metaphorically maintained and incorporated the into their daily lives through various protocols and practices.
    
    For example, in her most recent publication, Ka Honua Ola: ‘Eli‘eli Kau Mai (The Living Earth: Descend, Deepen the Revelation), Hawaiian scholar and kumu hula (Hawaiian dance teacher), Pualani Kanahele, shares her explanation and interpretation of a mele entitled, Haumea laua ‘o Moemoea‘ali‘i (Haumea together with Moemoea‘ali‘i), a family genealogy found in Ka Hoku o Hawaii, a 19th century Hawaiian language newspaper based in Hilo.
    
    Haumea is a female deity considered to be the symbolic essence of all life forms. Moemoea‘ali‘i is a male deity whose name reveals his function, the small rootlets that lie in waiting. The union of these two earthbound deities produces fourteen offspring. The names and birthplaces of each offspring provide clues about their form and function in the volcanic construction of the Hawaiian Islands.
    
    This mele is one example of how Hawaiians incorporated advanced scientific knowledge and metaphoric modes of communication into their cartographic traditions. This presentation and subsequent paper investigates Indigenous cartographic practices as they relate to sustaining sacred landscapes.


3) Digitization of indigenous knowledge on land use

    Shih-Yuan Lin (National Chengchi University), Da-Wei Kuan

    In order to adapt to the environment, the Taiwan aborigines has accumulated a lot of survival knowledge for thousands of years. For preserving such valuable experiences, this paper focuses on the method to digitize and analyze indigenous knowledge, in particular in the aspect of land use corresponding to environmental changes. To achieve this, a two-stage task is arranged. Firstly, a series of field surveys are conducted to collect indigenous experiences and knowledge of land use. Once the surveys are finished, the data collected are summarized and analyzed to identify the key factors affecting the land use. In addition to the factors, it is also critical to determine appropriate importance/weight associated with each factor through data analysis. Secondly, a GIS’s Planning Support Module is introduced to implement the digitization of indigenous knowledge on land use. The factors and weights decided at the first stage are import to the module. With the above information, the digitization of knowledge is performed and the corresponding land use map is produced. Not only the detailed procedure will be reported, but also the justification of the results will be demonstrated in the paper.


4) Repackaging of Indigenous Knowledge in Agriculture : A comparative study of M.M.Hills,,Karnataka and Kollihills, TamilNadu, Southern India

    Divya Rajeswari Swaminathan (CENTER FOR DEVELOPMENT RESEARCH), Thangavelu Vasanthakumaran

    Introduction:Agricultural development is driven by innovation at all levels, but the type of innovation that makes the difference is what farmers decides as very useful, cost-effective and eco-friendly. Innovation by farmers generally grows out of local wisdom and inspiration.Study Area:Kollihills are located in the Eastern Ghat hill ranges of Tamil Nadu, in Namakkal district. It is occupied by a tribe, popularly known as ‘Malayalis’ (the hill people) who are agricultural and are changing fast with the times, even as they continue to use their traditional ecological knowledge to their best advantage in terrace farming.Data and Methods:Terrace cultivation is practiced throughout the Kollihills. Paddy is the main crop of the hills and grown on the terraces of the streams and rivulets.They use traditional, long tried methods for managing micro-climates for the plantation crops and for space management.Participatory observations and semi-structured interviews have been held on the hills while the Malayalis have been at work. Conclusion:Traditional Ecological Knowledge plays a vital role in the conservation of the resources and environment. TEK provides sustainable means of better yields, production and at the same time serves to protect the environment. But TEK has been on the decline with the advent of modern agricultural practices of the plains below, necessitating a repackaging of traditional ecological knowledge practices as organic farming is gaining importance on the hills and in the vicinity. The paper speaks of the means, as well as why, of repackaging as gleaned from the farming tribal communities.



[CS21-8] Technologies, Development and Indigenous Knowledges

    [ Thursday 08 August 16:00-17:30 Room675 ]    Chair(s): Louise Johnson (Deakin Univ.)

1) Participatory Mapping and GIS to Rescue Indigenous Geographical Knowledge: A Case Study from Eastern San Luis Potosi State, Mexico

    Miguel Aguilar-Robledo (Autonomous University of San Luis Potosi), Gerardo Hernandez-Cendejas, Humberto Reyes-Hernandez, Valente Vazquez-Solis

    Although summarized as a case study, this paper presents the main results of two research projects undertaken in eastern of San Luis Potosi State, Mexico: the first, a team project funded by the Mexican Environmental Ministry carried out in Tenek and Nahua communities in the municipalities of Ciudad Valles, Aquismon, Axtla de Terrazas and Coxcatlan, from 2004 to 2007; the second, a doctoral research, involved six Tenek agrarian communities located in the municipalities of Tanlajas and San Vicente Tancuayalab, from 2008 to 2012. Both projects combined participatory mapping (providing ethnocartographers with GPS units and training to georeference spots/places to plot them on their maps), GIS lab work and literature reviews. These results show how indigenous geographical wisdom can enrich modern geography for a sustainable Earth management. In particular, the paper shows a sample of the maps resulting from participatory mapping and the detailed geographical knowledge Indians still hold on land tenure, land use and the sustainable use of natural resources. Further, the paper singles out that indigenous geographical knowledge could be matched with standard, modern geography: for instance, rescued indigenous toponymics can properly substitute colonial/official place names to decolonize indigenous landscapes; native landholdings combine private and collective land tenure; indigenous land uses show sustainable stewardship of natural resources. Finally, the paper concludes by saying that participatory mapping and GIS empower indigenous communities and help match their territorial knowledge with modern geography.


2) Extreme Weather Events and climate change impact on Construction Small Medium Enterprises (SMEs): Imbibing Indigenous Responses for Sustainability of SMEs

    Shubham Gandhi (Delhi Technological University), Dr. G. S Chauhan

    India has a rich tradition of cultural practices and a textual heritage that dates back to several hundreds of years. It had a magnificently advanced knowledge base, which gave birth to rich traditions and ingenious practices during the medieval era. The intellectual achievements of Indian thought are found across several fields of study in ancient Indian texts ranging from the Vedas and the Upanishads to a whole range of scriptural, philosophical, scientific, technical and artistic sources.In many parts of India, communities have inherited the rich tradition of love and reverence for nature through ages. Religious preaching, traditions and customs have played a big role in this regard: Indian religions have generally been the advocates of environmentalism. India has witnessed the great environmental movements in past. However as the globalization took roots in India in late 80's and to withstand the competition face from global markets Indian Small Medium Enterprises ignored the environmental safety and as a results of this pollution is now crossing critical limits in metro cities.
     In the past few years Delhi has experienced a number of Extreme Weather Events (EWEs) and the damages that climate change have caused are clearly visible. Therefore, we present an empirical study on Construction Sector Small Medium Enterprises- business that suffers mostly because of the extreme weather events due to climate change how can it be tackled with incorporating the indigenous knowledge. Hence today, it has more important for us to understand such traditions and incorporate into modern development.


3) Conversion to Sustainable Agriculture and Local Moral World: A Case Study from One Atayal Community in Northern Taiwan

    Hung-Yu Ru (Tzu-Chi University)

    Sustainable agriculture has been becoming a new way of social reproduction to respond to indigenous economic disadvantage, environmental crisis and health inequality in Taiwan since the early 1990s. The purpose of this study is to explore the relationships among conversion to sustainable agriculture, indigenous ecological knowledge (IEK) and Christianity in one Atayal community in northern Taiwan. Special attention is given to how personal characteristics, indigenous ecological knowledge and Christianity reshape the local moral world of the Atayal and then alter the Atayal’s activities in agriculture. One-year of ethnographic fieldwork was carried out between August 2010 and July 2011. In-depth interviews and participant observations were conducted with the Atayal farmers who were engaging in practicing and converting to sustainable agriculture to study their cognitive processes, behaviors and material creations. Several factors related to conversion to sustainable agriculture are identified in this study. Firstly, practicing sustainable agriculture corresponds to a religious life when conversion to sustainable agriculture takes place among the Atayal farmers. Secondly, the Atayal innovators of sustainable agriculture adopt a new moral world that is shaped by their social sufferings, ecological knowledge and Christianity to promote new agricultural techniques in the community. Thirdly, sharing the local moral world between the innovators and early adopters contributes to crossing the boundaries among the Atayal farmers and then facilitating the development of sustainable agriculture in the community..



[CS22-1] Sustainability on island I

    [ Tuesday 06 August 08:00-09:30 Room670 ]    Chair(s): Chang-Yi David Chang (National Taiwan Univ.), Eric Clark (Lund Univ.)

1) Landscape investigations of the islands in the North-West part of Pacific Ocean

    Kirill Sergeevich Ganzei (Pacific Geographical Institute FEB RAS)

    At the Pacific Geographical Institute of FEB RAS on the basis of long-term landscape investigations new dates of a landscape structure of continental and oceanic islands of North-West part of Pacific Ocean were obtained. The main objects of investigations are Kurile, Hawaiian and Komandorskiye Islands and the continental islands located along the Russia Pacific coast. As a result of carrying out of complex landscape investigations the material which reflects features of change of a landscape structure and a landscape variety depending on removal of islands from a continental land and intensity of manifestation of natural catastrophic processes is received. For definition of a volcanic factor role in the course of landscape differentiation for a number of islands cartographical models on different temporary cuts were constructed. They reflect post-volcanic transformations and tendencies of restoration of natural complexes.
    On the basis of paleogeographical reconstruction the stages of environment formation for number of islands were defined. It is a compulsory part of planning the modern and future economic development of islands. For example, two periods of evolution of natural complexes in the Holocene of the Peter Great Bay Islands (Japan Sea) are separated. In the Late Holocene low temperature indicators promoted development of the cedar woods and podzolized brown soils. On the modern warmer period the distribution of broad-leaved forests and activization of accumulative-humic soil formation processes are typical. These transformations happened also under intensive anthropogenous transformation of landscapes.
    The work supported by the Russian Foundation for Basic Research (projects 12-05-00202).


2) Landscape Assessment for Penghu National Park, Taiwan

    Jiun-Chuan Lin (National Taiwan University)

    Penghu is situated to the southwestern coast of Taiwan, in the middle of Taiwan Strait. Penghu is famous for its columnar basalt landscape and marine ecology. However, it is yet to come up with the most suitable plan to protect and manage its natural resources. It is designed as a marine geopark, a nature reserve and potentially a national park.
    
    This paper will designate a methodology for landscape assessment for the establishment of Penghu marine national park. Protecting and conserving the ecological environment of Penghu islets is challenging as the local economic activities would be altered when the national park is set up. According to National Park Act of Taiwan, the assessment of local resources and environment for a potential national park is a must. It is important as well to compare the potential site with global cases.
    
    It is important that the uniqueness of landscapes, scale and geo-diversity of the potential site is fit for conservation, so reviewing natural environment and local human ecology before establishing a national park is critical. Through comparison and assessment, Penghu basaltic landscape is uniquely beautiful and a well management scheme is needed for a sustainable national park. The management scheme for the park will need to add a strong dimension for human society and fishing activities, as human activities and settlements are involved in the planned site. Zoning and various management plans will be needed for Penghu Marine National Park to be successful.
    
    Keywords: national park, basalt columnar, landscape assessment, Penghu, and Taiwan


3) “Yet chimpanzees are not their brothers !”. A local view of chimpanzee conservation messages in Tristao Islands, Guinea /Guinea-Bissau

    Vincent Leblan (Kyoto University)

    Due to its evolutionary proximity to our genus, resulting in the granting of a near human status, the chimpanzee is endowed with a strong symbolic capital by nature conservation NGOs who often use it as their flagship. I focus here on a case of local understanding of such conservation messages in the context of a near unique situation of “natural” chimpanzee insularity occuring on the Guinea / Guinea-Bissau frontier. First, I present the results of a chimpanzee population survey in this mangrove ecosystem, taking into account the history of the islands’ formation and associated vegetation covers. Secondly, I look at the changing conditions of human-chimpanzee coexistence in the past decades as documented through ethnographic inquiry and 1950s-1960s vegetation maps : the conversion of most tall deciduous forest to lower shrubby vegetation may have resulted in an increasingly contentious human/chimpanzee ecology over oil palm trees, which are valued by local inhabitants for the oil derived from the fruits, and are also now the only resource left for chimpanzees to build their daily sleeping platforms. In any case, fruit productivity of oil palms is said by local inhabitants to be affected by this chimpanzee behaviour, who thus perceive the species as a threat and certainly don’t agree with the conservation organizations’ message of human-chimpanzee identity. This is in contrast with two other nearby mangrove but continental situations of coexistence with humans, where chimpanzees also nest in oil palms, which were reported by recent studies to be harmonious.



[CS22-2] Sustainability on island II

    [ Tuesday 06 August 10:00-11:30 Room670 ]    Chair(s): Chang-Yi David Chang (National Taiwan Univ.), Eric Clark (Lund Univ.)

1) The use of analytic hierarchy process in the analysis of island locations for ecotourism development in Penghu Archipelago, Taiwan

    Shuiliang Yu (National Penghu University), Kuoyuan Kao

    In order to respond to the vigorous development of domestic ecological tourism and consider the uniqueness of the natural resource systems of the islands, this research aimed to select potential ecological tourism locations in the Penghu region and establish a set of proper models for assessing the islands’ ecological tourism locations. The research is expected to function as the model application for the future development of ecological tourism of offshore island natural tourism locations. Through the exploration of an assessment model, selection of islands for ecological tourism locations can be made.
    The researcher employed on-site investigation and used AHP to construct a two-hierarchy model framework including assessment factors and indicators. Through expert quantitative frequency analysis in the reorganization of literature analysis and subsequent factor analysis, the researcher acquired hierarchy 1 and three categories of assessment factors. According to their hierarchical relations, 11 factors were screened as the assessment indicators of the second hierarchy. There were 25 detail factors. The overall hierarchical system was thus established. The researcher then proceeded with questionnaires of matching and comparison matrices in order to acquire the relative weighting of the factors and indicators. In the third stage, the researcher used questionnaire framework of the second stage and 35 locations in the Penghu region to screen the potential spots for ecological tourism in Penghu. We then acquired the ideal project concept solution by TOPSIS to further confirm the structure of the assessment model for selection of ecological tourism locations.


2) A Study on Indicators for Integrated Coastal Zone Management: A Case of Taiwan

    Rong-Kang Shang (National Taiwan University), Chang-Yi David Chang

    The coast is a gradual transitional region between the land and ocean. With a high degree of diversity and productivity, the coastal area has a very important contribution to the living, housing and development of human being. Following the population growth and economic advancement, the land use of coastal zone is more diverse and complex. In order to solve the conflicts of multiple uses and mitigate the negative effects by human activities, integrated coastal zone management has been regarded as the best way to achieve the sustainable development of the coastal zone.
    Environmental indicators have also been recognized as reliable tools to make coastal management decisions. Environmental indicators can be used to present the state of the environment, to measure progress towards sustainability, and to guide management direction for the future. Since the management topics and development goals are different among various types of coastal areas, a single set of indicators is insufficient to reflect the regional differences. This study uses thematic indicators to estabilsh an evaluation framework to compare the dissimilarity between coastal management zones. After the analysis of questionnaire survey and in-depth interviews with key persons, the research result displays that coastal management zone is an important factor of the weight of indicator, and that protected zone and buffer zone have same trends in the distribution of weights.


3) Regional characteristics of Seto Inland Sea and its attached islands: network and insularity from eco- historical perspectives

    Haruo Noma (Kansai University)

    The Seto Inland Sea has been highly praised since the 16th century by Westerners as a very scenic archipelago in the world. This area has appeared since ancient and medieval period in Japan. According to many historical documents, important ports and harbors were located on the mainland coast as well as inland sea islands. Prior to railways operation, they flourished as local and regional network points for Japan Sea. Sketching the flow of people and goods in the Seto Inland Sea since early modern period, I discuss the change of navigation routes in the mid-17th century: the mainstream navigation shifted from 'Jinori' to 'Okinori' (the offshore navigation), which resulted in less necessity for awaiting a favorable tide and wind. This change was caused by the ship form innovation and the development of navigation technique. New harbors were born in such small inland islands successively.
     Inland islands settlements were specialized in hillside terraced farming, fishing, quarry shipwrights and naval architects. In some villages people tend to go to big cities or foreign countries to work. Now these islands are depopulated and aging, however, almost settlements had shown extremely high population density and peculiar economic vitality at a certain time. I try to categorize them into some types, and analyze Geiyo-Islands from the change of arable land forms, settlement landscape, demographic composition and population flow, vegetation or land use change, and social organization. Lastly, I compare sustainable strategies in commercialized rural/urban communities specialized in growing mandarin orange and maritime transport.


4) The Formation Ideas for Settlements and Cosmology in Ryukyu

    Koichi Matsui (Center for the study of Asian Cultures, Kansai University)

    In this paper the author set out the formation ideas for settlements in Ryukyu. Ryukyu kingdom has continued from the 15th to late 19th century. Ryukyu kingdom had traded with many countries in East Asia as well as Southeast Asia. As a result many things, cultures, folkways and ideas had been carried into Ryukyu kingdom.
    Particular feng-shui was most typical idea originated in South China. The formation ideas for settlements in Ryukyu are unique and different from other regions. Shuri castle was Chinese-style architecture strongly influenced by feng-shui, it was forbidden to change the original condition. Furthermore, feng-shui influences the location of settlement, house direction, and windbreak called “Hogorin”.
    The other characteristic point, strong ancestral worship called “Kusate” is imprinted in settlement formation and social organization. This idea influence in the following: sacred place oriented settlement formation; hierarchical location between head family and branch family; the location of priests and female bishop’s house.
    In conclusion, the author discuss the some typical settlements influenced by feng-shui and “Kusate” in Ryukyu from the historical/cultural geography perspective.



[CS23-1] Human impacts on karst terrain (1)

    [ Thursday 08 August 08:00-09:30 Room674 ]    Chair(s): Kazuko Urushibara-Yoshino (Hosei Univ.), Tadej Slabe (Research Centre of the Slovenian Academy of Sciences and Arts)

1) Karstification Processes in Minamidaito Island in Nansei Shoto, Southwest Japan

    Kazuko Urushibara-Yoshino (Hosei University), Yasuyuki Oppata

    Minamidaito Island which is uplifted atoll locates on Philippines Plate. The coast of island is formed by coral limestone dated as 5e, and has an altitude about 12m a.s.l. Based on this value, the rate of uplift calculated as 0.05m/ka by Ota et al. In this study, the erosional terrains has been measured on Kaigunbo coast. It was found that, on the same age of landform, different erosional terrains could be observed on the bench and platform, which were formed during the period with high sea level of Holocene. However, the bench has been formed the Old Daito dolomite, which had been formed earlier than Pleistocene.@#
    @On the 20m a.s.l., the unconformity border of the Old Daito dolomite and Daito dolomite can be observed. The higher than Old Daito dolomite formation, the sharp pinnacles and solutional depression’s formed. The vegetation cover is very rich. On the in northwest of the coast, fossil red soil, which people call “rainbow stone”, could be observed also in the border layer of Old Daito dolomite and Daito dolomite. The solution rate is higher in Daito dolomite than in the Old Daito dolomite areas.
    
    key words; Minamidaito Island, karstfication, solution rate, palaeosoil


2) The Dating of Speleothems in Minamidaito Island, in Southeast of Islands, Japan

    Kazuko Urushibara-Yoshino (Hosei University), Stein-Erik Lauritzen

    The chronological history of karstification in Minamidaito Island has been tried to clarify, using the Uranium Series dating method for speleothems. In the middle of Island, several doline lakes exist. In the lower depressions, many caves are also formed. The underground water table in the cave keeps as fresh water lens in the surface layer of sea water. Recently, farmer pumped up and used fresh water for irrigation of sugar cane fields.
     In the cave “point 7”, several speleothems were tried to analyze the dating. Some of speleothems show the date about 50 kyr in the center part. Pure carcite of speleothem shows the ice age climax. So, during the coldest period around 20-18 kyr, the pure speleothems were formed under the wetter condition.
     Furthermore, the boring data of Kitadaito Island, which was made in 1934 by Tohoku University, show us that the lowest vadose zone was -100 m a.s.l. during the Last Glacial Age. So, we could say that the climax of ice age (20-18 kyr) was cooler and wetter than present. The lowering of sea level during these age helped a lot to form the caves and speleothems.
    
     key words ; Minamidaito Island, speleothems, daiting with Uranium Series, karstification


3) Lithology, rock relief and karstification processes in coral Minamidaito island in the Nansei archipelago, southeast Japan

    Tadej Slabe (Research Centre of the Slovenian Academy of Sciences and Arts), Martin Knez, Kazuko Urushibara-Yoshino

    Minamidaito Island is a karstified coral island located on the Philippine plate. Karstification periods occurred during the end of the Pliocene, in major part of the Pleistocene, and in the Holocene. The first period of karstification can be observed in the lower Daito dolomitized limestone (5 Ma and 4 Ma); the karstification seems to have occurred as a result of sea level change caused by the cooler conditions of the paleoclimatic environment.
    Geological studies were performed to study reef carbonates in detail. Among them, biointrasparite limestone of framestone and bafflestone types with transitions to grainstone and dolomitized biointrasparry limestone of framestone and bafflestone types dominate. Calcimetric analyses established that in certain locations the distribution of limestone and dolomite differs from the distribution previously described.
    Rock relief reveals the unique formation of coastal karren, the development of the surface in the interior of the island, and the most characteristic periods of caves development.


4) Laboratory Experiments and Field Measurements on the Formative Process of Rillenkarren

    Asami Hada (Nihon University)

    The laboratory experiments were carried out to examine the effects of water temperature on the formation processes of rillenkarren. Two blocks made of plaster of paris, having 45°sloped surface were set, under the condition of vertical spray during the 1,000 hours. Temperatures of tap water sprayed were 45±5 ℃ and 24±3 ℃. Changing forms of rillenkarren were measured on the cross-sections by photographs. Width and depth were measured from the top of 45°lined surface to the 1, 2.5, 4, 6, 8, and 10 cm lower parts at the surface every 50 hours.
    In both cases of water temperature, rillenkarren lengths increase downwards from the top of 45°inclined slopes in accordance with times. The original sloped surfaces were eroded and the following changes of rillenkarren forms were observed. Rillenkarren lengths in the case of water temperature, 45±5 ℃ became longer downwards than that of water temperature, 24±3 ℃. Development of superficial distribution of rillenkarren under 45±5 ℃ was faster 200 - 300 hours than 24±3 ℃.
    As a conclusion, the followings to be noted: the speed of rillenkarren formation under 45±5℃ was faster than 24±3℃ from the beginning to the certain hours. The cross-sections of rillenkarren became larger keeping the initial forms (ratios of width and depth). Solution volume and speed under 45±5℃ estimate by cross-section measurement exceeded that under 24±3℃. Finally, applications to the field of experimental data were carried out in Akiyoshi-dai plateau, West Japan.



[CS23-2] Human impacts on karst terrain (2)

    [ Thursday 08 August 10:00-11:30 Room674 ]    Chair(s): Kazuko Urushibara-Yoshino (Hosei Univ.), Tadej Slabe (Research Centre of the Slovenian Academy of Sciences and Arts)

1) Effects of Field Burning on Thermal Weathering of Limestone in Akiyoshi-dai Plateau, West Japan

    Asami Hada (Nihon University), Tetsuya Waragai

    The Akiyoshi-dai plateau is composed of Carboniferous to Permian limestone. As the accretionary prism, Akiyoshi-dai Plateau was formed from oceanic seamount, which has originated in Panthalassa Sea from Lower Carboniferous to Middle Permian. These areas have been designated as one of the National Parks since 1995. Akiyoshi-dai is limestone area of karrenfeld that covers pinnacles with rillenkarren. Because field burning has been conducted in Akiyoshi-dai once a year, grassland is predominant instead of forests since the Edo period.
    In order to clarify the effect of field burning on limestone, an attempt was made to study by monitoring rock surface temperature. Temperature was measured with thermocouple sheath at 20 cm and 70 cm above the ground. The field survey included measurement of compressive strength using the Equotip rebound value and L*a*b* color system using a soil color-meter before and after the field burning. Rock samples were collected to analyze the properties of specific gravity, dry density, wet density, and void ratio. According to the results of survey, high temperature during the field burning changed the rock surface color from original color to white at the lower parts of pinnacle. It can be concluded that field burning cause the changes chemically from calcium carbonate to calcium oxide.


2) Development challenges in karst regions: sustainable land use planning in the karst of Slovenia

    Tadej Slabe (Research Centre of the Slovenian Academy of Sciences and Arts), Franci Gabrovsek, Martin Knez, Janja Kogovsek, Andrej Mihevc, Janez Mulec, Matija Perne, Metka Petric, Tanja Pipan, Mitja Prelovsek, Stanka Sebela, Natasa Ravbar

    The comprehensive knowledge of karst surface, caves, waters and biodiversity were examined with special emphasis on planning for environmental management and land use in karst regions using examples of projects performed by the staff from the Karst Research Institute ZRC SAZU. Based on the knowledge of karst, karst phenomena, karst waters and karst biodiversity, karstological monitoring was developed throughout the construction of expressways and planning for railways on karst terrain. Newly revealed karst phenomena were properly preserved. Regular climatic and biological monitoring were developed and implemented, as well as karstology consultation with an emphasis on the impact of the use of caves as natural assets. To understand karst, its evolution dynamics and processes, models were developed with which the study of the risk posed by dam site construction in karst areas was possible. Karst aquifers and their protection were studied using tracer tests and different methods of the transfer of contaminants through the vadose zone and underground flow connections. In assessing the vulnerability and contamination risk of groundwater, a comprehensive method was elaborated. Microorganisms and fauna of dripping water in caves were used as monitors of cave ecosystem health. By applying high-quality karstological research results from individual spheres of karstology and interdisciplinary studies, a foundation for sustainable planning of life in karst regions that will consider the natural and cultural characteristics and vulnerability of karst landscapes has been established.


3) Sixty years of human impact to karst water of the Franconian Alb / Germany

    Martin Trappe (University of Eichstaett-Ingolstadt)

    The actual landscape of the Franconian Alb is the result of different modes of human impact since Roman times. Humans formed the actual cultural landscape using the different natural framework requirements. Depending on the spatial distribution of Jurassic limestones, dolomites and the loamy cover the area was used for exploitation of these natural resources. Historic iron mining (Celtic and Roman activities, Middle Age, 18th/19th century), nowadays the pit-and-quarry-industry, agriculture and forestry and a few large-scale projects (highway constructions, Rhine-Main-Danube Canal, high-speed train lines) created a mosaic of settlements and farming, forestal and industrial areas. Consequently, today the local drinking water supply has to coexist with different impacts to the landscape including a possible and an already observed contamination of karst water.
    Caused by different percentages of these land use aspects in the catchment areas karst springs and groundwater exhibit different chemical compositions with respect to chloride, nitrate, phosphate and other substances. Especially the shallow karst and transitional zone to deep karst show such characteristics.
    Based on different sources (local drinking water suppliers, water management agencies Bavaria, own data) trends of the chemical evolution of karst water since sixty years will be presented. For example, a dramatic increase of the chloride and nitrate content can be observed. Compared with the application of different mineral fertilizers for farming activities or the use of road salt during winter the background of that contamination will be pointed out. For selected karst springs the portion of the human input to karst groundwater is calculated.


4) Karst landforms as symbolic nature in Chinese traditional cultures

    Jie Zhang (Nanjing University), Shao-Jing Lu, Hong-Lei Zhang

    Karst landforms are often used as symbols of grand nature or even symbol of special unusual environments or situation in general, e.g., in Plato’s cave metaphors. There are three parts in this paper. In the first part, we described and summarized the phenomena of special interests on karst landforms in various kinds of traditional Chinese cultures, and then in the second part we analyzed the different roles of karst landforms played in Chinese culture with respect to the type of karst landform. In the last part, we analyze the mechanism of the cultural roles of karst landform either geomorphically or aesthetically.
    Karst landforms played import roles in traditional culture in various aspects like religions like Taoism and Buddhism, Chinese literature (especially in legend story and folklore story), Chinese paintings, Chinese gardens and miniature display. 1) Minor scale karst erosional landforms seems to be symbol of nature and art for Chinese, 2) Cave as place with either single or complex sense of uncertainty, miracle, seclusion and horribility appeared in novels, religions and gardening; 3) Karst doline is often mimicked by landscape architects; 4) Fengling or peak forest and other karst peaks are symbol of natural picturesque landscape, and used as wonderland in ancient legend. Karst landforms play roles as symbol of grand nature, symbol of aesthetics, symbol of wonderland, symbol of horrible place, and symbol of secluded habitats. The diversity in morphology and widespreadness in distribution of karst landforms in China are the background for their roles in culture.


5) Informative State Indexes of Anthropogenic-Reformed Karst Cavers

    Elena Vladimirovna Trofimova (Institute of Geography)

    The degradation of underground environment under influence of anthropogenic pressure has a wide spread in a lot of karst caves in different parts of the world. The new approach for the estimation of the qualitative and quantitative changes of natural state of the caves is proposed.
    The following violations are considered for the description in karst caverns: changes of cave relief state (violations of underground system’s sizes: re-equipment of natural entrances, widening of cave passages; deformations of cave sediments; presence of artificial buildings); anthropogenic rubbish (food wastes and packages, used sportive equipment; mould formed after human visits; inscriptions by paint on cave walls and ceilings); changes of air (presence of the smell); water object composition’s changes; violations of biological equilibrium; anthropogenic transformations on the surface (rubbish heaps; inscriptions by paint on cave entrances).
    All violations of natural state in caves are graded as: weak intensity - 1, middle - 2 and considerable - 3 points. The points are summed up. The total index to less than 10 points indicates the weak violation of cave environment by human impact, from 10 to 25 points - middle intensity, 25-50 - considerable and more than 50 - the existence of the cave is under threat.



[CS24-1] Land degradation-in a changing environment (1)

    [ Thursday 08 August 08:00-09:30 Room679 ]    Chair(s): Paul F. Hudson (Leiden Univ.)

1) Soil degradation and risk of desertification in the Ziz oasis (Southern Morocco): a challenge for the sustainability of the traditional palm plantations.

    Ana Navas (EEAD-CSIC), Abdelhamid Sadiki, Ali Faleh, Leticia Gaspar, Javier Machin

    The oases of Southern Morocco face risk of desertification due to overexploitation of soil and water resources. The lands of the oued Ziz have been cultivated for centuries and palm plantations are grown on the Fluvisols that extend along the river valley until the Sahara desert. The succession of periods of droughts, the irrigation from a headwater reservoir, the extension of palm plantations outside the valley floor, the abandonment of the traditional irrigation “khettaras” and the interruption of natural floods that inundated the valley recharging the aquifers threatens the sustainability of soils that are vital to support the rural population in the oasis. A soil survey was carried out to assess soil quality at established control sites along the river valley. The changes in the parent materials from Cretaceous carbonate materials at the headwater to Paleozoic schists at the middle part are a source of variation for some main soil properties. The progressive salinization of soils observed along the valley is mainly caused by irrigation with saline waters that causes drastic decreases of soil productivity and will eventually lead to desertification. Furthermore, the advance of the Sahara desert is taking place affecting the soil texture by increasing the sand content thus decreasing the water retention capacity and soil fertility. Therefore, management of soil and water resources is a main issue for the sustainability of agroecosystems and the maintenance of the rural population in semi-desertic areas. This study provided information of interest to preserve the traditional agricultural systems in semidesertic areas.


2) Land degradation in volcanic soils of Patagonia

    Ana Navas (EEAD-CSIC), Ludmila La Manna, Leticia Gaspar

    Historically, large areas of forest in the Patagonian Andean Region have been converted to pasture for cattle. Currently, forest fires are still frequent mainly by anthropogenic causes. Soils developed from volcanic ashes, being erodible soils on a rugged topography. We aimed at characterizing soil properties in undisturbed native forests of Maytenus boaria (UF), comparing with areas converted to pasture for cattle (P) and M. boaria forests affected by a wildfire in 2008 (BF). The study area was located in Percy basin, Patagonia Argentina. All the sites corresponded to plains with Andic Mollisols. Soil samples were obtained at different depths, up to 40cm, for determining magnetic susceptibility by Bartington MS2 (LF), organic matter content by loss of ignition (OM) and pH in NaF as indicator of amorphous clays. The loss of forest significantly altered the fertility of soils. OM was lower in P (8.0±0.5) and BF (9.1±0.8) compared to UF (10.7±0.4). pH NaF at 2´ and 60´ were also lower in P (8.0±0.1; 8.6±0.1) and BF (8.2±0.1; 8.8±0.04) compared to UF (8.5±0.04; 9.2±0.02). On the other hand, LF was greater in P [(469 ± 8) x 10-8m3kg-1] and BF [(440±19) x 10-8m3kg-1] respect to UF [(390±8) x 10-8m3kg-1]. LF increments in disturbed sites might be associated with decline in the allophanization process or with ultrafine ferrimagnetic minerals fire-induced. These results evidenced soil degradation related to the loss of forests, mainly by the depletion of OM and amorphous clays, both key factors in the fertility of volcanic soils.


3) Landslide magnitude and frequency related to rainfall conditions in Japan

    Hitoshi Saito (Kanto Gakuin University), Oliver Korup, Taro Uchida, Shin-Ichiro Hayashi, Takashi Oguchi

    The Japanese archipelago is situated in the East Asian monsoon region and characterized by heavy rainfall events that frequently trigger landslides. While critical rainfall thresholds have been established in this context, little is known about the size characteristics of the resulting slope failures. This study examines potential correlations between landslide size distributions and total rainfall (mm), mean rainfall intensity (mm/h), maximum rainfall intensity (mm/h), and rainfall duration (h). We analyzed 4,848 rainfall-induced landslides that occurred throughout Japan during 2001 to 2011. We classified these landslides into two groups according to their estimated volume, and tested whether their size distribution is related to rainfall characteristics.

    Results show that the frequency of small landslides surpasses that of large landslides at low values of total rainfall, mean rainfall intensity, and maximum rainfall intensity. In contrast, the frequency of large landslides increases with increases in these rainfall parameters. The cross of values are the total rainfall of 200 - 270 mm, mean rainfall intensity of 3.5 - 3.8 mm/h, and the maximum rainfall intensity of 33 - 45 mm/h. If these thresholds are exceeded, large landslides tend to become more abundant than small landslides. With regard to the rainfall duration, the frequency distribution of large landslides is almost the same as that of small landslides. These results indicate that the total rainfall and the rainfall intensity may affect landslide magnitude more than rainfall duration in the Japanese archipelago.


4) Watershed geomorphometry for hazard vulnerability assessment in the Northern Japanese Alps

    Tuba Zahra (The University of Tokyo), Takashi Oguchi, Yuichi S. Hayakawa

    River courses and surrounding hillslopes are vulnerable to different types of hazards including debris flows, landslides and floods. Most drainage basins in Japan are steep and rugged with frequent rainfall that causes rapid geomorphological changes. This study aims to analyze slopes and channels in a watershed area near Mount Ontake in the Northern Japanese Alps. Emphasis is placed upon slope vs. area and slope vs. curvature relationships to examine landform development due to mass-movement. The former helps to distinguish diffusive (hillslope) from linear (valley) processes while the latter signifies the dominant sediment transport processes. A 10m DEM was used for observing landforms in the watershed. GeoNet 2.0, a geomorphic feature extraction tool was employed to identify channel head locations and the divides of sub-watersheds. The relationship between drainage density and slope angle was analyzed at the sub-watershed level to discuss the stages of channel development. Influences of slope and drainage characteristics on the occurrence of debris flows and landslides were then examined. Our detailed geomorphometric analysis provides insights into mass movement processes in mountainous watersheds.



[CS24-2] Land degradation-in a changing environment (2)

    [ Thursday 08 August 10:00-11:30 Room679 ]    Chair(s): Paul F. Hudson (Leiden Univ.)

1) Morphometric Assessment of Geomorphic Controls on Drainage Basin Development in the Western Arabian Peninsula

    Yunus Ali Pulpadan (The University of Tokyo), Takashi Oguchi

    The Arabian Peninsula has a very long geological history, and has been studied much for its oil richness and attractive eolian systems such as sand dunes. However, some basic geomorphological elements, particularly rates of geomorphic processes and steep mountainous drainage systems, have received much less attention. Thus, the study of the westward-draining steep fluvial systems in the western Arabian Peninsula, formed during the rifting of the Red Sea, is of geomorphical significance. The present work aims to assess the characteristics and development of 36 drainage basins in the western peninsula. Hierarchical cluster analysis (CA) and principal component analysis (PCA) were used to identify the variances distinguishing the morphology of the basins. CA subdivided the basins into two main groups. Five principle components were extracted, explaining 85% of total variance. The basins identified as cluster A by CA are located in the Asir terrane and are associated with negative PC1 (small drainage area), positive PC2 (low hypsometry) and positive PC3 (high relief) scores, while basins identified as cluster B are underlain by the Hijaz, Midyan and Yemen Volcanics and are linked with positive PC1 (large drainage area) scores. PC2 scores are positive (low HI) for the Midyan and north Hijaz, while negative PC2 values (high HI) occur for the south Hijaz. These results confirm the contribution of underlying geology and tectonic activities to the genesis and morphology of landforms.


2) Remote sensing and GIS based land-use analysis for sustainable development of Zhijin County, China

    Hao Chen (The University of Tokyo), Pan Wu, Takashi Oguchi

    To detect land-use types and mitigate land degradation for sustainable agriculture and forestry management, analysis of satellite images is essential especially in a large area. This paper discusses land-use types and situation in a highly developed karst region of Zhijin County, Guizhou Province, China, using Landsat TM images and ASTER GDEM data captured in 2009 and 2011 respectively, as well as socio-economic data. Land-use was classified using a supervised classification algorithm, the post-classification detection technique in the GIS environment, and field data related to land-use management. Accuracy of the derived land-use maps ranged from 86.4% to 92.0%. Results demonstrated that the study area was highly cultivated, with the arable land area of nearly 50%, with >10% of the cultivated land has slope angles over 25°. The percentage of bare soil and exposed bedrock was about 1.3%, and the build-up land was about 1.2%. Less than 43% of the study region was covered with vegetation, with 13.7% of the coverage consisting of rangeland and orchard. The land-use characterized by potential degradation reflects unplanted urbanization, contradictions between human activities and the fragile eco-environment, and lack of proper coordination between government policy and pertinent laws.


3) Dueling Dualisms? The Geography of Thought and Evaluations of Land Degradation

    Mark A Blumler (SUNY-Binghamton)

    Despite abundant evidence to the contrary, the perception persists in scientific, environmentalist, UN, and policy circles of widespread land degradation and desertification attributable to the practices of traditional societies and the poor. I argue that this (mis)perception arises in part from the way that Western thought has constructed reality, going back at least to Descartes’ time. As Nisbet (The Geography of Thought) and others have demonstrated, Western thought patterns once assumed to be universal are in fact not shared with East Asia and sometimes other regions. I briefly review the history of the land degradation debate, emphasizing seminal (but not always positive) influences such as traditional succession theory and Hardin’s “Tragedy of the Commons”; Ostrom’s principles for successful commons management, and Thomas’ critique of the official UN desertification estimates. Then I describe and analyze an oversimplified but heuristic comparison of Taoist and Western constructions of reality. Both are dualistic, but the way the dualistic opposites are treated is dramatically different. The Taoist representation, as illustrated by the yin-yang symbol, is both more aligned with traditional societies’ perspectives, and arguably, more accurate than Western conceptions. In short, adopting a Taoist perspective might dramatically improve our ability to manage resources and conserve nature.



[CS24-3] Land degradation-in a changing environment (3)

    [ Thursday 08 August 14:00-15:30 Room679 ]    Chair(s): Paul F. Hudson (Leiden Univ.)

1) La Nina 2010-2012 and its implications on natural disasters and land degradation in South America

    Hugo Ivan Romero (University of Chile), Magaly Mendonca

    During the last three years, South America has been affected by unusually stronger and persistent La Nina, characterized by sea surface cold waters and permanent atmospheric high pressure cells in most of the Pacific coast, and larger barometric gradients between coastal zones and the Amazonian core, which has in turn, increased the activity of the South American monsoon. As a consequence, severe droughts have been recorded in subtropical areas, including extensive Argentinian, Brazilian and Chilean lands, increasing lack of available water and desertification processes, particularly for agriculture, mining and urban uses. Cold waves, related to high pressures and the displacement of Antarctic air masses towards lower latitudes have caused snow falls, frost and freezing temperatures that have produced agricultural losses and serious impacts on human health. On the contrary, the activation of the South American monsoon, and its relationships with the Intertropical and the South Atlantic Convergence Zone, have meant the occurrence of large flooding and landslides, that have devastated urban areas, especially in Brazil, and rural areas in Chile. It seems necessary to emphasize the importance of considering interannual and interseasonal climate variabilities as well, as source of natural threatens and disasters, in process of land evaluation and socioeconomic and territorial planning.


2) Relationship between landslides and vegetation during typhoon events in the upper Tao-Cheng River basin in central Taiwan

    Chi-Wen Chen (The University of Tokyo), Hongey Chen, Takashi Oguchi

    Data from the Tao-Cheng River basin in central Taiwan showed that landslides occurred in 0.60-1.29% of the basin during each major typhoon event and the percentage of landslides occurring on non-forest land was 2 to 8 times higher than that on forest land. This demonstrates that vegetation coverage reduced landslide occurrence. NDVI did not decrease significantly at particular elevations and slopes at which landslides were concentrated, indicating that vegetation remained in a good condition in spite of landslides. Particulate carbon concentration for river water was 0.27 mg/l in average during November to April, and 2.78 mg/l in average during May to October. Consequently, in the rainy season, the landslide materials and geological materials on catchment surfaces would be scoured by rainfall splash or running water, and their transport into the river increased sediment discharge and particulate carbon concentration. Erosion during the typhoon period was positively correlated with the amount of rainfall and negatively correlated with rock strength. In the catchment, the Tatungshan formation had a lower landslide ratio, since it has high rock strength (60.52 MPa). Historically, the highest sediment discharge, 3.52 Mt, occurred during Typhoon Aere, after 276.9 mm of daily rainfall. In summary, the heavier the rainfall and the weaker the lithology, the looser the geological materials, and they were easily flushed into rivers and contribute to increased sediment discharge and carbon content.


3) Impact of ancient iron smelting on land degradation of the Meghalaya Plateau in India

    Pawel Prokop (Institute of Geography and Spatial Organization Polish Academy of Sciences)

    Southern part of the Meghalaya Plateau is one of the rainiest inhabited environments on Earth, with more than 11,000 mm of precipitation recorded annually in Cherrapunji. The upper part of the plateau, above 1000 m a.s.l., is deforested, severely eroded and overgrown by grass. Only the small patches of broad-leaved hill forest, protected by people for religious reasons, are evidence that the plateau must once have been covered by forest in the past. Radiocarbon dating of charcoals and the results of chemical, microstructure and phase composition of iron ore and slags, indicate that the smelting of iron in the Khasi Hills was initiated at least 2000 years ago and continued up to the middle of the 19th century. The slag layer, which is dated to 2040±80 yr BP, is the earliest iron smelting site studied in the entire region of Northeast India. Large-scale metallurgic production was the response to the demand for iron from the adjacent lowlands, which did not have iron ore resources. Effects of ancient iron production have still significant impact on environment of the Meghalaya Plateau. Deforestation and progressive erosion in the past caused the soil degradation and gradual retreat of cultivation fields from area with high rainfall to area with lower rainfall. These lead to permanent change of the land use structure on the plateau. Although iron production fell in the second half of the 19th century, the land degradation was so advanced that forest and soil resources could not recover to its original form.


4) Soil evaluation studies to support land-use change from dry to irrigated farming: the case study of Marmilla (central-southern Sardinia, Italy)

    Andrea Vacca (University of Cagliari), Rita Puddu, Stefania Fanni, Stefano Loddo, Daniele Manca

    Due to the pronounced Mediterranean climate the water management problem is of great concern in Sardinia (Italy). One of the main aspects is the management of irrigation water. The Water Master Plan of the Autonomous Region of Sardinia, which defines the irrigable areas of the island, is almost 30 years old and is now under revision. This paper presents the soil and the soil suitability studies recently carried out in the Marmilla area (central-southern Sardinia) to plan the irrigation of about 15,000 ha of land that was formerly used for rainfed agriculture. Considering the impact of the foreseen land use change, the whole planning of the activities was made using an integrated approach, with the involvement of local municipalities as end-users, as well as of the Regional Agency for Research in Agriculture (AGRIS) and of the University of Cagliari.
    A new Soil map at 1:10,000 scale was made by means of a new soil survey. The boundaries of the soil units were defined on the basis of the morphologic, physical and chemical features of the soils of the area. Six multiple land-use settings were also prepared by means of the definition of six up-to-date agricultural scenarios. The obtained Soil map and its derived thematic maps (Available water capacity map and Soil suitability maps) represent an important tool to support a rational configuration of the infrastructures and the water supply strategies and to prevent soil degradation processes such as soil erosion, soil compaction and water logging.



[CS24-4] Land degradation-in a changing environment (4)

    [ Thursday 08 August 16:00-17:30 Room679 ]    Chair(s): Paul F. Hudson (Leiden Univ.)

1) Back propagation (BP) model optimized by genetic algorithms (GA) for predicting landslides

    Jie Dou (The University of Tokyo), Takashi Oguchi, Shoichiro Uchiyama, Shoji Doshida, Hitoshi Saito

    Prediction of landslides is highly important to mitigate the loss of properties and lives. Although the back propagation (BP) method seems to be useful to predict landslides, it has not been widely used, and almost no studies have performed BP combined with genetic algorithms (GA). It is also necessary to examine how to optimize the weights used in the BP model and the relevant artificial natural network (ANN). To address this issue, this study analyzes the reliability of BP and GA for the learning of ANNs. GA has a global search capability to optimize the weights and thresholds of ANNs. The method of this study consists of three major phases: 1) data integration and analysis, 2) ANN training and 3) conducting BP combined with GA. The study area is located in a mountainous region of Niigata Prefecture. Landslides data are taken from the database of the National Research Institute for Earth Science and Disaster Prevention (NIED). The first phase involves GIS-based statistical analyses related to landslide occurrence, geology, and geomorphological properties derived from a 2-m airborne LiDAR digital elevation model (DEM). Seven factors, i.e., elevation, slope, curvature, aspect, lithology, density of geological boundaries and distance to the boundaries are significantly correlated with landslides occurrence. After the second and third phases, the accuracy of the model based on BP and GA is 95.76%, and that based only on BP is 92.57%, showing that the former model is more effective.


2) Strategy for Controlling Water-logging in Drylands of India: A Case of Western Rajasthan

    Ram Kumar Gurjar (University of Rajasthan), Mahesh Kumar Verma, Ajay Kumar

    Arid and semi-arid regions of the world are opting for artificial water sources like canals for irrigation purpose and are getting good returns. This practice is having some negative consequences like water logging and salinity leading to land degradation. In India, Rajasthan is a state where arid and semi-arid climatic conditions occur, where canals have been introduced since a few decades. Due to the complex geology, excessive irrigation and intensification of agriculture, water-logging and subsequent problems appeared by environmental degradation and have created new wastelands. Water-logging is mainly caused by seepage from canals and poor drainage. Rising water table, increasing secondary salinisation and finally submergence of the lands are the invariably associated negative impacts of water-logging. The problem is acute in the canal command areas of north-western parts of the state. Due to this, the land becomes barren and even not suitable for any construction and livestock. The problem is a universally acknowledged as the most serious negative impact of irrigation. Researchers have focused on the causes of water-logging. Several groundwater modelling studies have focused on assessing the water-logged areas and measures to control the problem. Several agencies have suggested and implemented several anti water-logging measures. However, the situation still persists. Present study is an attempt to concentrate the attention on anti water-logging measures regarding sustainable use of water resources. Previous technical and non-technical measures have been compiled, analysed and suggestions are being given to make a long-term strategy to combat the problem, which is felt necessary.



[CS25-1] Mountain landscapes: conditions and functions

    [ Monday 05 August 16:00-17:30 Room673 ]    Chair(s): Nodar Elizbarashvili (Tbilisi State Univ.), Kirill Chistyakov (Saint Petersburg State Univ.)

1) Functional zoning of the Amur River Basin landscapes

    Viktor V. Ermoshin (Pacific Geographical Institute), Kirill Ganzey

    Intensive economic use can cause significant changes in the landscape structure with consequent degradation of natural systems. Therefore, in order to preserve the ecological and economic potential of the territory, it is necessary to develop recommendations for preferred types of its economic use. For this purpose, the functional zoning of Russian part of Amur River basin was carried out which is aimed at preventing possible dangerous violations of landscapes. An identification of functional areas is based on assessing the value and sensitivity of landscape features and landscapes as a whole to anthropogenic influences. As the information basis for the functional zoning, the compiled earlier map of landscapes was served. The classification of landscapes includes 596 types. To determine the significance of each type of landscape within the identified second order basins, the quantitative analysis of landscape structure was executed. Database which includes information of the landscape units, their ecological functions, natural productivity and extent of human sensitivity was created. Five types of functional zones were identified on the basis of natural landscape sensitivity and prospects of their use in economic activities: Area of prohibited nature management; Protected area with restricted natural resource use; Area of regulated nature management; Area of improving the intensively used landscapes; Area of maintaining of intensive use. Electronic map of functional zoning was compiled. When developing a functional zoning of the Russian part of Amur basin, the principle of preventing possible dangerous violations of the landscape providing its sustainability is of main importance.


2) Structural variation between an angiosperm timberline and gymnosperm subalpine dominated forest, Hida Mountains, Japan.

    Amanda B Young (Pennsylvania State University), Koichi Takahashi

    High elevation trees are characterized as being stunted in growth due environmental stresses; however, these stresses do not influence all species equally. Life history theory states gymnosperms are better adapted to these stressful environments compared to angiosperms. Nevertheless, in the Hida Mountains there are both angiosperm and gymnosperm forests at high elevation. The timberline is composed of a Betula ermanii dominated forests which transition into subalpine forests dominated by Abies mariesii. I hypothesized that, at high elevation, abiotic factors do not influence the structure of Betula, but have a significant impact on Abies. Forty trees of each species were sampled in timberline and subalpine forests across 10 cm diameter bins. Structural factors measured were basal diameter, base height, crown height, and crown diameter. Tree ages and growth rates were calculated from tree cores. Differences between species and site location were conducted with analysis of variance (ANOVA). Results indicate that Betula is similar in structural form at both sites, while Abies has a different growth pattern at the two sites. At the timberline, both species have a similar relationship between basal diameter and crown height, while in the subalpine forest, Abies has a taller crown height than Betula. The relative growth rate of Betula is higher than that of Abies regardless of site location. This study indicates that Abies canopy structure is more sensitive to environmental stress than Betula, contrary to the established theory, possibly indicating that stress tolerance is not the only characteristic controlling high elevation forest composition.



[CS26-1] Land use and land cover change (1) -Land use-

    [ Thursday 08 August 08:00-09:30 RoomG ]    Chair(s): Yukio Himiyama (Hokkaido Univ. of Education)

1) Multi-temporal analysis of variable trends in rural land use changes over 130 years in the northern Kanto Plain, Japan, starting with the Rapid Survey Maps

    David S Sprague (National Institute for Agro-Environmental Sciences, Japan), Nobusuke Iwasaki

    Surveyed in the 1880s, the Rapid Survey Maps, or Jinsoku Sokuzu, are the earliest topographic and land use maps based on modern surveying methods in Japan covering a large area, the Kanto Plain surrounding Tokyo. These maps make possible the analysis of rural land use change from a temporal baseline prior to the advent of modern chemical or mechanized farm inputs, and much of Japan’s natural resources were supplied domestically. Notably, despite the high population density of Japan, not all land had been turned into rice paddies or dry fields, with large proportions of many parts of Kanto consisting of woodlands and grasslands. While land use has subsequently changed dramatically, a multi-temporal, map-based GIS analysis, starting with the Rapid Survey Maps, for a study site in the northern Kanto Plain shows that no simple trend of steady increase or decrease had occurred for any land use. Grasslands were lost soon after the Rapid Survey Maps had been surveyed. Rice paddy, dry field and woodland areas increased but peaked at different time periods. By the end of the 20th century, rural land uses were decreasing under rapid urbanization, especially around rail stations. However, a large proportion of rice paddies remained, and some woodlands remained in places with steep slopes or mountains unsuited for modern land uses. The analysis also showed how detailed multi-temporal data are necessary to avoid vague generalizations based on broad tendencies observed over the last century since each land use reached its maximum importance at different time periods.


2) Four milestones in the development of land use Czechian

    Ivan Bicik (Faculty of Science, Charles University in Prague)

    Land use is a current picture of the interaction between nature and society. Therefore,
    through the analysis of land use at different times to derive the function or functions
    that a given territory by local (rather than only in the pre-industrial period), then the
    region or state attributes. The aim of our paper is to analyze changes in the political
    and economic situation in Czechia, as the driving forces that influenced at certain
    times of significant change in the function of the regions and thus change its land use.
     The first such milestone period was the90th the 19th century, when it ended the long period of arable and agricultural land
    extending. But not equally, but differently, as they apply economic laws that led to the development of regionally different extent ZPF and arable land and the whole
    structure of land use.
    The second milestone was a watershed period 1945 - 1960, which reduced the
    population in rural areas about half (expulsion of Czech Germans, socialization and
    modernization of agriculture associated with the move of inhabitants into the cities,
    etc.).
    The third milestone was the change in the political and economic system and the
    start of market system. There was broken existing structure of agricultural and food
    industrial enterprises and their interconnected system (agro-complex). The question is what will transform of land use in Czechia in the near future. Therefore can we suppose the fourth milestone in land use changes
    in Czechia in near future?


3) Heavy Metal Pollution of Soils and Food Crops from Irrigation Water due to Mining Wastes, Georgia

    Lia G. Matchavariani (Tbilisi State University of Ivane Javakhishvili), Besik B. Kalandadze, Lamzira D. Lagidze, George B. Dvalashvili, Nana G. Paichadze

    Soils are the most specific component of nature. In water & air if toxic substances are removed they will easily return to original conditions. But if soil is polluted the centuries old balance is upset & restoring takes very long time. Human economic activities pollute environment with industrial waste, wastewater, various radioactive substances, pesticides used in agriculture. The most considerable problem is pollution with heavy metals.
    The main goal of our research was studying of composition, migration & accumulation of toxic heavy metals in irrigated soils & plants near to ore mining & processing enterprise in south of Georgia; also, establishing the possible sources of pollution & their impact on environmental situation.
    Important anthropogenic factors causing soil degradation is irrigation of agricultural land with polluted water, which results in changed pH. When heavy metals get into soil they’re absorbed by clay minerals, carbonate system is barrier for them that are how surface accumulation of metals can be explained.
    Our research allows us to conclude that pollutant heavy metals: copper, zinc & manganese have especially active negative impact on soil characteristics, its composition & soil-formation processes, which results in deterioration of hydro-physical potential of soil. Balanced correlation between solid, liquid & air phases in the soil is violated. Characteristics & quantities of components existing in soil are changing dramatically; soil is degrading, vital functions of agricultural crops are disrupted and bio-productivity is falling. Summation of agro-physical parameters of slightly, averagely & highly polluted soils provides a clear evidence of that.



[CS26-2] Land use and land cover change (2) -urbanization and land use-

    [ Thursday 08 August 10:00-11:30 RoomG ]    Chair(s): Yukio Himiyama (Hokkaido Univ. of Education)

1) To the Question on Land Use in Conditions of Fomation of the Megacity

    Tatiana Grigoryevna Bozhyeva (Lomonosov Moscow State University)

    According to space shooting a terrestrial surface in a thermal infra-red range of territory of megacities represent so-called thermal islands (Urban Heat Islands). Now already there is more than half of population of the Earth lives in cities. Rates of concentration of the population in large agglomerations continue to accrue. Hence, influence such thermal islands cannot be ignored and at a global level.
    Transformation of territorial system ""city-suburb"" mismatches to criteria of integrated approach in Moscow region. For improvement of ecological conditions it is necessary to bring systems of land use into accord with social and economic priorities. The long-term prospect of steady development can be examined in connection with strategy of the greatest possible preservation of territories with ecologically significant resources.
    There are the techniques proving, as the agricultural grounds as a whole in the world increase efficiency of landscapes, hence, possess properties of restoration of biosphere. But these grounds most conveniently to transform to other kinds of use - to create new humanities and industrial zones, transport communications, etc. On the basis of several offered statements the expediency of the new approach to definition of value of the suburban agrarian grounds that can raise their tactical rating at use on the direct purpose proves.
    The map of types of agricultural land use of capital region is made.


2) A study on the process of the land use changes in the Tokyo waterfront area

    Kei Ota (Tokyo Metropolitan University)

    This study revealed the land use changes in the Tokyo waterfront area and its driving forces from a time and spatial point of view. After the 1980s, a dramatic change has occurred in the land use in the Tokyo waterfront area. This study conducted mesh analysis of the land use in Kaigan, Minato-ku, Tokyo district. The land use in 1985, 1996, and 2012 was targeted.Furthermore, this study analyzed the relationship between land use changes and trends observed in statistics and historical materials. The statistics used for the analysis are about population, land prices, industrial structure of employed persons, harbor statistics. As a result of the analysis, the following tendencies about the land use changes in Kaigan area were elucidated.
    
    ①In the early 1980s, the low land prices of the Kaigan area promoted redevelopment.
    ②The land use change (reorganization of the harbor) in the harbor district began at the mid-1980s and have affected the land use changes of the adjacent hinterland since the 1990s.
    ③The changes in the functions of the harbor defined the land use of the hinterland.
    ④Since the late 1990s, the underused and unused lands of the waterfront have been changed into the residential areas by the population recovery in the inner Tokyo area.



[CS26-3] Land use and land cover change (3) -agriculture and land use-

    [ Thursday 08 August 14:00-15:30 RoomG ]    Chair(s): Ivan Bicik (Faculty of Science, Charles Univ. in Prague)

1) Analysis of cultivation abandonment in central Japan by composing grid square statistics using GIS

    Takehiro Morimoto (University of Tsukuba)

    The author composed grid square statistics using GIS to reveal the distribution of cultivation abandonment more precisely than ready-made statistics. Then using it he examined the spatial pattern of cultivation abandonment and the relationship between abandonment and rural environment in Kanto Area, central Japan. Allocating the value of the rural community statistics of Agricultural Census of Japan into the standard grid cell of Japan composed agricultural grid square statistics. Grid square statistics is analyzable in combination with other ready-made social and environmental statistics. The author examined the distribution of cultivation abandonment, agricultural production, population and topographic condition.
    The result showed a slightly strong positive correlation between slope angle and ratio of cultivation abandonment. In steep slope areas worse situation for cultivating, decline in the production of special crops, decayed economic condition, and decrease in population resulted in high ratio of abandonment. In plain areas weak positive relationship between population density and abandonment was observed. Urbanizing impact on farmers’ attitude might increase the abandonment in high-density areas.


2) Land use Change and Environmental Issues in the City of Guwahati Assam, India

    Chayanika Sharma (TC Govt. Girls HS & MP School), Praschaya Kaushik

    The Guwahati City of Assam is growing very fast primarily due to its convenient location amidst the hilly states of Northeast India. The recent growth of the city in terms of population, infrastructure, industry, trade and commerce cause drastic environmental change in land use pattern. As the horizontal expansion of Guwahati is extremely difficult for its peculiar geographical location; surrounded three sides by hills and the remaining one by the mighty river Brahmaputra, many environmental problems have been arisen in the recent years. The dwelling houses and other buildings along with roads and drains have been constructed on the fragile hill slopes and encroaching wetlands and low-lying areas. The rate of human intervention both on the hills and the wetlands have been increased manifold after the shifting of the capital of Assam from Shillong to Guwahati in the year 1971. Many multistoried buildings have been constructed to accommodate the growing population in the city. All these activities created the problems like water logging, land slide and mud flow, traffic congestion, air pollution, noise pollution and also created some health related problems.
    In this study, an attempt has been made to address the environmental issues related to land use change and more particularly human intervention on the hills and wetlands based on both primary and secondary data using GIS and remote sensing techniques.


3) Land cover/land use in context of sustainable development problems (Baikal region case study)

    Elena V Milanova (Moscow State University)

    The paper stresses attention on the importance of sustainable development concept implementation in Russia, especially in the period after RIO+20 and in the context of the significant worsening of the environmental situation in the country. The main approaches to the notion of sustainable development are considered: anthropocentric and biospherocentric ones. Present- day landscape methodology to the environment is presented as the basement for land use/cover rational planning to optimize the usage of the land and other nature resources. The very important issue of the sustainable development is people well-being. In Russia, where the major environmental and social problems left over from the Soviet Union times, the living standards are still lower than in developed countries. As in other world countries there is the trend of changing material product-based well-being by ideas of immaterial “access-based” to social-humanitarian services well-being. Russia has. The Baikal region could be considered as a model one of the huge world natural significance. The results of ecologically sounds projects implemented in this region and devoted to improvement of environment, land and other nature resources rational use and people well-being, are presented.



[CS26-4] Land use and land cover change (4) -comparison land use-

    [ Thursday 08 August 16:00-17:30 RoomG ]    Chair(s): Ernan Rustiadi (Bogor Agricultural Univ.)

1) The State of the Art in Land Change Modeling: A U.S. National Academy of Sciences Report

    Mark Lange (National Academy of Sciences), Dan G. Brown

    A National Research Council committee of the U.S. National Academy of Sciences was convened in 2011-2013 to review the present status of spatially explicit land-change modeling approaches and describe future data and research needs so that model outputs can better assist the science, policy, and decision-support communities. In particular, the study committee was tasked with:
    
    1. assessing the analytical capabilities and science and/or policy applications of existing modeling approaches;
    
    2. describing the theoretical and empirical basis and the major technical, research, and data development challenges associated with each modeling approach; and
    
    3. describing opportunities for improved integration of land observation strategies (including ground-based survey, satellite, and remote sensing data) with land-change modeling to improve land-change model outputs to better fulfill scientific and decision making requirements.
    
    Future needs for higher resolution and more accurate projections will require improved coupling of land-change models to climate, ecology, and biogeochemistry models; improved data inputs; improved validation of land-change models; and improved estimates of uncertainty associated with model outputs. Modeling approaches reviewed range from cellular and machine-learning models to economic and agent-based models. The study report provides guidance on the verification strategies and data, and research requirements needed to enhance the next generation of models. This presentation will review the key findings from the study and discuss their implications for the use and further development of land-change models in support of scientific and practical applications.


2) Changes in land use in transforming countries in Europe.

    Ivan Bicik (Faculty of Science, Charles University in Prague)

    The fall of totalitarian regimes in Central and Eastern Europe was an important
    impetus for changes in land tenure. These investments and following processes have led to changes in land use.The paper compares the development of land use by States in the years 1960-1990-2010 and compares the differences in the course of these processes and
    their regional impact. Comparisons are made between some states, as joined to the European Union in 2004 (Czech Republic, Slovakia, Poland, Hungary, Lithuania, Latvia, Estonia) and countries associated in 2007 (Bulgaria and Romania) also states incurred disintegration of the former Yugoslavia. These changes are documented how data from different sources, as well as analysis of relevant research articles of
    these states.
    The second part of the paper is an analysis of land use changes in Czechia. We deal with both external and internal causes that land use changes in the period 1990 -2010 in the Czech Republic seemed. In addition, perform a detailed regional analysis
    of land use changes on the level of comparable basic territorial units (= BTU; their
    sum covering all Czechia is 13 000 In the
    Czechia, we were able to define the last half century about 10-12 of these typological regions whose different development land use continued during the transformation 1990 - 2010. Differentiation of their land use structure asks new strategy in regional policy in creation of multifunctional landscape in the future.


3) Traditional land use system in context of modern economy (Russia)

    Elena V Milanova (Moscow State University)

    The most of Russia territory (Siberia and Russian Far East) considered as a high-risk agriculture zone where agriculture is limited with permafrost and insufficient growing degree days. This part of country is populated by more than 30 different ethnic groups of indigenous people (mansi, selkup, evenki, yakuts, tyva, buryat, soyot and others) differentiated by socio-economic and ethno-cultural status and have general and specific features in the processes of traditional cultures interaction with modern socio-economic reality. The general trend is the revival of the traditional forms of nature usage and methods of farming, the influx of population to the agricultural areas and the associated trends of the native population increasing, which now includes as a rule three generations. World experience shows that agriculture is one of the most labor-intensive sectors of the economy, and without the financial support of the state is doomed to extinction. Unfortunately private financial institutions (oil, gas and mining companies) in Siberia are not in a hurry to invest in the economy and culture of the indigenous peoples of the region, and therefore care of this has to be taken by the state. The land cover changes are connected with political, economic and social system transformation in Russia, as well as with deep historical roots, which determine the depth of the character of the ethno-social processes in the different groups of the indigenous peoples. Currently there are experience to combine traditional land use with modern technology and economy (usage of non-timber forest products, green economy, ethnic tourism).


4) The Fukushima Nuclear Disaster and Land Use

    Yukio Himiyama (Hokkaido University of Education)

    The Fukushima nuclear disaster, or the disaster caused by the accident of the Tokyo Electric Company Fukushima Daiichi Nuclear Power Plant triggered by the gigantic earthquake and tsunami of March 11 2011, has resulted in a major change of land use in Fukushima Prefecture. The paper discusses what has happened so far, and what is likely to follow.



[CS27-1] Latin American Studies

    [ Monday 05 August 14:00-15:30 Room672 ]    Chair(s): Juan Manuel Delgado (Peruvian Univ. of Applied Sciences)

1) Les defis de l’integration energetique en Amerique latine

    Sebastien Velut (Universite de Paris 3 - Sorbonne Nouvelle), Silvina Cecilia Carrizo

    Les reseaux energetiques s’inscrivent dans les dynamiques d’integration latino americaines, en depit des contraintes financieres, technologiques et geographiques qui conditionnent le deploiement d’infrastructures. Celles-ci doivent en effet prendre en compte les contraintes de la repartition des activites, des populations et des ressources.
    Des relations ont ete etablies pour les echanges de carburant et les interconnexions gazieres et electriques. Les mecanismes de marche ont permis la valorisation de complementarite transfrontalieres entre les Etats. Sur le plan institutionnel, l’integration est portee notamment par l’UNASUR Union de Naciones Sudamericanas dans le cadre du programme IIRSA Iniciativa de integracion regional sudamericanas et de le CIER Comision integracion energetica regional. Par ailleurs les entreprises transnationales concoivent aussi leurs reseaux a des echelles supranationales. Enfin, le Bresil deploie au-dela de ses frontieres des investissements pour garantir sa securite energetiques.
    Les deconvenues amenees par l’integration partielle des annees 1990 amenent davantage de resistances face aux grands projets nationaux et internationaux, qui cristallisent des conflits. Il n’en reste pas moins que les processus d’interconnexion repondent au double defi de la valorisation des ressources energetiques disponibles et de prise en compte des contraintes environnementales pour renforcer la securite energetique et de competitivite de l’ensemble de la region. Dans ce contexte, l’integration energetique est un cadre ou se deploient aussi bien des strategies de cooperations que d’affrontement, avec des effets differencies sur les territoires.


2) The transformation of compadrazgo system in a Zapotec village in the Valley of Oaxaca, Mexico

    Atsuto Yamauchi (Graduate school of letters, Kyoto University)

    People in a indigenous (Zapotec) village in the Valley of Oaxaca, Mexico which I have studied about, call both annual events which they hold in the village and parties which they have in their houses after a rite of passage "fiesta". I focus to the latter. The compadrazgo system is a ritual kinship system, which is a characteristic of Latin American societies. It affects the mutual invitations to "fiestas", human relationships and their lives. Many of prior researches of the compadrazgo system have focused to the selection and the role of compadres. They insist that its function is starting or reinforcement of connection with an insider/outsider of the community, and with one of superior/equal social position. However, I will focus to the transformation of the system as well as that of their lives and their culture. Resulting from my research of the compadrasgo system and "fiestas" in the village, I find out that the numbers of "fiestas" through which they can make this relationship have increased. And in order to reduce the expensive costs of "fiestas", some villagers unite several "fiestas" into one occasion or integrate several couples of compadres into one couple, while not a little villagers don’t follow the traditional norms of the system.


3) Racial and economic segregation in Brazilian cities

    Miroslaw Wojtowicz (Pedagogical University of Krakow)

    The main aim of this paper is to discuss the effects of racial and economic transformation on the socio-spatial structure of the 10 largest Brazilian cities. In the last decades of the twentieth and in the first decade of the twenty-first century new factors and determinants exerted decisive influence on the development of cities in Brazil. The fundamental change of the model of economic development took place during this period. Import-substitution industrialization, was replaced with neoliberal policies of “open markets”. On the one hand, globalization has been argued to contribute to the social polarization, unemployment and informal employment, poverty and insecurity which later acted as a catalyst for the development of gated communities and strong fragmentation of urban space. On the other hand, some researchers often argue that racial segregation does not exist in Brazil, merely class/economic segregation. Non-whites predominate in the lower class while whites dominate the middle classes therefore poor neighbourhoods are mostly black and mixed race while upper-class neighbourhoods are almost entirely white. The emphasis of this paper is empirical, with a concentrated focus on the determination of the level of racial and economic segregation of the 10 largest Brazilian cities using the data from the 2010 population census. The research utilizes the statistics of household income which was used to create four income groups of families, to which the index of dissimilarity was applied to measure the level of segregation. The racial segregation was measured using the indexes of segregation and dissimilarity between main racial groups.


4) The transformation processes (urbanization and modernization) of Lima.

    Lianet Camara (University of Verona)

    The scenario in most of the suburbs of major cities in Latin America has changed a lot. On the one hand the poverty, informality, lack of infrastructure, equipment and basic services are some of the key features of the urban marginal. These peripheral areas are the result of migration from the countryside to the cities, over time have settled and consolidated as informal society. On the other hand, the transformation of residential areas inhabited by the middle and upper classes are characterized by a dislocation and territorial fragmentation, which resulted in the closure of the physical urbanization, a phenomenon that first affected only the middle classes-high, and that today also affects low-middle classes.
    
     This situation is causing a debate among academics and designers of urban policies on the control of territorial expansion and the high density, and the regulation of the use of urban land, at the same time when globalization and the regulatory function of the state is weakened drastically. This, leads to another debate: the environmental issue and the competitiveness between cities.
    
    The history of Lima enables us to recognize the complex and dynamic nature of the city, central and self-sufficient, authoritarian and/or democratic in its social construction. Lima is the centrality of power, the center business district, social, cultural, political, economic and symbolic center of the country. Lima is a living entity, it reflects what is happening in Peru. The capital has attracted and still attracts an increasing migration, from the various provinces of the country.


5) Understanding the geographies of resistance in the war on terror

    Sebastian Scholl (University of Bamberg)

    Latin America has witnessed a broad scheme of dynamics from social movement activities in the context of neoliberalism during the last decades. From a theoretical point of view scientists were engaged in explaining the distinctive causes and forms of mobilization with regard to the forging of identities, political strategies, and democratization. Yet, the perspectives that were used to specify the different above named processes lacked of important issues of theories of place and space. More recently, geographers increase their engagement in theorising the different spatial aspects of protest activities.
    Starting from this observation and drawing on a relational understanding of place and space I will show, how such a perspective can lead to valuable insights in the constitution of protest activities and social movement dynamics. In analyzing the questions of where, why, who and how of distinctive acts of resistance of the 2011 emerged anti-war on drugs social movement “Movimiento por la Paz con Justicia y Dignidad”, I will introduce three main arguments:
    (1) The produced space of resistance is constituted through practices of cultural expressions that can not be understood without an interrelation to processes of globalization
    (2) To understand the movement dynamic and its politics a relational perspective on space without forgetting the significance of place is indispensable
    (3) The explored space of resistance is not only a mere response to the consequences of war but a powerful form of a civil society driven establishment of counter-hegemonic discourse to neoliberlism and its constitution in contemporary Mexico.



[CS28-1] Local development in Japan

    [ Monday 05 August 14:00-15:30 Room665 ]    Chair(s): Atsushi Taira (Kagawa Univ.)

1) Development of public transportation policies in Kyoto, a city of international tourism

    Manabu Inoue (Heian Jogakuin University)

    Kyoto City has thus far implemented several policies in effort to become a city where people can lead their daily lives using public transportation, riding bicycles and going about on foot. In this paper, the author identifies the spatial characteristics of the regions where a series of such policies has been put into operation and further discusses the future developments of this policy issue.
    Terrible traffic congestion develops in the city during tourist seasons of every spring and autumn. This occurs because tourist-season traffic adds strain on everyday traffic and creates extra demands on road capacity.
    While inflow of automobiles to Arashiyama Area located in the western part of the city is regulated, it is hardly the case for Higashiyama Area where many temples, such as Kiyomizudera, are situated.
    Meanwhile, there are public buses (Kyoto City buses) that are specialized in going around tourist spots including the world heritage sites. Running this kind of buses has prompted to create the ridership that selects certain buses according to their purposes, namely, sightseeing or other activities.
    In the center area of the city, the project to widen pedestrian walk space by further narrowing roadway width is scheduled to be completed in 2014.
    As stated above, Kyoto City is widening pedestrian walk space in the central area and encouraging people to use buses on regular route in the surrounding areas. In the meantime, there are numerous issues exist in Higashiyama Area, Kyoto’s most popular tourist district, and these issues need to be addressed.


2) How instrumental can it be?: Negotiating the legal and instrumental nature of World Heritage in Nagasaki, Japan

    Toru Yamada (University of Tsukuba)

    In this paper, I examine the process of how the legal aspect of UNESCO’s World Heritage Convention is translated in a local government’s development policy. In the last few decades, World Heritage has become a popular instrument of local-level tourism development around the world. In Japan, for example, several prefectural governments and municipalities, in efforts to obtain World Heritage status, have emphasized the global significance of their heritage properties, and hope to use World Heritage status as an instrument for local development. Such instrumental aspects of the World Heritage program often dominate media coverage and public discourse.

    

    However, when World Heritage nomination is adopted as part of an actual development policy of the local government, local officials and community members face the details of the instrumental aspects of World Heritage. The World Heritage Convention, an international treaty of heritage preservation, is a body of law. World Heritage can stand as an instrument for local economic development only after the locals can properly prepare reasonable preservation policies.

    

    Based on my ethnographic field research in Nagasaki’s Goto islands, I analyze how local officials and the residents in Goto interpret and react to zoning regulations and other legal matters of the World Heritage program, and how they administratively connect and epistemologically detach the legal aspect and the instrumental aspects of World Heritage.


3) Local industrial complex and FDI: Issues and agenda through case studies in Japan

    Atsushi Taira (Kagawa University)

    Local industries, called ""jiba sangyo"" in Japan, have been struggling to survive in globalization age. Those local industries have been played crucial roles in the local economies and related firms are often making geographical industrial complexes for various reasons. Currently, some local industrial complexes are making efforts to internationalize their operations: the glove-related industry and the towel-related industry in Shikoku, Japan, are good examples. On the other hand, since the 1980s, economic geographers began to pay attention to spatial agglomeration of industry in different fashion. To date, many studies have been conducted to explain their spatial processes and meanings: representative topics are embedded and shared implicit knowledge in local places and learning region as the center of innovation. At the same time, globalization of economy has also urged many economic geographers to examine its spatial patterns and its influences on firms' performances; structures of multinational corporations, processes of multinationalization of firms, and strategic arrangement of firms have been main themes. In spite of the fact that agglomeration and globalization are closely related each other, they are likely to be argued separately. Thus it is possible to say that the study of the internationalization of local industrial complexes in Japan could be a good example to bridge those two arguments. So far, it is said that foreign direct investment leads to closure of plants in the home base area. However, there are examples in which FDI helps to grow the host firms though returning profits abroad to the headquarters.



[CS28-2] Local development in the rural space (1)

    [ Monday 05 August 16:00-17:30 Room665 ]    Chair(s): Michael Sofer (Bar-Ilan Univ.)

1) Changes in population potential of Eastern Poland vs. local development

    Jerzy Banski (Maria Curie-Sklodowska University)

    For the last decades, the dominant part of the Eastern Poland has been adversely affected by significant population changes, including: excessive outmigration and deformation in gender and age population structure. These processes are a result of a number of socio-economic factors, representing the key drivers in shaping, to an increasingly larger extent, the directions of local development. Diverse interactions that occur between population and economic processes can be observed based on the example of suburban and peripherally located rural areas. While the former is generally characterized by economic and population development, the latter is affected by stagnation and deformation of demographic structure. Poland’s accession to the EU, which turned out to be beneficial, especially, for better developed regions, raised the threat of further marginalization for Eastern Poland. Transborder location of the region, on the one hand, can be a stimulus for development; on the other hand, however, considering an unfavourable political and socio-economic situation existing in the neibourhood countries it can be an obstacle to further development. Eastern Poland, however, has become a major beneficiary of the EU funds, which in a longer perspective should yield favourable results in spatial and functional structure of that region. The primary objective of the paper is to indicate directions, the scale as well as specific effects of current socio-economic transformations on population potential of Eastern Poland as viewed from a local perspective, as well as identifying those economic phenomena that are a result of unfavourable demographic changes.


2) Antifragility, Stable Adaptation, and Future-proofing: Redefining the Spirit and Purpose of Regional Development in Peripheral Regions

    Anthony Sorensen (University of New England)

    World-wide, much of the public policy effort designed to promote local development has focused on the pillars of infrastructure supply, skills development, and business promotion through hunting and local cultivation. Much of this activity appears to have had little effect on the well-being and prospects of remoter, thinly settled, and less economically diverse regions in both the developed and newly industrialising world. This paper argues that the task of local and regional development in such locations should be reconceptualised in line with recent thinking coming from the realms of socionomics and psychology. This work draws attention to imperfections in market economics and public policy alike, especially in an era of accelerating scientific and technological improvement, ever-increasing social and economic complexity, stronger inter-regional competitiveness, and growing economic instability. Businesses operating in this environment require utmost adaptive capacity and this paper explores the economic and social conditions conducive to future orientation, perception of opportunity, provision of adequate and competitively priced investment capital, and flexible operations management at the local level. Such conditions redefine the scope and texture of future public policy influencing local development.


3) Participation and management in Protected Natural Areas: a perspective from social capital and territorial development

    Carmen Vazquez (University of Castilla-La Mancha)

    This contribution forms part of the framework of the CasoNatura research project and aims to analyze the social trust in two protected natural areas of Castilla-La Mancha region (Spain) to assess contexts of legitimacy for the Government and management of the space between the agents and institutions as well as detect the level of territorial identity which has the population with regard to their municipality, natural space and supra-local scales. Conflict detection of environmental, social and economic nature and how to manage them will be analysed and assessed through methodologies including both bibliographical and documentary sources and qualitative techniques of socio-territorial analysis: surveys to the local population and Governing Board of the Park, interviews with ""qualified informants"" and interviews with organizations/institutions located in the territory in question.


4) Development of Cottage Industry for sustainable Rural Development: Case Study of Traditional Handloom industry in Koch Bihar District, India

    Suman Sao (University of North Bengal)

    Cottage industries exhibit the cultural heritage of India & functioning in a symbiotic way had played a significant role in economy. Handloom, a traditional cottage industry is present in most part of India as well in Koch Bihar district. The sector plays an important role in the field of textile accounting for about one third of total cloth production in India. With the backing of appropriate technology, demand based product diversification & innovative design support, export market of handloom cloth can be a promising one. Besides providing full time employment to rural weavers the sector provides marginal employments to a large number of partly skilled rural female labour forces. Thus rural industries like handloom which is reasonably remunerative need support to play its role as employment generator in rural areas.
    The present study which is based on sample survey makes an inventory of the handloom industry present in the Koch Bihar district & has formulated constructive guidelines for the identification of the inherent problems so that maximum utilization of the potentials of the sector is ensured. Demographic analyses of workers reveal that the industry is still in a position to attract skilled weavers & continue the industry’s tradition. While formulating, the strategies for regeneration of the sector emphasis has been given for the eradication of the problems like difficulties in procurement of raw materials, low income of weavers, low level of investment, irregular employment, monopoly of middlemen & traders in marketing system, low level of technological attainment & skill formation.



[CS28-3] Local development in the rural space (2)

    [ Tuesday 06 August 10:00-11:30 Room676 ]    Chair(s): Tony Sorensen (Univ. of New England)

1) Rural industry and its employment structure in inland region of Fujian province, China

    Lin Chen (Hiroshima University)

    Rural industry plays a crucial role in the development of economy and provides off-farm jobs in rural China. This paper attempts to examine the characteristics of rural industry and its employment structure in inland region of coastal province. As a case study field, I selected a northeastern inland region of Fujian province which is experiencing a sharp increase in the number of workers. The main research methods are a questionnaire survey to factory workers and an interview survey to plant managers.
    
    Rural industrial enterprises mainly process agricultural and forestry products which can be easily obtained in rural area. The most of enterprises are rural capital established by farmers, the other ones are developed by urban and foreign capital. The sources of capital have affected the location and scale of industrial enterprises. The large-scale ones established by urban and foreign capital are mainly located in industrial zones along the main roads and have played a leading role in rural industrialization.
    
    Rural industrial enterprises mainly provide the employment to the villagers who shifted from farmers or migrant workers. Most of them are employed as manual workers adopted through private network. They are almost 30-40 years old. The large-scale industrial enterprises also employ some technical workers and sales workers hunted through regional labor market. The workers of rural industrial enterprises are mainly composed of local villagers. However, some of workers are from outside the region and cities.


2) Women’s entrepreneurship in the rural space: A pillar for local development

    Michael Sofer (Bar-Ilan University), Tzipi Saada

    Women are playing a pivotal role in the restructuring process of the Israeli rural space. The accelerated growth in the establishment of enterprises by women in the rural space in Israel in recent decades is a direct result of the continual decline of agricultural activity and reduction in income from farming. These enterprises are small in terms of physical size, number of employees, and scope of investment. Most of these businesses are involved in the services branches, and length of time in the rural space and accumulation of resources were found to correlate with the ability to establish and develop a business. The principal catalysts of and obstacles to the expansion of entrepreneurship are associated with economic, personal, and professional considerations. The proximity to home and entrepreneurial freedom stand out among the advantages of women’s entrepreneurship in the rural areas. The outstanding disadvantage is the relative isolation of the enterprises from central markets.
    Women entrepreneurs play a major role on three geo-economic levels. On the household level, they provide sources of income, employment for household members, and a means for exploiting farm resources. On the settlement and regional levels, they provide an economic multiplier effect such demand for labour, inputs, and services; exploitation of unused or underused local human capital; and improvement of public welfare through an expanded and diversified service system. On the national level, they lead to the exploitation of rural resources, and are pivotal in maintaining stability of rural communities by preventing out-migration.


3) Diversity and Recent Trends of Space for Agricultural Activities in Urban Area - A Case Study of Tokyo Metropolis

    Yasuko Takatori (Agricultural Policy Research Committee, Inc.)

    In the 1960s, a new type of agriculture, currently called ""urban agriculture,"" was recognized in urban area of Japan.
    It has come to be considered to include farmland in areas where cities encroached during the rapid,
    disorderly urbanization of the 1960s, when the country experienced tremendous economic growth.
    
    Although urban agriculture exists inside metropolitan areas experiencing continuous sprawl,
    intensive agriculture has continued to be practiced by talented farmers.
    
    Urban agriculture has been put a high value on the various kinds of functions and roles,
     especially the environmental role as green and open space.
    
    However, when the economy entered the bubble era from the late 1980's to the early 1990's,
    the argument that stood out was that farmland in urban area should be converted to urban land use such as housing area.
    
    Owing to the amendment of Production Green Land Law,
     the cultivated acreage in urban area has been decreasing in Japan.
    
    Over the past two decades, however, the long-term slump in the Japanese markets would affect slowdown in urban activities.
    
    The demand for those where city dwellers become involved in farming activities has grown and diversified.
    
    For example, there is a lot of competition for using public allotment gardens in Tokyo Metropolis.
    Beekeeping also can be found in urban areas.
    
    In this study, based on field surveys, the author analyzed diversity and recent trends of space for those agricultural activities in urban area
    and discussed the way to improve accessibility of the people to the space.


4) Responding to Changing Fortunes: The Recent Experience of Small Towns in Rural New Zealand.

    Etienne Nel (University of Otago)

    Recent decades have witnessed dramatic changes in the status and fortunes of small urban centres in most OECD countries. Globalization, neo-liberalism, changes in local economies and the rationalization of state activities have encouraged production shifts, the emergence of the ‘multi-functional countryside’ and parallel trends of either economic and demographic loss, or gain in small urban centres and their rural hinterlands. Small towns are not passive recipients of change and often respond through local development actions. This paper reflects on the New Zealand experience of small town demographic and economic change, primarily in the South Island, institutional, community and entrepreneurial responses and how, since the 1980s, many small towns have either tried to re-invent themselves in response to marginalization or, alternatively, have capitalised on new growth opportunities. The paper indicates that while towns can re-invent themselves in response to new economic circumstances, only the few near the larger cities or tourism features seem to have grown, and most have instead experienced economic and demographic loss. The New Zealand evidence indicates that there have been fundamental structural changes in the economy and that, with the few locational and tourism exceptions, the emergence of post-production, the second modernity and creative activities can only partially address the scale of change which has taken place. Never the less these latter activities do give towns a sense of vibrancy and hope and encourage economic diversification. These finding challenges us to re-interpret the role and place of small towns in the 21st century.



[CS28-4] Local development in the urban space

    [ Tuesday 06 August 08:00-09:30 Room676 ]    Chair(s): Jerzy Bański (Institute of Geography and Spatial Organization)

1) Mandalay: Rapid Transition and Urban Prospects

    Chung-Tong Wu (University of Technology Sydney)

    Myanmar is on the verge of significant changes as the country turns to a more market-oriented economy and implements wider political reforms. Predictably, most international investors focus on the cities of Myanmar. Experiences elsewhere indicate that in the rush to embrace new invests and reforms, haphazard urban development tend to emerge especially in the context of policies aimed at achieving rapid economic growth and immediate results. This paper considers the case of Mandalay, the second largest city of Myanmar, to outline the key issues and propose possible pathways for equitable and achievable urban development. Mandalay is already experiencing much foreign investor attention. As one of the key venues for the 2013 Southeast Asian Games to be held in December, major projects already underway will start to alter its urban fabric. The completion of the oil and gas pipelines from the southwest coast of the country to China will bring further pressures for development to both the city and its region. Utilizing data from site visits and available studies, this paper argues that the present state of dilapidated infrastructure and disorganized urban systems, while obviously problematic, present opportunities to avoid the pitfalls of cities in other transitional economies.


2) Local government-directed urbanization: New city construction in post-reform China

    Guanwen Yin (Kyushu University)

    It is argued in the literature that industrialization and the development of tertiary industry are the major driving forces of urbanization. In term of China’s urbanization, however, the impact of governments at various administrative levels is very strong. Especially, along with the process of decentralization, marketization and globalization, local governments have become city promoters in post-reform China. To attract investors and promote economic development, large infrastructure projects, development zones and new cities are constructed. "Local government-directed urbanization" emerged. Hebi and Ordos, both of which are mining cities located in inland China are taken to investigate the mechanism of this new type of urbanization. Hebi is threatened by the coming exhausting of mining resources. Accordingly, a new city has been built to attract new industries. It is disclosed that a branch of institutional strategies including infrastructure optimization, enterprise attraction, and population relocation have been successfully implemented by local government in the new city construction process. Compared with Hebi, Ordos has rich coal resources and a fast-growing economy. A large portion of the wealth generated by coal industry has been fixed in the new city. Except for local government, real estate developer is another important actor who drives the new city construction. The two cases indicated that local governments endeavor to re-orient the development trajectory for the accumulation of capital, population and sectors through new city construction. And, they play a decisive role in the construction process. It suggests that institutional forces have important influences upon urban process in Chinese cities.


3) The New Economy Theory and Michigan Communities: A Case Study of Kalamazoo, Michigan, USA

    Benjamin Ofori-Amoah (Western Michigan University)

    Over the past few years the economic downturn in what used to be America’s Industrial Heartland has raised a search for new strategies for communities in the region to move forward. One of these strategies is the idea of a new economy, an economy that is no longer based on manufacturing but rather on talents, creativity, and innovation. In Michigan, proponents of this idea are urging Michigan communities to use this strategy of local economic development. Using Kalamazoo, Michigan as a case study to examine the validity and feasibility of this strategy, the paper finds the definition of the new economy to be imprecise. In addition, it finds the component of talents, knowledge, and innovation in the old economy is much larger and dominant than it is usually thought. The attraction of talents per se may not be easy for small communities. A better strategy will be for local communities to examine their location amenities, and develop strategies that capitalize on those amenities.


4) Urban sprawling in post-socialist city: industrial, commercial and residential suburbanization in the Krakow Metropolitan Region (Poland)

    Miroslaw Wojtowicz (Pedagogical University of Krakow), Slawomir Kurek, Tomasz Rachwal

    Post-socialist transformation, understood as the economic, political, institutional and ideological changes associated with the change of “state socialism” to “capitalism”, has been taking place in Poland for more than twenty years. Formation of local governments, receiving gradually increasing impact on managing the local development, became the important factor affecting the transformation of the Polish cities and surrounding areas. Elimination of state control over the land and housing sector, privatization and decentralization of decision-making from the central to the municipal level changed the socialist city-development model into a capitalist free-market city model. Suburbanization is the dominant process that is changing spatial organization of the post-socialist cities in Central Europe. During the last twenty years suburbanization has visibly reshaped the physical morphology, functional land-use pattern and socio-economic spatial structure of the largest Polish cities and their metropolitan areas. This article presents an overview of the development of suburbanization in the Krakow metropolitan area in the years 1995-2012. The aim of this paper is to give an account of the main aspects and trends of relocation and deconcentration of industrial and commercial activities as well as residential suburbanization. The main interest is to determine the pace and spatial diversity of the development of new zones for production and commercial activities as well as for the housing construction within the Krakow Metropolitan Region. The most significant causes of urban sprawl in Krakow were indicated: economic restructuring, lack of adequate land policy as well as demographic change and an increase of new life style patterns.



[CS28-6] Local development: project and planning (1)

    [ Tuesday 06 August 14:00-15:30 Room676 ]    Chair(s): Ton Dietz (Leiden Univ.)

1) Clusters, territorial social-economic structures and systems in regional analysis

    Petr Baklanov (Pacific Geographical Institute)

    Two primary tasks are being solved in the regional analysis. The first task is structurization. In the process of structurization clusters are allocated as combinations of homogeneous companies in the region and as those of interrelated companies. Considering various relations of economic objects (enterprises, companies, including infrastructural) with each other and with social ones (population groups, social sphere objects) as well as with the territory within the defined area territorial social-economic structures and their combinations (systems) are defined.
    The second task of the regional analysis is estimation of transfer of changes from certain structural links to others. Let us call it structural transfers. The stages of the solution of the second task are: definition of factors and tendencies of inertia features and dynamics of the basic structural links formed by the largest companies, enterprises and local economic centers; estimation of structural transfers in conformal territorial social-economic systems. Potential structures play an important role in its development as unused reserves of capacity, productivity, labor, etc in the given period of time and as possibilities of separate elements, especially infrastructural ones, to join another structural link.
    Innovations are an important factor of dynamics of territorial social-economic systems. Transfer of changes and the innovative effect from one structural link to others also occurs through relations in a territorial system.
    The examples of allocation of potential structures and estimations of inertia and dynamism of the territorial social - economic systems of the Pacific Russia are given in the report.


2) Polycentric development of Mazovia Region (Poland). Present and future

    Konrad Czapiewski (Polish Academy of Sciences), Jerzy Banski

    This presentation summarizes some key conclusions from the study of the settlement structure, linkages between subregional centers and economic and social cohesion Mazovia.
    In the context of a polycentric development of Mazovia structure arrangement is favorable settlement. The central functions of the region is located in Warsaw, around which are located five sub-regional centers (Radom, Plock, Ostroleka, Ciechanow, Siedlce) with different socio-economic potential. Clearly visible is the hierarchical relations with Warsaw of subregional centers - are characterized by a striking degree of one-way. All cities have a relationship only with their immediate surroundings and with Warsaw, and there is no mutual interaction between them.
    Rural areas primary function is agricultural, but the changes taking place in recent years, according to multifunctional rural development policy, causing rapid development of non-agricultural functions. The biggest changes can be observed in the metropolitan area of Warsaw, where agriculture is being replaced by other functions.
    Development of Mazovia settlement system in 2030 is dependent on external factors and internal factors. Among the former are: the global economic situation and the EU policy, the development of large cities and neighboring regions, while the others are: the strategy development, investment activity of enterprises and residents, migratory movements, etc. It is difficult to predict which factors will play in the coming years most important role, and what will the global economic situation. Therefore, the discussion on the future of the settlement system of Mazovia proposed three basic scenarios: realistic, optimistic and pessimistic.


3) EU Cohesion Policy in Romania

    Jozsef Benedek (Babes-Bolyai University Cluj)

    Although the country has experienced strong economic growth during the last years (6.4 per cent annually from 2003 to 2008), it remains among the poorest of the EU, the GDP per capita reaching only about 48 per cent of the EU-average in 2010. The late EU accession of Romania had also an impact on the level of preparation for the implementation of the EU Cohesion policy. In consequence, this paper emphasizes the preparation process of the country for the implementation of the EU Cohesion policy. It will also try to consider the role of those country-specific factors which are relevant for the shaping of the regional policy in Romania: the regional disparities, the regional policies during the pre-accession period, the domestic basic documents for regional policy (the NDP and and the NPTD), the EU pre-accession funds, the regional policy after accession, and finally the question of political parties and regionalism. As a requirement of EU accession, Romania has created an institutional framework to manage EU assistance, which includes a range of administrative structures as mechanisms for monitoring. The main conclusions of the material suggests that the greatest challenge for the regional policy in Romania is related to the low level of capabilities for the absorption of the EU assistance.


4) Institutional Stickiness and Chronic Regional Disparities in Malaysia: The Case of Sabah

    Shuang Yann Wong (National Institute of Education/Nanyang Technological University)

    Malaysia is in the process of transforming itself from a newly industrializing economy to a developed economy by 2020. Despite the relative success in economic diversification and well appraised regional development strategy, the spatial pattern of its regional disparities remains almost unchanged since the Federation of Malaysia was formed in 1963. Sabah, an East Malaysian state that is richly endowed with natural resources has fallen from a high income to one of low income and less developed regions in the country. This paper questions the relevance of the regional development strategies that have been emplaced since the 1960s. It also looks into the national development strategies, the operating institutions and the practice of federalism in trying to sustain growth and competitiveness vis-a-vis other countries in Southeast Asia. The premise is that Sabah’s development potentials have been marginalized in the process of forging national growth and expansion and emphasizing the unbalanced approach of dispersal of concentrated urbanization to promote spillovers of growth and development. The comparative advantage of Sabah in natural resources has been optimized by the federal government to the benefits of the more developed regions as well as the federal government through reinforcing the existing political and economic institutions in the last forty years. Lifting Sabah out of the current sustained development performance may require the removal of some of the sticky elements in the institutions and not just formulating another regional plan that Sabah may not have the sufficient transformative and adaptive capability to cope with the challenges in the new globalised economy.



[CS28-7] Local development: project and planning (2)

    [ Tuesday 06 August 16:00-17:30 Room676 ]    Chair(s): Suman Sao (Univ. of North Bengal)

1) Perceptions about reaching the poor in development initiatives in Africa

    Ton Dietz (Leiden University)

    With a method called 'participatory assessment of development' an international team of Dutch, Ghanaian and Burkinabe scholars studied nine local communities and their perceptions of development initiatives during the last thirty years (see www.padev.nl). Part of the study was about the distribution of benefits, as perceived by the local participants themselves. The paper will present a comparative analysis of the research findings and an assessment of the method used. In all study areas five wealth groups have been used, enabling a differentiation between the poor and very poor on the one hand, and between the rich and the very rich on the other. Findings will be presented of the perceived differences in benefits for each of these five wealth groups for ten different 'intervention domains', covering the whole spectrum of development interventions by governments, foreign donor agencies, non-governmental development agencies, church and mosque organizations, the private sector and community initiatives.


2) The highlight of new order on the "Dwelling": Discourse about the Tainan old settlement preservation law and urban shophouse morphology

    Shu-Li Huang (National Taipei University)

    The issue about dwelling moldering has been a nuclear discussion on modern urban planning facing the old settlements regeneration for a long time. The old settlement areas in Tainan, have a special protective specification source of law depend on Local government and monuments scholars. The law not only freeze the morphology of the shophouse in the urban form, but also accelerate the dwelling moldering.
    
     What is the form in the meaning of “dwelling” in the urban old settlements?According to the morphology on physical and social space, we found that the problem about spatial structure of the old settlements in Tainan today, is physical space could not change with the social space.The “dwelling” and “dwelling display” in the spatial structure problem, let the research point of view from the review of the old settlement preservation law. We try to interpret how the ""dwelling"" be completely eliminated in the process of shophouse form preservation by external forces (Professionals, the revitalization of the historic district of Tainan autonomy regulations)?


3) Children Participation and Perspectives for Local Development within Japanese Examples

    Yuta Nagumo (General Research Institute of the Convention on the Rights of the Child)

    Since the Convention on the Rights of the Child was enacted at UN in 1989 and was ratified by the Japanese government in 1994, it has been seen in many local communities, Japan, to engage children in discussion to develop each local region with the application of rights-based approach. The concept of the Children Friendly City project, promoted by UNICEF has supported the movement.
    This presentation will be focusing on how children participation has influenced local development, by examining a few Japanese cases. It can be seen that such engagement of children into local development has impacted local geography in related terms: for example, establishment of alternative ordinance and locally political structures, and changing local community relationship between residents.
    Firstly, the presentation will provide the notion of children participation within local community settings. Secondly, it will explore examples of Japan projects: the engagement of children in discussion on local development constructively impacts and positively alters localities and community structures. Thirdly, it will examine a few of the cases and discuss the shown perspectives for geography and local development. Finally it will conclude to mention the benefits and significance of the children participation in local community setting.
    The children participation will enrich local development from diverse viewpoints because perspectives of children, which have usually been disregarded in many cases, would be involved in development process, and moreover, because it would be possible to facilitate other adults’ participations, especially parents’, as children’s thing are often the centre of local community concerns.


4) Why has Iran’s post-revolution family planning policy been so successful as a local development strategy? Legal and cultural underpinnings of a fertility transition

    David Lopez-Carr (University of California, Santa Barbara), Maryam Alaeddini

    Iran’s population growth rate is 1.2 percent and ranked 95 in the world in 2011. Iran’s family planning policy changed in 1979 at the beginning of the Islamic Revolution (Larsen 2001). By December 1989, Iran had revived its national FP. The main goal was to encourage women to wait three to four years between pregnancies, to discourage child bearing for women younger than 18 or older than 35, and to limit family size to three children. In May 1993, the Iranian government passed a national law in which it encouraged couples to have fewer children by restricting maternity leave benefits after three children. Iran’s family planning program has been one the most successful state family planning in the world. The paper explores the post-revolution Iran’s family planning implemented in 1993. The paper aims to analyze the local development reasons for its success. This is done through an analysis of the reasons in the context of international law, state legal context and cultural context. More specifically, the latter is supported by religion i.e. Islam as one of the main components of Iranian culture. International legal context for family planning is largely a necessary condition to a national family planning program. But it is far from a sufficient condition, especially among Muslim nations, many of which have stalled fertility transitions and weak or absent government assistance local programs. Why did Iran implement its program when it did and how was it so successfully planned at local levels?



[CS28-8] Local and regional development in the Mediterranean basin (Joint session with the Commission on Mediterranean Basin)

    [ Monday 05 August 16:00-17:30 Room675 ]    Chair(s): Michael Sofer (Bar-Ilan Univ.), Kenji Hashimoto (WASEDA Univ.)

1) The Formation of Cultural Identities through Colonial Urban Planning: Rediscovering Historicity in France and Morocco

    Miyo Aramata (Keisen University)

    Moroccan urban planning under the French protectorate was among the most innovative in all of the French empire at the beginning of twentieth century. Its chief architect was later chosen as the planner of greater Paris, which shows the success of this planning. This paper illustrates another aspect of planning that emphasized cultural identities in France and Morocco.
     The French architects who helped in the planning of Morocco tended toward traditional local architectural designs. This understanding of local culture materialized into new buildings and neighborhoods. After returning to France, one architect rediscovered the beauty of a historical area in Paris and attempted to protect it by reenacting his experience in Morocco. The area was put under legal protection after WWII and is known today as the historical district of the Marais.
    In Casablanca, the area that had developed under the French protectorate had long been neglected. Since the 1990s, however, an association called the Casamemoire has started emphasizing the architectural value of the buildings. The government and the local authorities began to look into this under the banner of “Moroccan architecture in the twentieth century,” without using the words “France” or “French.” The association’s volunteers also emphasize the historicity of the buildings’ designs.
     The processes through which historicity became important were different in the two cities, but one can say that both had the common drive of colonial urban planning - the conscious division of two cultures.


2) Auto-development or the “Anti-System” of the official Development: Cases of Kerkennah and Ghannouch in the Mediterranean basin (Tunisia)

    Bassem Neifar (King AbdulAziz University Jeddah)

    The 14 January 2011, the world discovered an unknown face of Tunisia, a small country in the center of the the southern shore of the Mediterranean basin. The Tunisian president left suddenly the country after a month marked by riots that resulted in the death of over 300 people and injured thousands. The tunisian revolution appears as a call of desperation and helplessness of a population that has been governed by an iron fist. By their revolution, Tunisians show their rejection of the political system, economic and social. If the political and economic systems were locked, this was not the case for some local development systems or local populations have established an “Anti-system” which marks their response to the system imposed by the State.We have therefore chosen in this abstract to consider two cases of self-development or “Anti-system” development, one on agriculture and will be illustrated by Ghannouch, on the north of the town of Gabes and the second will be on fishing and will be demonstrated in Kerkennah islands in the Mediterranean sea in front of the city of Sfax. The Ghannouchis faced to the narrowness of their agricultural land, and Kerkeniens faced to the narrowness of their horizon marine. The Ghannouchis intensified their agriculture based on jumping and land reclamation to gain new spaces and areas away from their essential space. Nevertheless, the Kerkeniens, remained closely linked to fishing and their efforts are considerable to pursue fishing campaigns in the Gulf of Gabes and away from their seas.


3) Reproducing Urban Morphology in the Mediterranean: A Case from a Catalan Town, Cambrils

    Katsuyuki Takenaka (Aichi Prefectural University)

    Cambrils is a Catalan town with some 33 thousand inhabitants in 2011, located in the west Mediterranean shore. The town underwent a rapid expansion from the 1960s with the arrival of international tourism and a great amount of seasonal residents. What was once a small fishing village was absorbed by newly developed residential areas, generally of low densities. Today, Cambrils presents, at first glance, a radically different urban model to the widely diffused image of the Mediterranean as a network of compact cities.
     Many coastal towns of the Mediterranean, however, still continue reproducing their persistent urban morphology. The concept of urban morphology we discuss is not limited to strictly material aspects. It also encompasses imaginative and sensual dimensions, that is, a geographical substratum in permanent mutation, involving different actors who are present in the city. When some of those agents perceive an existing urban morphology, they often introduce new elements from their own experience and represent the whole setting in a renewed way. Also, an image shared by a majority of the local population around the evolving urban morphology even can work as a motif to get ideas for a future city. What we can learn from the case of Cambrils is an elastic as well as solid nature of its urban morphology which, passing through a prism of perception and representation, activates a collective imaginary and operates as an effective mediator between past and future.


4) Valorisation process of vineyard landscape in Penedes (Spain).

    Yuka Saito (Kinjo-Gakuin University)

    Penedes is a peri-urban agricultural region situated in the metropolitan area of Barcelona, and known as one of the principal wine-making regions in Spain, specialized in mass-production of Cava (Spanish sparkling wine). While in many parts of the metropolitan fringe and in the coastal regions of the Mediterranean Sea, the processes of metropolitanization and dispersed urbanization have altered drastically traditional landscapes in the last few decades, Penedes has maintained singularity in its landscape. With great extension of vineyard (25,627ha. registered in DO Penedes), there remains “humanized” natural landscape closely linked with local economic activity -wine industry-. However, values and significance of this industrial landscape had not necessarily been shared among local people, until the existence of vineyard landscape was threatened by pressure of extensive growth of Barcelona, such as occupation by residential land use, establishment of large industrial complexes and construction of transportation infrastructure, factors that could cause serious territorial transformation.
     In this study the author examines the process in which vineyard landscape of Penedes obtains its value as local common assets, analyzing how different actors of the region valorise this industrial landscape and which values are (re)discovered and recognized in it. Special attention would be paid to the creation of the Landscape Charter of Alt Penedes (La Carta de Paisatge de l’Alt Penedes), an instrument conceived for voluntary agreement between public and private agents in an area to promote landscape improvement and management, and some projects derived from this charter aiming at rising awareness of people about landscape.



[CS29-1] Rural areas, Development Dynamics, Policy Options and Marginalization (1) (Joint session with the Commission on Sustainability of Rural Systems)

    [ Monday 05 August 14:00-15:30 Room663 ]    Chair(s): Stanko Pelc (Univ. of Primorska/Faculty of Humanities), Doo-Chul Kim (Okayama Univ.)

1) Identity and Community Actions in Marginal Rural Area

    Hayeong Jeong (Kyoto Univesity), Kakuya Matsushima, Kiyoshi Kobayashi

    Identity plays an important role in place-making. It empowers community movements to build up a common space worthwhile to live in with pride as well as attachment to their place. The aim of this study is to investigate the relationship between identities and neighborhood (or community) based activism by a covariance structure analysis. The analysis is based on a survey of community activities in Nichinan town which is a typical depopulated rural area in Japan. In order to find the answer to the question, how identity motivates community activism, some literature reviews on identity for collective action are presented in section 2. The results of basic analysis on the community activities in Nichinan town are shown in section 3. The validity of the covariance structure analysis on identity and community activities in this study is discussed in section 4. Finally, a policy to motivate identities which could foster marginal area development is proposed.


2) The role of Slovenian traditional handicrafts in present time rural development

    Stanko Pelc (University of Primorska/Faculty of Humanities)

    In pre-industrial times traditional handicrafts played an important role in Slovenian rural areas. Large part of Slovenia has very moderate conditions for agricultural production therefore people living in these areas had to find additional sources of income if they wanted to survive. They evolved different skills that were transferred from generation to generation and today represent immaterial cultural heritage. In different parts of Slovenia these handicrafts are often seen as developmental opportunity and are often included into developmental plans of (marginal) rural areas. We intend to present the analysis and findings of some cases where traditional handicrafts such as lace-making, pottery, straw plaiting or wooden ware-making are re-introduced or gained new role in local economy. The evaluation of the results of this type of developmental initiatives is an important task and we intend to investigate what if any evaluation methods have been used in the cases under investigation.


3) A natural park as a development tool for a remote rural area? Insights from the Baixa Limia-Serra do Xures protected zone in Southern Galicia

    Valeria Paul (University of Santiago de Compostela), Daniel Del Rio Franqueira, Juan-Manuel Trillo-Santamaria

    Protected since 1989 and designated as natural park in 1992, the Baixa Limia-Serra do Xures Natural Park has been commonly understood as a tool for development of a marginal and remote area in Southern Galicia of environ 30,000 hectares, bordering with Portugal. This is reported by decision-makers in the area, who have repeatedly declared that such a device has a pro-rural development rationale, beyond the obvious functions related to biodiversity, geodiversity and landscape conservation.
    After 20 years, little research has been conducted into the effects of the protected area in terms of development and apparently there is limited criticism on the ground. Indeed, there seems to be a widespread assumption among politicians and public officers that the implemented model is working well. However, economic, social and demographic indicators have worsened along this period, which might reveal an underperformance of the initiative. In this respect, this paper will try to discuss, through qualitative interviewing, the perception by a wide range of actors with regard to the developmental effects of the natural park.


4) An Empirical Analysis of Human Interaction and the Expense

    Nozomi Kaminaga (Yachiyo Engineering Co., Ltd.)

    Unlike urban areas where a lot of time is spent on working and traveling to an office and other places, in rural areas is rich in resources of time. Effective use of this property may enable to increase human resources and to activate human interaction. Time is expected to be a valuable resource for the maintenance and revitalization of depopulated areas where suffer from a lack of human resources.
    We have formulated a regional economic model that allows a comprehensive analysis of the impact of local government policy and the development of transportation facilities, on the consumption patterns of household consumption behavior and leisure time. However, there is a need to extend in order to quantify the changes in the level of utility through leisure activities, the framework itself to how to spend leisure time affects the utility level.
    By performing an analysis of the cost burden for human interaction, in this paper, we try to measure the effect of time on the level of utility.



[CS29-2] Rural areas, Development Dynamics, Policy Options and Marginalization (2) (Joint session with the Commission on Sustainability of Rural Systems)

    [ Tuesday 06 August 17:30-19:00 Room663 ]    Chair(s): Stanko Pelc (Univ. of Primorska/Faculty of Humanities), Doo-Chul Kim (Okayama Univ.)

1) Who pays the costs for nation building process? A case study of ethnic minority in Central Vietnam

    Trinh Minh Anh Nguyen (Okayama University), Doo-Chul Kim

    The Van Kieu, populated at nearly 60,000, is one of 54 ethnic minorities officially recognized by the Vietnamese Government. Roughly 40 years ago, most of Van Kieu people were still living in their own village-size society isolated from general population and entirely depending on traditional shifting cultivation. In Vietnam, the Van Kieu is living mostly in Huong Hoa District of Quang Tri Province, a mountainous area bordering Laos to the west.
    From viewpoint of the Central Government, frontiers such as Huong Hoa District are untamed area full of potential untapped resources. This explains an increase in governmental intervention and state-sponsored mass in-migration of lowlanders to Huong Hoa District during the last 40 years. From a remote area, spatially occupied and mostly used by Van Kieu people, the above processes have transformed this highland into a fairly busy international trading hub. In the due course, Van Kieu people from a relatively stateless and independent group have become a marginal and minor component of the entire state’s population.
    The purpose of this article is to illustrate the changes in social organization and livelihoods of Van Kieu people in Huong Hoa District as a result of such state interventions. Todays, the Van Kieu population have stratified into a small better-off group and a more economically dependent majority. It is argued that the above processes, increasing official intervention and development of the area into a trading hub, are important factors making this ethnic minority marginalized.


2) Who Takes the Initiative and Self-Responsibility in Development?: Findings from Fieldwork of NGOs and Rural Society in Bangladesh

    Ai Sugie (Nagoya University)

    This presentation seeks to contribute to critical literature on development and neoliberalization in rural Bangladesh, drawing on fieldwork conducted in Tangail district, in 2009 and 2011-2012.
    Resulting from the past failure of the development model based on community approach, the target approach which NGOs directly access to the poor and empower them through micro-credit has been major and prevailed in 1990s throughout Bangladesh. NGOs have preceded government to play important roles of providing social services; rural credit, primary education and sanitation. The donors such as international organizations and aid agencies have increasingly invested in NGOs not in government which lacks efficiency and visible achievements. The operation of micro-credit in particular is approved as a poverty reduction program. Thus, NGOs are de facto ‘the second government’ in Bangladesh, as ordinary people as well as researchers call. That can be considered as one of characteristics of global privatization in welfare services.
    With the above background, precedent studies have critically argued that the neoliberal tenets are embedded within the idea of micro-credit and NGOs have brought globalization and neoliberalism to the grassroots in rural Bangladesh. This presentation examines in which scale, who took the initiative in grassroots development and welfare activities and how those difference brought contrasting situation in local society, focusing on relations between NGOs and indigenous social units, not only conflicts or the latter’s roles of compensation for privatization of welfare as can be seen from previous work but also complex reciprocal actions in this study area.


3) Forestry revitalization and regional marginality at mountainous areas in Japan

    Kenji Tsutsumi (Osaka University)

    Regional marginality is very clear, especially in Japanese mountainous areas. Very drastic depopulation and industrial decay have been shown there together with several kinds of atrophy in regional living functions. This country has huge wide areas of forest but domestic forestry has been weakened since after the W.W.II. Recently, however, domestic timber prices are partly growing higher because of rapid development and demands for timbers in China. So here it comes a better opportunity for domestic forestry to revive itself. Forestry redevelopment is an indispensable and essential factor for revitalization of marginalized mountainous areas in Japan. This presentation will show some regional examples of mountainous areas and offer materials to consider sustainability of life and forestry in such areas. Case areas will be selected among the western Japan, where depopulation is relatively severe.



[CS29-3] Rural areas, Development Dynamics, Policy Options and Marginalization (3) (Joint session with the Commission on Sustainability of Rural Systems)

    [ Monday 05 August 16:00-17:30 Room663 ]    Chair(s): Stanko Pelc (Univ. of Primorska/Faculty of Humanities), Doo-Chul Kim (Okayama Univ.)

1) The transformation of agriculture in Switzerland. Challenges to a marginalized sector of central importance

    Walter Leimgruber (University of Fribourg/CH)

    Agriculture is the basis of food, which is a prerequisite for human survival. Since the agricultural revolution in the 18th/19th centuries in Europe, it has changed radically with the arrival of increasingly sophisticated machinery and the use of a multitude of chemical products boosting fertility and killing weeds and pests. At the same time the environment has paid a high price, which is at least partly transferred to humans (pesticide residues in the food). Lower production costs resulted in lower consumer prices, but contrary to employees in industry and services, who experience rising salaries, farmers receive less and less for their work.
    Agriculture in Switzerland contributes very little to the Gross Domestic Product. This is understandable because it faces a difficult natural environment and is also under heavy economic and political pressure. The country depends on imports from abroad to ensure its food supply, and the global tendency of trade liberalization is detrimental to an agriculture, which is characterized by holdings with relatively small surfaces, difficult topographical and climatic conditions, and a high salary and price level. Competing against cheap food imports will pose great problems if free trade of agricultural products with the European Union will come about. In this situation, organic farming and niche products may offer the only chance for farmers to ensure their existence.


2) Interaction of certification-supported farming with livelihood diversification: the case of land reform beneficiaries in the Philippines

    Rie Makita (Rikkyo University)

    Debates about agricultural certification such as Fairtrade and organic have not fully discussed its relationships with structural agrarian changes underway in the rural South. Between promotion of farming through certification, and diversification away from farming, a phenomenon that is increasingly recognized in the global South, there is a possibility for tensions. Given land reform as a context, this paper explores how beneficiary small farmers cope with such tensions, drawing on observations of a sugarcane producer cooperative in the Philippines. The Philippines, known for its high incidence of emigration as well as land reform remaining to be an important agrarian issue, offers a suitable case for observing both directions into and away from farming.
    The study cooperative was organized to help former plantation workers obtain farmland in 1994. Members of the cooperative have benefited from collective sugarcane production in their communal land by taking advantage of Fairtrade and organic certifications. Members have also diversified their livelihoods to capture as many income-generating opportunities as possible for the payment of land acquisition fees and in consideration of poor long-term prospects for sugarcane production. Their livelihood diversification is analyzed from three perspectives--for survival, from survival to accumulation and for accumulation.
    Members’ strong wishes to be landowners have enabled them to both continue involvement in agricultural production through the collective operation and, in parallel, diversify into some economic activities outside the sector. The certification-supported farming functions as a safety net for survival-type diversification and as a stable financial source for accumulation-type diversification.


3) Rural Labour Markets in Poland - Shrinking Resources or Endless Reserves

    Krystian Heffner (University of Economics in Katowice)

    Social and economic development as well as life conditions in Poland to a large extent is connected to the situation of labour market - stability of employment, structure and collocation of work resources, adjustment to changing needs of economy and to external conditions - i.e. attractiveness and pull factors of foreign labour markets.
    Likewise development of rural areas in territorial meaning therefore in local and regional dimension and closely related to the success or lack of success in close urban centres - is strongly depended on fluctuating rural labour resources as well as on externalities and endogenous conditions of rural labour market.
    The paper attempting to assess a development trends of rural areas in Poland taking into account a changing labour resources of countryside (and therefore labour supply) and factors interacting to the selected directions of these changes and also conditions and opportunities of maintenance or increase of labour demand in rural areas (stable jobs in the countryside in agricultural and non-agricultural sectors). It was pointed out that the nature of changes on rural labour market in Poland is complex and complicated, additionally significantly varied in national, regional and even local scale.


4) Restructuring of Japanese forestry and the current condition for the sustainability of more advanced forestry regions

    Yasutaka Matsuo (Senshu University)

    The aim of this research is to outline the current and future figure of the mountainous forestry regions in Japan. Since 1960’s the self-supply rate of timbers by domestic production gradually dropped to less than 20 % and has currently little recovered up to 20 %. The price of standing trees was most expensive in 1980, but it is nearly one-fourth to one-seventh now. The consumption of the timber has also reduced. Therefore, the forestry weakened its position as an industry. This phenomenon has not progressed equally in all places. The author guesses the decline of forestry damaged the more advanced forestry regions worse. As the first point, the long-term transition of the log price and the wage and the cost is examined as follows; whether the leveling of the log price among the forestry regions has been under way or not, whether the gap of the wage and the fixed cost of forestry among the regions has been also smoothed or not. The second point is to examine the longitudinal behavior of the members of the households in forestry regions and to show the schematic picture of their reproduction strategy.



[CS29-4] Different contexts of geographical marginality

    [ Tuesday 06 August 08:00-09:30 Room554A ]    Chair(s): Stanko Pelc (Univ. of Primorska/Faculty of Humanities), Yasutaka Matsuo (Senshu Univ.)

1) Marginality's and globalization's reflections in society and space

    Stanko Pelc (University of Primorska/Faculty of Humanities)

    Marginality and globalization are two terms that were very often used in recent decades not only in geography but in other scientific disciplines as well not to mention their public presence in all kind of modern media. The purpose of our presentation is to analyze different views of these notions and to explain our own viewpoint on how these two notions may be understood and used in geography of marginality and marginalization. Our intention is to compile different ideas and to set various possible definitions for further discussion. As we believe that geography has to respect its spatial tradition and that marginality should be considered as predominantly societal notion we will base our proposals on the different reflections of both notions in society and space (meaning geographical space).


2) Promoting Intangible Cultural Heritage to tourists: using traditional knowledge to counter the negative effects of marginalisation and globalisation

    Alison M Mccleery (Edinburgh Napier University)

    Traditional arts and crafts constitute an important component of Intangible Cultural Heritage which is at risk of dilution or destruction in the face of the homogenization and flattening of global culture. Yet paradoxically the solution to this global challenge may lie precisely in exposing fragile ICH to wider and more cosmopolitan audiences, if it is not to die out as its bearers themselves age and die. In other words, converting ICH from its status as an inward-facing phenomenon - residing predominantly with an older generation and benefitting domestic circles - to a new outward-facing phenomenon - practiced primarily by a younger generation for consumption by paying audiences - can offer a route to safeguarding and sustaining it. This paper will describe a project which the author is leading sponsored by Creative Scotland (the body responsible for promoting the arts in Scotland) and assisted by Visit Scotland (the body responsible for promoting tourism in Scotland). In so doing, it will demonstrate how traditional knowledge and practices can be conserved through the vehicle of tourism to counter the negative effects of marginalization and globalization.


3) The incidence of type 2 diabetes and its relation to socio-economics in an urban-rural setting in North Karelia, Finland

    Markku J Tykkylainen (University of Eastern Finland), Tiina K Laatikainen, Maija A Sikio, Timo J Kumpula

    Due to dietary, genetic, cultural and socio-economic reasons, several common diseases are overrepresented in sparsely-populated areas in Finland. In this paper, we focus on the spatial variation of type 2 diabetes in a rural, remote setting Eastern Finland. The study is a part of the larger project which aims at developing the quality indicators for follow-up the performance of public health care. The data used in the analyses is based on the electronic patient records of the North Karelian municipalities. All municipalities have used this common recording system since 2010. The database includes all information on patient visits, information on diagnose, prescribed medications, measured risk factors, laboratory analyses, referrals etc. The original patient data contains patients’ addresses and the smallest area units used in the study are postcode areas. We investigate in this paper how the socio-demographic features of the population are linked to the high incidences of type 2 diabetes and what should be taken into account in developing the indicators measuring the quality and productivity of health care by municipal health centres.


4) Responding to Marginality on Zambia's Copperbelt

    Etienne Nel (University of Otago), Tony Binns, Jessie Smart

    In the 1950s and 1960s social scientists identified Zambia's Copperbelt as one of the fastest urbanizing and developing regions in Africa and one set to lead the country into the 'modern' era with its GDP per capita exceeding that of Brazil and South Korea at the time. Sadly however, from the 1980s the collapse of the copper price, rationalization of the mining industry and the associated effects of structural adjustment and the effective closure of the area's once strong industrial base led to a scenario of mass unemployment and poverty in the 1990s, leading Ferguson (1999) to comment on how development 'had fallen off the tracks' in the area. This paper reflects on the uniqueness of the area, why it occasioned early academic interest and the associated debates which ensued, before moving on to examine the contemporary scenario in the Copperbelt. As a response to marginalization, both in terms of the area's economic position nationally and internationally, but also socially in terms of the marginalization of the majority of the population, a range of local strategies have emerged. These range from the intensification of the remaining formal economic sector activities to a wide range of survival approaches which the urban majority engage in. Some of these approaches enjoy degrees of formal sanction whilst others are less tolerated. The paper critically examines key themes in terms of life and survival in key Copperbelt cities in the face of severe marginalization challenges.



[CS29-5] Marginality and marginalization (1) spatial, social and economic viewpoints

    [ Tuesday 06 August 10:00-11:30 Room554A ]    Chair(s): Stanko Pelc (Univ. of Primorska/Faculty of Humanities), Yasutaka Matsuo (Senshu Univ.)

1) In the Middle of Nowhere: Storing Nuclear Waste in Aboriginal Australia

    Jill Roberta Kelly (University of Connecticut)

    From the British atomic testing at Maralinga to the proposed waste storage at Muckaty, the Australian government has followed an environmentally racist strategy commonplace around the world: pushing radioactive contamination away from the dominant population onto indigenous lands.
    
    Early British explorers declared Australia terra nullius, belonging to no one, ignoring the Aboriginal inhabitants. Courts recognized limited rights to traditional lands in 1992, but Aboriginal people are still marginalized in Australia. Those who have resisted assimilation are mostly remote, disperse, poor, and disenfranchised relative to the non-Aboriginal population.
    
    Aboriginal cultures are deeply connected to the land. To poison the land permanently, as was done at Maralinga and at several uranium mines, is a grave offense to the Aboriginal people; to bar them from ritual duties in contaminated areas further weakens endangered Aboriginal culture. Yet, government officials, in their search for places to dispose of radioactive waste, are drawn to traditional Aboriginal lands, which they perceive as empty, useless, and far from the population that matters.
    
    Ironically, the nuclear-powered nations of the Northern Hemisphere perceive Australia as a distant, sparsely-inhabited wasteland, ideal for storage of the world's waste. Arius, the Association for Regional and International Underground Storage, a European consortium of waste management organizations and industrial companies, advocates siting a global nuclear waste repository in Australia because it is ""stable, arid [and] remote.""
    
    This paper explores these two perceptions of remoteness, the risks to the lands of marginalized people, and the environmental justice implications of nuclear storage on Aboriginal lands.


2) Satellite Settlement as a Base for Animal Husbandry: Case Study of sanam in the Mountains of Northern Laos

    Susumu Nakatsuji (Konan University)

    Satellite settlement by farmers is one of the key topics in studies of shifting cultivation. For example, many satellite settlements were established in Japanese mountainous areas for shifting cultivation, and these have been extensively studied. These settlements were built for easier access to the fields that were remote from the village settlements. Farmers lived there temporarily during the farming season.
     Shifting cultivation of dry rice is still the most important occupation in the mountains of northern Laos. In these areas, many satellite settlements, called sanam in the Laotian language, have been built. These settlements include 1-10 households in the remote areas and can be reached in 1-3 hours by foot from the village settlements, called ban.
     According to our research, the functions of sanam are related more to animal husbandry than to shifting cultivation. First, the commonly cited reason for building a sanam is to keep the animals isolated from disease epidemics that cause high mortality, especially in pigs and poultry. Second, a sanam is built as a watch house for animals that roam freely in the forest around it. Third, a sanam is often situated adjacent to fields of maize, the most important feed for pigs.
     Animal husbandry is a traditional activity of shifting cultivators in mainland Southeast Asia, and today it has become one of their major income sources. Nevertheless, research on this economic activity is limited. This presentation describes how they are trying to develop this activity in their own ways in today’s context.


3) An alternative agriculture space in a Taiwanese tribe, Kalala

    Chiung-Wen Chang (National Dong Hwa University)

    An emergence of aboriginal movements in Taiwan has drawn attention to the public since the 1980s with regard to resumption of ethnic identity. It is a political response to multiple repression from the majority, may they be intentionally or unwittingly. Nonetheless, tribal livelihoods remain to suffer from a sustained pressure of overwhelming capitalist dominance. The status of economic exclusion makes the tribal rejuvenation impotent, and even brings some tribes to the brink of social and cultural collapse in modern life. The paper reports on a qualitative study of a tiny tribe, Kalala, where the locals make effort to improve the tribal livelihoods. Kalala, located in East Taiwan, is a typical tribe struggling with stagnancy and serious out-migration resulted by a long-term marginalisation. The locals, with financial and technical assistance of external agents, have initiated a participatory project to trigger the tribal development by organising a co-operative farm since 2009. This farm introduces organic methods of farming to upgrade the quality of produce, and endeavours to label the ‘terroir’ (Barham, 2003) to connect the produce to consumers. But, it does not mean that the farm yields the whole of production to the market. A traditional wisdom of ‘food forest’ is also retained to avoid exposing the tribal smallholders to higher risk of monocultures considering price fluctuation. The paper draws upon the practice of which the tribal locals ‘think and perform the economy otherwise’ (Leyshon and Lee, 2003) to evaluate the possibilities that the tribe is accommodated to modern market economy.


4) Development, areal differentiation and the prospects of the independent bus and share-ride taxi services in Japan

    Yasutaka Matsuo (Senshu University)

    In Japan after the middle of 1990’s local governments began the independent bus service and the share-ride taxi service in order to maintain the public transportation system in depopulated areas as well as to provide the new public transportation system in newly developing urban areas. After 2002 when the Road Transportation Act was revised, the discontinuation of the route buses took place and the local government-driven public bus service substituted for it in many regions. This is caused by the intensified competitiveness among the traffic business through deregulation and the intensified difficulty to maintain the less profitable route buses through depopulation and decrease in users, in other words, by the globalization and the marginalization.
     We find that these services are commonly managed for the sake of public welfare, but the purpose, the intended passengers, the way of management, the transportation method and so on are various according to the specific local conditions. Among them the following three will constitute the main methods: the public school bus and the welfare bus services as the substitute in depopulated regions, the community bus service in urban and rural areas under the rather cheap and uniform fee system, and the share-ride taxi demanding service in marginal areas with crucial need though not large in amount.
     This research aims firstly to collect and classify all the independent passenger transportation services, and secondly to make clear their areal differentiation, and thirdly to show their prospects and restraints/sustainability in peripheral and marginal regions.



[CS29-6] Marginality and marginalization (2) spatial, social and economic viewpoints

    [ Tuesday 06 August 14:00-15:30 Room554A ]    Chair(s): Stanko Pelc (Univ. of Primorska/Faculty of Humanities), Yasutaka Matsuo (Senshu Univ.)

1) Variability of Spatial and Temporal Distribution of Economic Growth and Stagnation Areas in Poland - Context and Consequences

    Pawel Churski (Adam Mickiewicz University)

    This study therefore aims at identifying the nature of spatial distribution and changes arising in areas of growth and economic stagnation in Poland, which result in a differentiation of the spatial process in the socio-economic betterment of the country.
    The research therefore embraces the following stages:
    1. Identification of spatial distribution of economic growth and stagnation areas in Poland in respect to region and sub-region, together with an outline of relevant determining factors.
    2. The analysis of spatial distribution changeability of various areas of growth and economic stagnation in Poland in respect to region and sub-region together with an outline of its consequences.
    3. Conclusions that are drawn from identified growth trajectories and recommendations for interventionist measures undertaken in the context of cohesion policy.
    The analysis relates to two spatial distributions: province (voivodeship), NUTS 2 as well as NUTS 4; its extent determined foremost by accessibility to statistical data. In the research undertaken data has been used made available by the Local Data Bank at the National Statistics Office - period of analysis being 2000-2010.
    The results presented constitute the end of the initial research stage realised in the context of the project, Socio-Economic Growth and Emergence Of Growth and Economic Stagnation Areas, financed by the National Centre of Science(N N306 791940). This project (which this author leads) is being undertaken by the Research Group, Regional Analysis Department, Institute of Socio-Economic Geography and Spatial Management UAM in Poznan,.


2) Competitiveness of Central-European Regions, Geographical and Historical Context

    Pavol Korec (Comenius University in Bratislava, Faculty of Natural Sciences)

    Rising focus on regional competitiveness in Europe has been recently supported by several facts. First, growing impact of the global economic downturn evokes a high interest of scientists in evaluation of regions´ abilities to succeed in global and national competition. Second, cohesion policy of the European Union has been strengthening, which leads to searching for resources within regions in attempts to rise their competitiveness. The influence of institutional theories of regional development emphasizing the role of knowledge economies, innovations, creative economies and other factors of regional development stimulates research of regional competitiveness, too. Last but not least, we should highlight the urgent need for better knowledge and understanding the sources and context of existing regional inequalities within the European Union at both Union and national levels. Frequent studies indicate that stimulation of competitiveness growth in stagnating regions could be one of the tools for tackling with major regional disparities. Our intention is to focus on evalutation of regional competitiveness in four central-European countries, i. e. Czechia, Poland, Slovakia and Hungary. Instantly after the colapse of communist regimes, these countries witnessed a rapid growth of regional differences considered as a serios issue of European Union policy. Regarding a complicated history of this territory and its colourful geographical environment, we will focus on factors of historical development and geography as crucial factors of regional competitivenes in these four countries.


3) Endogenous formation of regional structure by residential sorting mechanism

    Kakuya Matsushima (Kyoto University), Kiyoshi Kobayashi

    Local municipalities try to attract more people from other regions by introducing policies which may contribute to develop social capital. This paper tries to analyze the residential sorting mechanism behind the relation between migration behavior and people's attribute.
    The importance and the complexity of the relationship between land use and travel behavior has been recognized for long years in the field of transportation planning. In conventional transportation mode, transportation system attributes are often treated as exogenous variables in models and the emotional part of utility for travel has been ignored. In reality, each individual has own preference for travel mode and obtains the emotional utility if they choose the mode consistent with their preference. The preferences also affect residential choice behavior of households. The tendency of people to choose locations based on their preferences, referred to residential sorting would be occurred. If residential sorting effects are ignored when estimating mode choice of individuals, the estimation results would be biased because of the endogeneity in the model.
    In this paper, the mechanism of residential sorting and its effect on the economy are analyzed by building a theoretical model that explicitly treats emotional part of utility for choosing specific travel mode. We also verify the residential sorting effects by using person trip survey data in Japan. We found implementing soft transport policy measures that affect of individuals' preference for travel mode have to be considered as one of the tools of city planning policy measures.


4) Changes of spatial differentiation of economy and labor market structures in Poland and in Germany in the years 2008-2012: a comparative study

    Michal Dolata (Adam Mickiewicz University in Poznan), Anna Borowczak

    The goal of this paper is a comparative study of changes in spatial differentiation of economy structures and labor markets in Poland and Germany covering the period of 2008-2012. The spatial differentiation in both countries is best comparable at the NUTS 3 level according to geocodes referenced within the Nomenclature of Units for Territorial Statistics applied by European Statistical Office (being 66 units in Poland and 412 units in Germany). Initial starting point of the analysis rests upon a comprehensive outline of political and socio-economic development contexts, that emerged in both countries since the processes of German reunification and transition of Polish economy had been set in motion in 1990. In the basic part of the paper an attempt is made to determine the spatial differentiation of economy structures quantified in gross value added in three sectors as well as spatial differentiation of labor markets where indictors of unemployment level and structure are scrutinized. In conclusion, the paper identifies the scope of similarities between the spatial differentiation of economy structures and labor markets and changeability of disparities in socio-economic development in Poland and in Germany. The paper presents results of the research project “Socio-economic development and the pattern of growth and stagnation areas”, financed by the National Centre of Science in Poland (ref no.: N N306 791940), which is undertaken by the Regional Analysis Department, Institute of Socio-Economic Geography and Spatial Management, Adam-Mickiewicz-University in Poznan.


5) Role of the innovative environment in the shaping of a knowledge-based economy in Poland

    Joanna Dominiak (Adam Mickiewicz University in Poznan)

    There is a strong relationship holding in Poland's regional system between the level of development of the innovative environment and that of the KBE. This relationship is studied in terms of how the innovative environment affects the KBE. The following aspects of this influence are examined: (1) the activity of higher education, which leads to an increase in the number of people with this level of education and a greater opportunity for employing highly skilled labour in the economy, (2) research and development activity as a basis for the development of innovativeness, and (3) informative-organisational activity in the field of innovation transfer to the economy. In the light of the results obtained, it can be stated that the greatest role in the shaping of the KBE is played by R&D institutions and the educational activity of higher schools. The science-economy links, however, are still weak in Poland, which follows from the underdevelopment of institutions responsible for the transfer of innovation from the R&D sphere to economic practice.The paper presents results of the research project, Socio-Economic Growth and Emergence Of Growth and Economic Stagnation Areas, financed by the National Centre of Science (N N306 791940)



[CS30-2] changing settlements in the Mediterranean and the Gulf : critical views and implications

    [ Tuesday 06 August 08:00-09:30 Room673 ]    Chair(s): Maria Paradiso (Univ. of Sannio), Kenji Hashimoto (WASEDA Univ.)

1) Transformation from Ruralism to Urbanization, and its planning Implications and Challenges: The Case of Arab Localities in Israel

    Rassem Mohy Aldeen Khamaisi (University of Haifa)

    The transition of Arab communities in Israel from ruralism to urbanization and from a traditional to a modern society warrants a theoretical discussion and an evaluation of this phenomenon’s immediate and long-term implications. Given the complexity of the urbanization process and the emergence of new locality types, the village-town binary is on a path towards obsolescence. Most of the Arab localities in Israel are indeed urbanizing villages, but this process differs from that of developed societies with respect to both pace and the preferred models of urbanism. This article takes stock of the tensions over the designation of these communities as well as the residents’ contrasting impulses of preserving traditional elements and adopting modern lifestyles. This unique and complicated shift from ruralism to urbanization and from traditionalism to modernity gives rise to challenging obstacles in all that concerns the planning, development, and management of Arab localities in Israel.


2) Mutation of traditional settlements in Gulf Arab Countries: the case of Oman

    Belgacem Mokhtar (Sultan Qaboos University)

    Recently, the rapid economic growth together with the spectacular development of road infrastructure and private fleet vehicles in Oman and other Gulf countries, have resulted in a complete transmutation of the traditional inhabited space. The small, scattered and isolated tribal settlements, as a consequence, have faced a sudden opening to a new world dominated by mobility; consumption and trade. A steady intra-exodus movement, meanwhile, is progressively depopulating the ancient villages and creating a new spatial organization.
    This paper aims to examine the different factors and features of the spatial reconfiguration currently in progress. Based on official statistics, illustrations and field work, the present study endeavors to investigate this phenomenon and shed more light even on the main high way linking Muscat to the UAE or the so-called Al-Batinah region in Oman.
    The main findings of the study show that the national and international roads (Oman, UAE) have become the structural elements of this spatial development leading to the emergence of public and private services at major intersections (round-about) which, henceforward, will stand for the core of new transit-oriented urbanization, backwashing the traditional fishing and agricultural villages.
    In an attempt to face the new challenges caused by the spatial reconfiguration, the public land production of residential plots have fostered the built-up areas to develop around the new centers and throughout the secondary roads, creating thus a spatial and economic unsymmetrical duality and therefore threatening an ancestral heritage as well as an invaluable local knowledge and techniques in matter of traditional settlement.


3) Walking Athens: an exploratory approach through experiencing public space

    Dimitra Kanellopoulou (UNIVERSITE DE PARIS 1)

    After fifty years of automobile ascendency, public urban landscape in the capital of Greece urges to reach a more sustainable profile. Walking emerges as a key-element towards this transformation. Parallel to pedestrian precincts that had flourished in the 90s, recent large scale projects next to the archeological sites, introduce a new imaginary of public space by highlighting a more homogenized aspect of the urban walking.
    But how could urban planning explore the neglected subjectivity and temporality of everyday walking? How could designers overcome the rigidness of a technical approach by comprehending the plurality of walking experience of the inhabitants? It is the aim of this paper to question ways, other than the in vitro government's approach, to unfold the richness of time-to-space walking experience.
    The study opts - though the method of accompanied itineraries - to explore the emotions, the thoughts and the rhythms of everyday walkabout in the athenian historical center. Interviewing six habitants of different social and age groups during their itineraries, proposes a new, real-time "decoding" of crossed public spaces and their impact on the pedestrian's choices and expressions. This bottom-up investigation reveals shortcomings and successes of the recently transformed public spaces, regarding walking as a narrative component of space. First insights from the study suggest that walking tends to disregard "thematic" uses of public areas and searches more often an exploratory rhythmicity and an emotional "anchorage" to places. Pedestrians base their route's choice on a skillfully delicate "emotional path" that combines cultural beliefs and sensitive stimulus.



[CS31-1] Modeling geographical systems

    [ Tuesday 06 August 08:00-09:30 Room664 ]    Chair(s): Ikuho Yamada (Chuo Univ.)

1) Modern Geography System: The Ways of its Reforming

    Vladimir A. Gorbanyov (Moscow State Institute of International Relations (University))

    It's not a secret that the prestige of geography is declining all over the world.We can select a great amount of reasons but the main one is that today the geography, as a system of separate geographical disciplines, has lost its object of study.It changed into the non-dimencional monster, which deals with all at once.As a result it's difficult to distinguish between geography and other sciences.In the eyes of ordinary people geography seems to be a science which on the one hand is involved in every spheres of our life but on the other hand doesn't do anything at all. The other overlapping sciences have a deal with the same problems, but much deeper.
    
    That's why, from my point of view, geography should return to its roots. The foundation of geography must be based on two main elements: territoriality - complexity. Everything else should be brought to the appropriate overlapping sciences: economics, political sciences, geology, biology, physics, urban science, demography, sociology, etc.
    
    Geography must be concern with complex issues in various scales - from local to global. Firstly, it's connected with problems related with the environment, which is a system of total combination of physical, economic, social spheres, the problems of sustainable development, regional studies, country studies, etc.
    
    Then we can safely answer on a question about the subject of geography: it's devoted to the problems of environment in the given region. In this case non-science can claim this subject of study.


2) Time series analysis in the study of climate change

    Yee Leung (The Chinese University of Hong Kong)

    This study focuses on the analysis of climatological time series in the unraveling of climate dynamics. Special attention is given to the discovery of patterns and mechanisms of climate variability from time series, particularly climate anomalies. Concepts and methods are substantiated by numerical analysis and real-life applications.


3) Simulation of urban movement patterns with crowd-sourced data

    Mark Birkin (University of Leeds), Kirk Harland, Nicolas Malleson

    The discipline of geography has a fundamental interest in understanding the movement patterns of individuals in space and time. Long-term movements include migration and commodity flows; in the research which is reported here the concern is with daily urban movement patterns. These include journeys to work, hospital visits, the interactions with schools and retail outlets, and so on. In addition to their fundamental academic and intellectual interest, these problems are of significant importance to practical questions such as emergency planning, policing and retail location where understanding peoples' daily locations and actions are at least as important as the classical census questions of who they are and where they live.
    
    Although geographers have engaged with this problem for more than forty years (for example, Hagerstrand’s time geography and space-time prisms) the level of empirical knowledge about individual behaviour patterns remains patchy. In this paper we will argue that the explosion in crowd-sourcing and volunteered geographical information is starting to change this picture very rapidly. In particular, we will investigate how data from social messaging and telephone calls can illuminate our understanding of local movement patterns. Crucially, we will argue that maximum value can only be leverag